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Consumer Price Inflation Detailed Briefing Note, April 2015 This product is designated as National Statistics

Released: 19 May 2015 Download PDF

Summary

Consumer Prices Index (CPI)

The CPI is a measure of consumer price inflation produced to international standards and in line with European regulations. First published in 1997 as the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP), the CPI is the inflation measure used in the Government’s target for inflation.

The CPI is also used for purposes such as uprating pensions, wages and benefits and can aid in the understanding of inflation on family budgets. For more information see Users and uses of consumer price inflation statistics (100.5 Kb Pdf) .

The main movements for CPI in April 2015 are:

  • The all items CPI is 128.0, up from 127.6 in March.

  • The all items CPI annual rate is -0.1%, down from 0.0% in March.

  • The annual rate for CPI excluding indirect taxes, CPIY, is -0.3%, unchanged from last month.

  • The annual rate for CPI at constant tax rates, CPI-CT, is -0.1%, unchanged from last month.

  • The CPI all goods index is 119.7, down from 119.8 in March.

  • The CPI all goods index annual rate is -2.0%, up from -2.1% last month.

  • The CPI all services index is 138.5, up from 137.6 in March.

  • The CPI all services index annual rate is 2.0%, down from 2.4% last month.

CPIH

The National Statistics status of CPIH has been discontinued pending work to investigate and improve the method for measuring owner occupiers’ housing costs in this index. Full details can be found on the UK Statistics Authority website and in an explanatory note (313.9 Kb Pdf) on this website. The improvements from the resulting development work were introduced as part of the February 2015 dataset with the historical series revised back to 2005. Further information on the changes is available in the following articles: Improvements to the measurement of Owner Occupiers’ Housing Costs and Private Housing Rental Prices (2.48 Mb Pdf) and Revising the weight of Owner Occupiers’ Housing in CPIH (197.4 Kb Pdf) .

CPIH is a measure of UK consumer price inflation that includes owner occupiers’ housing costs (OOH). These are the costs of housing services associated with owning, maintaining and living in one’s own home. OOH does not include costs such as utility bills, minor repairs and maintenance which are already included in the index. CPIH uses an approach called rental equivalence to measure OOH. Rental equivalence uses the rent paid for an equivalent house as a proxy for the costs faced by an owner occupier. In other words this answers the question “how much would I have to pay in rent to live in a home like mine?” for an owner occupier. OOH does not seek to capture increases in house prices. Although this may be inconsistent with some users’ expectations of measures of OOH, the inclusion of an asset price and therefore capital gains would make the index less suitable for a measure of consumption. OOH currently accounts for 17.8% of the expenditure weight of CPIH. This compares with a weight of 19.5% in 2005.

Currently, the method of calculation, the population coverage and the basket of goods and services are the same as the Consumer Prices Index (CPI), with the exception of OOH. The method of deriving the weights for CPIH and the data used for these are also the same as for CPI, with the exception of OOH. This can result in some differences from the CPI.

The main movements for CPIH in April 2015 are:

  • The all items CPIH is 125.8, up from 125.5 in March.

  • The all items CPIH annual rate is 0.2%, down from 0.3% in March.

  • The annual rate for CPIH excluding indirect taxes, CPIHY, is 0.1%, unchanged from last month.

  • The OOH component of CPIH is 116.3, up from 116.1 in March.

  • The OOH component annual rate is 1.9%, down from 2.0% last month.

  • The CPIH all goods index is 119.8, down from 119.9 in March.

  • The CPIH all goods index annual rate is -2.0%, up from -2.1% last month.

  • The CPIH all services index is 130.6, up from 130.0 in March.

  • The CPIH all services index annual rate is 2.0%, down from 2.2% last month.

Retail Prices Index (RPI) and RPIJ

In accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, the Retail Prices Index and its derivatives have been assessed against the Code of Practice for Official Statistics and found not to meet the required standard for designation as National Statistics. The full assessment report can be found on the UK Statistics Authority website.

The RPI is a long-standing measure of UK inflation that has historically been used for a wide range of purposes such as the indexation of pensions, rents and index-linked gilts. For further information see Users and uses of consumer price inflation statistics (100.5 Kb Pdf) .

