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Regional Profiles: Key Statistics - London, August 2012

Released: 13 August 2012 Download PDF

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Population density: by London borough, 2010

Map showing range of population density in London borough areas within the London region


  1. Mid-year population estimates published on 30 June 2011

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London is the smallest English region in terms of area, 1,600 square kilometres (sq km), occupying less than 1 per cent of the total area of the UK.

London had a population of 7.8 million in mid-2010, an increase of 6.9 per cent since 2001, compared with an increase of 5.3 per cent for the UK over the same period.

It includes the most densely populated parts of the country with average population density in mid-2010 at 4,978 people per sq km, the highest of all the English regions and countries of UK. London is bordered by the East of England and the South East regions and the development of the conurbation is constrained by a Green Belt of open land. The River Thames forms an inseparable part of the landscape of the city.

London’s age profile is younger than that of the UK as a whole, with a higher proportion of people aged under-16 at 19.6 per cent compared with 18.6 per cent for the UK in 2010. People aged 65 and over made up 11.5 per cent of the population, compared with the UK average of 16.6 per cent.

London generated 22 per cent of the UK’s total GVA in 2010, the largest share of all the English regions and countries of the UK. Labour productivity (gross value added per hour worked) in London in 2010 was 33.3 per cent above the UK average.

Gross disposable household income (GDHI) per head of London residents was the highest of all regions. At £20,200 in 2010 it was 29 per cent higher than the UK average.

In April 2011, the median gross weekly earnings for full-time employees on adult rates who were resident in London was £610, higher than the UK median of £501.

London had the largest increase in house prices in 2011 at 3.8 per cent.

Crime rates in 2011/12 in London are among the highest in England. There were 105 recorded crimes per 1,000 population compared with 71 per 1,000 population across England. An estimated 266 crimes against households were reported to the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) per 1,000 households compared with 244 household crimes for England.

London produced 5.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions per resident in 2009, the lowest of all the English regions.

The traffic on major roads in London decreased by 8.7 per cent between 2001 and 2011, this was the only decrease for the English regions and countries of the UK.

In London, 61.9 per cent of pupils achieved five or more grades A*–C at GCSE level or equivalent including English and mathematics in 2010/11, compared with 58.4 per cent for England as a whole. There is an interactive map of GCSE results for unitary authorities in England.

Life expectancy at birth in London in the three-year period 2008 to 2010 was 79.0 years for males and 83.3 years for females, above the UK average (78.2 and 82.3 years respectively).

Source: Office for National Statistics

Background notes

  1. Notes and sources:

    All data are published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) unless stated below.

    The data section of this release provides more data.

    Population estimates and population density are for 30 June each year. The mid-2010 population estimates are those published on 30 June 2011.

    Gross value added (GVA) measures the economic output of an area. The estimates are workplace based, which allocates the incomes of individuals to their place of work.

    GVA per hour worked is one of the preferred measures of labour productivity. The labour productivity webpage provides access to the latest releases.

    Gross disposable household income (GDHI) is a good indicator of the welfare of residents of an area. It covers the income received by households and non profit-making institutions serving households and is net of tax payments.

    Median gross weekly earnings are residence-based estimates from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) for full-time employees on adult rates whose pay for the survey pay-period was not affected by absence.

    The House Price Index is based on mix-adjusted house prices, which allow for differences between houses sold (for example type, number of rooms, location). The annual rate of change shown is percentage change between December 2010 and December 2011.

    The Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) provides a measure of people’s experience of crime based on responses to a survey of households and does not cover all types of crime, for example fraud or forgery or crimes against commercial property. Recorded crime covers offences reported to and recorded by the police.

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are measured according to the point of energy consumption. CO 2 emissions data are from the Department for Energy Climate and Change.

    Major roads are motorways and A roads. Traffic increase data from Department for Transport.

    GCSE figures relate to pupils at the end of Key Stage 4 in Local Authority maintained schools only and are taken from revised (but not final) data published on 26 January 2012. GCSE data are from the Department for Education.

    Life expectancy figures reflect mortality among those living in the area in each time period, rather than mortality among those born in each area. More information is available in Guide to: Life expectancy in the United Kingdom.

  2. You may use or re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email:

  3. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting or from the Media Relations Office email:

Further information

Regional Profiles - Population and Migration - London, October 2011 - Key facts and figures about population and migration statistics for London.
Regional Profiles - Social Indicators - London - February 2012 - A range of social statistics for the London region providing key facts and figures about people, lives, income and lifestyles in the area.
Regional Profiles: Economy - London, May 2012 - Key facts and figures about the economy, employment and unemployment for the London region.

Related Internet links

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