RPIJ is an improved variant of the Retail Prices Index which is calculated using formulae that meet international standards. The rationale for creating RPIJ was to give users a better alternative to the RPI if their needs were for a measure of inflation based on the same population, classifications, weights etc as the RPI. Currently, RPIJ also acts as an analytical series, in that it allows users to see the impact of using the Jevons (which meets international standards) in place of the Carli formula (which does not meet international standards) in the RPI. The use of the different formulae at the elementary aggregate level is currently the only difference between these indices. Detailed goods and services indices for RPIJ are not produced.

The main movements for RPI and RPIJ in April 2015 are:

  • The all items RPI is 258.0, up from 257.1 in March.

  • The all items RPI annual rate is 0.9%, unchanged from last month.

  • The all items RPIJ is 238.0, up from 237.4 in March.

  • The all items RPIJ annual rate is 0.3%, unchanged from last month.

  • The annual rate for RPIX, the all items RPI excluding mortgage interest payments (MIPs) index, is 0.9%, unchanged from last month.

  • The all goods RPI is 198.9, unchanged from last month.

  • The all goods RPI annual rate is -0.8%, unchanged from last month.

  • The all services RPI is 348.9, up from 347.1 in March.

  • The all services RPI annual rate is 1.8%, down from 2.0% last month.

  • The annual rate for RPIY, the all items RPI excluding MIPs and indirect taxes index, is 0.8%, unchanged from last month.

  • The Tax and Price Index (TPI) for April is 225.1, down from 225.6 in March.

  • The TPI annual rate is 0.4%, unchanged from last month.

CPI summary

Contributions to change in the CPI annual rate

CPI COICOP DIVISIONS Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01: Food and non-alcoholic beverages 112 110 -0.5 -0.4 0.02
02: Alcoholic beverages and tobacco 45 43 0.9 0.5 -0.02
03: Clothing and footwear 72 70 1.0 0.7 -0.02
04: Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels 129 128 0.6 0.4 -0.03
05: Furniture, household equipment and maintenance 60 59 -0.9 -1.2 -0.02
06: Health 24 25 0.8 0.7 -
07: Transport 152 149 2.0 1.1 -0.13
08: Communication 32 31 -0.1 - -
09: Recreation and culture 144 147 -0.1 0.2 0.04
10: Education 22 26 - - -
11: Restaurants and hotels 120 121 0.2 0.3 0.01
12: Miscellaneous goods and services 88 91 -0.4 - 0.04

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A large downward effect came from:

  • Transport services , where prices, overall, rose by 2.4% between March and April 2015, compared with a larger rise of 7.9% a year earlier. The majority of the downward contribution came from air and sea fares. Price changes for these fares between March and April vary notably year on year, with the timing of Easter a likely factor.

    There were smaller downward contributions from price movements for: housing and household services; clothing and footwear; furniture, household equipment and routine maintenance; and alcoholic beverages and tobacco.

A large upward effect came from:

  • Motor fuels, where prices, overall, rose by 1.6% between March and April 2015 compared with a fall of 0.1% between the same 2 months a year ago. Average petrol prices rose by 2.0 pence per litre between March and April this year compared with no change between the same 2 months a year ago. Diesel prices also rose this year, by 1.2 pence per litre, but fell by 0.5 pence per litre a year ago.

    There were smaller upward contributions from price movements for: recreation and culture; miscellaneous goods and services; and food and non-alcoholic beverages.

     

CPI notable movements

CPI notable movements, April 2015

All items CPI Annual rate -0.1%, down from 0.0% last month
Never lower since official series began in January 1997
All items CPI exc energy, food, Annual rate +0.8%, down from +1.0% last month
alcohol and tobacco Lowest since March 2001 (+0.5%)
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco Annual rate +3.0%, down from +3.4% last month
Lowest since April 2009 (+2.8%)
Clothing and footwear Annual rate -0.4%, down from -0.2% last month
Lowest since April 2013 (-0.6%)
Housing, water, electricity, gas and Annual rate +0.5%, down from +0.7% last month
other fuels Also +0.5% in October 2010 and September 2010
Last lower in August 2010 (+0.3%)
Furniture, household equipment and Annual rate -0.5%, down from -0.2% last month
maintenance Also -0.5% in November 2006 and August 2006
Last lower in July 2006 (-1.3%)
Transport Annual rate -2.8%, down from -1.9% last month
Also -2.8% in January 2015
Never lower since official series began in January 1997
Communication Annual rate +1.0%, up from +0.9% last month
Also +1.0% in May 2014
Last higher in April 2014 (+1.9%)
All goods Annual rate -2.0%, up from -2.1% last month
Also -2.0% in February 2015
Last higher in January 2015 (-1.5%)
All services Annual rate +2.0%, down from +2.4% last month
Never lower since official series began in January 1997

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CPI detailed briefing

  • Weights are specified as parts per 1000 in the CPI.

01 Food and non-alcoholic beverages

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01 Food and non-alcoholic beverages 112 110 -0.5 -0.4 0.02

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to food.

01.1 Food

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01.1 Food 99 97 -0.6 -0.4 0.02
01.1.1 Bread and cereals 17 16 -0.1 -0.9 -0.01
01.1.2 Meat 22 22 -0.2 - 0.01
01.1.3 Fish 4 4 -3.4 -3.0 -
01.1.4 Milk, cheese and eggs 14 14 -0.9 -0.6 -
01.1.5 Oils and fats 2 2 -0.7 -0.9 -
01.1.6 Fruit 10 10 -0.2 - -
01.1.7 Vegetables including potatoes 15 14 -2.3 -0.6 0.03
01.1.8 Sugar, jam, syrups, chocolate and confectionery 12 12 1.2 0.5 -0.01
01.1.9 Food products not elsewhere covered 3 3 - 0.6 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to vegetables including potatoes; and meat.

  • Partially offset by bread and cereals; and sugar, jam, syrups, chocolate and confectionery.

Bread and cereals

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago, particularly for dried potted snacks.

Meat

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall were little changed this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from beef joints, lamb joints and bacon. Partially offset by a small downward contribution from pork chops, where prices rose this year by less than a year ago.

Vegetables including potatoes

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from cauliflower and multi packs of potato crisps.

  • Partially offset by small downward contributions coming from tin tomatoes and bags of premium potato crisps.

Sugar, jam, syrups, chocolate and confectionery

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from bags of sweets.

  • Partially offset by a small upward contribution from ice cream, where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago.

01.2 Non-alcoholic beverages

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01.2 Non-alcoholic beverages 13 13 0.1 -0.2 -
01.2.1 Coffee, tea and cocoa 3 3 -0.5 1.4 0.01
01.2.2 Mineral waters, soft drinks and juices 10 10 0.2 -0.6 -0.01

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • There was a small upward contribution from coffee, tea and cocoa, where prices rose this year but fell a year ago.

  • Offset by a small downward contribution from mineral waters, soft drinks and juices, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from packs of fruit drink bottles and fruit squash. Partially offset by a small upward contribution from bottled fizzy drinks.

02 Alcoholic beverages and tobacco

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
02 Alcoholic beverages and tobacco 45 43 0.9 0.5 -0.02

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to tobacco.

  • Partially offset by alcoholic beverages.

02.1 Alcoholic beverages

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
02.1 Alcoholic beverages 20 19 -1.4 -1.0 0.01
02.1.1 Spirits 6 5 -2.5 -2.5 -
02.1.2 Wine 9 9 -1.6 - 0.01
02.1.3 Beer 5 5 0.4 -1.1 -0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to wine, where prices overall were little changed this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from red wine. Partially offset by a small downward contribution coming from European white wine, where prices fell this year but rose a year ago.

  • Partially offset by beer, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for larger multipacks of canned lager.

02.2 Tobacco

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
02.2 Tobacco 25 24 2.6 1.6 -0.03

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.

03 Clothing and footwear

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
03 Clothing and footwear 72 70 1.0 0.7 -0.02

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to footwear including repairs.

  • Partially offset by clothing.

03.1 Clothing

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
03.1 Clothing 62 60 0.8 0.9 0.01
03.1.2 Garments 55 54 0.6 0.8 0.01
03.1.3 Other clothing and clothing accessories 6 5 1.9 2.0 -
03.1.4 Cleaning, repair and hire of clothing 1 1 0.2 0.3 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to garments, where prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from women’s jumpers, casual outer jackets, cardigans and men’s branded t-shirts.

  • Partially offset by small downward contributions coming from men’s jumpers/sweatshirts, women’s short sleeved tops, shower-proof jackets and night clothes.

03.2 Footwear including repairs

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
03.2 Footwear including repairs 10 10 2.3 -0.3 -0.03

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from women’s high heeled shoes and walking/hiking boots.

04 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels 129 128 0.6 0.4 -0.03

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to other services related to the dwelling and, to a lesser extent, actual rentals for housing.

  • Partially offset by electricity, gas and other fuels.

04.1 Actual rentals for housing

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.1 Actual rentals for housing 70 72 1.0 0.8 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Average charges rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for local authority rents.

  • Partially offset by small upward contributions coming from privately rented property and self catering UK holidays.

04.3 Regular maintenance and repair of the dwelling

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.3 Regular maintenance and repair of the dwelling 2 2 -0.7 -0.1 -
04.3.1 Materials for maintenance and repair 1 1 -1.4 -0.3 -
04.3.2 Services for maintenance and repair 1 1 - 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

04.4 Other services related to the dwelling

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.4 Other services related to the dwelling 12 12 2.4 -0.7 -0.04
04.4.1 Water supply 6 6 1.6 -1.7 -0.02
04.4.3 Sewerage collection 6 6 3.2 0.3 -0.02

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  • Large downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to water supply, and sewerage collection.

Water supply

  • Small downward effect.

  • Charges overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for England and Wales.

Sewerage collection

  • Small downward effect.

  • Charges overall rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for England and Wales.

04.5 Electricity, gas and other fuels

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.5 Electricity, gas and other fuels 45 42 -0.6 -0.1 0.02
04.5.1 Electricity 21 20 -0.6 -0.2 0.01
04.5.2 Gas 21 20 -0.5 -0.1 0.01
04.5.3 Liquid fuels 2 1 -1.6 0.2 -
04.5.4 Solid fuels 1 1 0.2 0.1 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to electricity and gas, where average bills fell this year by less than a year ago.

05 Furniture, household equipment and maintenance

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05 Furniture, household equipment and maintenance 60 59 -0.9 -1.2 -0.02

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to goods and services for routine maintenance; furniture, furnishings and carpets; and glassware, tableware and household utensils.

  • Partially offset by household textiles; and household appliances, fitting and repairs.

05.1 Furniture, furnishings and carpets

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.1 Furniture, furnishings and carpets 21 21 -2.0 -2.4 -0.01
05.1.1 Furniture and furnishings 16 15 -2.5 -2.2 0.01
05.1.2 Carpets and other floor coverings 5 6 -0.5 -3.2 -0.02

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to carpets and other floor coverings.

  • Partially offset by furniture and furnishings.

Furniture and furnishings

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, particularly for bookcases/free standing shelving units.

Carpets and other floor coverings

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from rugs.

05.2 Household textiles

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.2 Household textiles 7 6 -1.9 -1.1 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago.

05.3 Household appliances, fitting and repairs

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.3 Household appliances, fitting and repairs 9 8 -1.0 0.2 0.01
05.3.1/2 Major appliances and small electric goods 8 7 -1.1 0.1 0.01
05.3.3 Repair of household appliances 1 1 - 1.1 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to major appliances and small electric goods, where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from electric cookers.

05.4 Glassware, tableware and household utensils

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.4 Glassware, tableware and household utensils 6 6 0.6 -0.7 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for flower vases.

05.5 Tools and equipment for house and garden

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.5 Tools and equipment for house and garden 4 5 0.9 0.2 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

05.6 Goods and services for routine maintenance

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.6 Goods and services for routine maintenance 13 13 0.4 -1.0 -0.02
05.6.1 Non-durable household goods 5 5 0.8 -2.8 -0.02
05.6.2 Domestic services and household services 8 8 0.2 0.1 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to non-durable household goods, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for household cleaning products.

06 Health

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06 Health 24 25 0.8 0.7 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

06.1 Medical products, appliances and equipment

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06.1 Medical products, appliances and equipment 10 12 -0.1 -0.2 -
06.1.1 Pharmaceutical products 6 7 -0.1 -0.5 -
06.1.2/3 Other medical and therapeutic equipment 4 5 -0.1 0.3 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

06.2 Out-patient services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06.2 Out-patient services 6 5 0.9 0.3 -
06.2.1/3 Medical and paramedical services 3 3 0.3 -0.4 -
06.2.2 Dental services 3 2 1.5 1.3 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

06.3 Hospital services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06.3 Hospital Services 8 8 1.7 2.2 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

07 Transport

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07 Transport 152 149 2.0 1.1 -0.13

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  • Largest downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to transport services; and purchase of vehicles.

  • Partially offset by operation of personal transport equipment.

07.1 Purchase of vehicles

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07.1 Purchase of vehicles 44 40 0.6 0.6 -0.01
07.1.1A New cars 23 24 0.1 1.0 0.02
07.1.1B Second-hand cars 18 14 1.1 0.3 -0.02
07.1.2/3 Motorcycles and bicycles 3 2 1.7 -2.1 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to second-hand cars; and motorcycles and bicycles.

  • Partially offset by new cars.

New cars

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago.

Second-hand cars

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.

Motorcycles and bicycles

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from motorcycles.

07.2 Operation of personal transport equipment

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07.2 Operation of personal transport equipment 76 77 0.2 0.8 0.05
07.2.1 Spare parts and accessories 5 6 0.3 0.1 -
07.2.2 Fuels and lubricants 35 34 -0.1 1.6 0.06
07.2.3 Maintenance and repairs 23 23 -0.1 0.1 -
07.2.4 Other services 13 14 1.5 0.2 -0.02

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  • Large upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to fuels and lubricants.

  • Partially offset by other services.

Fuels and lubricants

  • Large upward effect.

  • The average price of petrol across the month, as recorded for the CPI, rose by 2.0 pence per litre between March and April 2015 to stand at 112.8 pence per litre.

  • Last year, the average price of petrol was unchanged between March and April 2014 to remain at 129.0 pence per litre.

  • The average price of diesel rose by 1.2 pence per litre between March and April 2015 to stand at 119.2 pence per litre, compared with a fall of 0.5 pence per litre a year earlier to stand at 136.0 pence per litre.

Other services

  • Small downward effect.

  • Charges overall rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for vehicle excise duty.

07.3 Transport services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07.3 Transport services 32 32 7.9 2.4 -0.18
07.3.1 Passenger transport by railway 11 12 1.4 0.9 -0.01
07.3.2 Passenger transport by road 11 12 3.5 0.8 -0.03
07.3.3 Passenger transport by air 6 6 17.9 4.5 -0.08
07.3.4 Passenger transport by sea and inland waterway 4 2 22.4 14.7 -0.06

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  • Large downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to passenger transport by air; and passenger transport by sea and inland waterway; and, to a lesser extent, passenger transport by road; and passenger transport by railway.

  • The timing of Easter was likely a factor, with the Easter weekend missing the April collection period this year, but falling within the April collection period last year.

Passenger transport by railway

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.

Passenger transport by road

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for coach fares.

Passenger transport by air

  • Large downward effect.

  • Average air fares rose this year by less than a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from European flights, and to a lesser extent long haul flights.

  • Partially offset by a small upward contribution coming from domestic flights, where average fares rose this year by more than a year ago.

Passenger transport by sea and inland waterway

  • Large downward effect.

  • Average sea fares rose this year by less than a year ago.

08 Communication

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
08 Communication 32 31 -0.1 - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

08.1 Postal services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
08.1 Postal services 2 2 3.7 1.7 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

08.2/3 Telephone equipment and services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
08.2/3 Telephone equipment and services 30 29 -0.4 -0.1 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from mobile telephone charges.

09 Recreation and culture

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09 Recreation and culture 144 147 -0.1 0.2 0.04

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  • Largest upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to other recreational items, gardens and pets; and, to a lesser extent, other major durables for recreation and culture; and package holidays.

  • Partially offset by recreational and cultural services.

09.1 Audio-visual equipment and related products

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.1 Audio-visual equipment and related products 22 23 -0.3 -0.5 -
09.1.1 Equipment for the reception and reproduction of sound and pictures 5 5 -1.0 -0.9 -
09.1.2 Photographic, cinematographic and optical equipment 3 3 1.6 0.9 -
09.1.3 Data processing equipment 8 9 -1.4 -1.5 -
09.1.4 Recording media 5 5 1.0 0.8 -
09.1.5 Repair of audio-visual equipment and related products 1 1 - 0.2 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

09.2 Other major durables for recreation and culture

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.2.1/2 Major durables for in/outdoor recreation 9 10 0.1 0.9 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, particularly for caravans.

09.3 Other recreational items, gardens and pets

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.3 Other recreational items, gardens and pets 36 36 -2.6 -1.6 0.04
09.3.1 Games, toys and hobbies 21 21 -4.3 -2.8 0.03
09.3.2 Equipment for sport and open-air recreation 3 4 0.2 -1.1 -0.01
09.3.3 Gardens, plants and flowers 4 4 -0.1 -0.1 -
09.3.4/5 Pets, related products and services 8 7 -0.2 0.9 0.01

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  • Large upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to games, toys and hobbies; and pets, related products and services.

  • Partially offset by equipment for sport and open-air recreation.

Games, toys and hobbies

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from computer games purchased via the internet.

Equipment for sport and open-air recreation

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for footballs.

Pets, related products and services

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, particularly for dry dog food.

09.4 Recreational and cultural services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.4 Recreational and cultural services 31 31 2.3 2.0 -0.01
09.4.1 Recreational and sporting services 9 8 3.1 2.6 -0.01
09.4.2 Cultural services 22 23 2.0 1.8 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to recreational and sporting services; and cultural services.

Recreational and sporting services

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.

Cultural services

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for historic monument admission.

  • Partially offset by a small upward contribution from admission to cultural events, where prices rose this year by more than a year ago.

09.5 Books, newspapers and stationery

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.5 Books, newspapers and stationery 14 14 1.0 1.2 -
09.5.1 Books 4 4 3.7 2.9 -
09.5.2 Newspapers and periodicals 5 5 0.1 1.2 0.01
09.5.3/4 Misc. printed matter, stationery, drawing materials 5 5 -0.4 -0.2 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • There was a small upward contribution from newspapers and periodicals, where prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago.

09.6 Package holidays

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.6 Package holidays 32 33 -0.1 0.2 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, particularly for foreign holidays.

  • Partially offset by a small downward contribution from late booked foreign holidays, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago.

10 Education

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
10 Education 22 26 - - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

11 Restaurants and hotels

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
11 Restaurants and hotels 120 121 0.2 0.3 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to accommodation services.

11.1 Catering services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
11.1 Catering services 100 100 0.1 0.1 -
11.1.1 Restaurants and cafes 91 91 0.2 0.1 -
11.1.2 Canteens 9 9 - 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

11.2 Accommodation services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
11.2 Accommodation services 20 21 0.3 0.9 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Overall charges rose this year by more than a year ago, with the upward contribution coming from a range of accommodation services.

  • Partially offset by a small downward contribution from overnight hotel stays, where prices rose this year by less than a year ago.

12 Miscellaneous goods and services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12 Misc. goods and services 88 91 -0.4 - 0.04

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  • Large upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to financial services not elsewhere covered; personal care; and insurance.

  • Partially offset by personal effects not elsewhere covered.

12.1 Personal care

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.1 Personal care 29 30 -0.6 -0.1 0.01
12.1.1 Hairdressing and personal grooming establishments 7 7 0.1 0.4 -
12.1.2/3 Appliances and products for personal care 22 23 -0.8 -0.3 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to appliances and products for personal care, where prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from toilet rolls, tissues, disposable nappies and shampoo. Partially offset by a small downward contribution coming from toothpaste.

12.3 Personal effects not elsewhere covered

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.3 Personal effects not elsewhere covered 13 14 -0.3 -0.7 -0.01
12.3.1 Jewellery, clocks and watches 8 9 -0.3 -0.9 -0.01
12.3.2 Other personal effects 5 5 -0.2 -0.5 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to jewellery, clocks and watches, where prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago.

12.4 Social protection

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.4 Social protection 12 13 0.5 0.4 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

12.5 Insurance

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.5 Insurance 7 10 0.6 1.1 0.01
12.5.2 House contents insurance 2 2 1.9 - -
12.5.3 Health insurance 2 3 2.0 4.0 0.01
12.5.4 Transport insurance 3 5 -1.3 -0.2 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to health insurance, where average premiums rose this year by more than a year ago.

12.6 Financial services not elsewhere covered

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.6 Financial services not elsewhere covered 17 12 -1.3 - 0.02

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to initial commission paid on unit trusts, where charges rose this year but fell a year ago.

12.7 Other services not elsewhere covered

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.7 Other services not elsewhere covered 10 12 -0.3 - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

RPI summary

Contributions to change in the RPI annual rate

GROUPS Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FOOD 114 109 -0.5 -0.3 0.02
CATERING 47 47 0.1 0.3 0.01
ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 58 56 -0.4 -0.4 -
TOBACCO 29 27 2.6 1.6 -0.03
HOUSING 253 263 0.7 0.6 -0.01
FUEL AND LIGHT 48 45 -0.6 -0.1 0.02
HOUSEHOLD GOODS 61 59 -1.1 -1.4 -0.02
HOUSEHOLD SERVICES 62 65 - 0.3 0.02
CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR 45 42 1.5 1.2 -0.02
PERSONAL GOODS AND SERVICES 40 41 - 0.1 -
MOTORING EXPENDITURE 120 115 0.2 0.6 0.06
FARES AND OTHER TRAVEL COSTS 22 25 5.8 1.8 -0.08
LEISURE GOODS 30 28 -0.5 -0.2 0.01
LEISURE SERVICES 71 78 0.6 0.8 0.02

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RPI notable movements

RPI notable movements, April 2015

All items RPI Annual rate +0.9%, unchanged from last month
Last higher in February 2015 (+1.0%)
Last lower in November 2009 (+0.3%)
All items RPI exc MIPS (RPIX) Annual rate +0.9%, unchanged from last month
Last higher in February 2015 (+1.0%)
Never lower since official series began in January 1976
All items RPI exc MIPS and indirect Annual rate +0.8%, unchanged from last month
taxes (RPIY) Also +0.8% in February 2015
Last higher in January 2015 (+1.1%)
Never lower since official series began in January 1988
Non seasonal food Annual rate -2.8%, down from -2.4% last month
Lowest since February 1958 (-3.9%)
Seasonal food Annual rate -1.9%, up from -4.4% last month
Highest since March 2014 (+0.8%)
Tobacco Annual rate +6.3%, down from +7.4% last month
Lowest since December 2009 (+4.5%)
Fares and other travel Annual rate +0.9%, down from +4.8% last month
Lowest since March 2014 (+0.8%)
All goods Annual rate -0.8%, unchanged from last month
Last higher in January 2015 (-0.6%)
Last lower in February 2015 (-1.0%)
All services Annual rate +1.8%, down from +2.0% last month
Never lower since official series began in January 1988

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RPI detailed briefing

In accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, the Retail Prices Index and its derivatives have been assessed against the Code of Practice for Official Statistics and found not to meet the required standard for designation as National Statistics. ONS consulted in March 2013 on whether to maintain this detailed RPI briefing and, based on views received, decided to continue with its publication.

  • Weights are specified as parts per 1000 in the RPI.

Food

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FOOD 114 109 -0.5 -0.3 0.02

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to seasonal food.

  • Partially offset by non-seasonal food.

Seasonal food

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
SEASONAL FOOD 19 18 -2.7 -0.1 0.05
Home killed lamb 1 1 1.4 8.5 0.01
Fresh fish 2 2 -9.0 -2.2 0.01
Eggs 1 1 -3.4 0.3 -
Unprocessed potatoes 2 2 -0.3 - -
Other fresh vegetables 7 6 -3.7 -0.4 0.02
Fresh fruit 6 6 -0.5 -0.7 -

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  • Large upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:
    • Other fresh vegetables; and fresh fish, where prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from cauliflower and frozen prawns; and
    • Home killed lamb, where prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, particularly for lamb joints.

Non-seasonal food

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
NON-SEASONAL FOOD 95 91 - -0.4 -0.03
Bread 5 4 - -3.2 -0.01
Cereals 4 4 -0.5 0.4 -
Biscuits and cakes 7 7 0.4 0.6 -
Beef 4 4 -1.6 -0.5 -
Imported lamb 1 1 -3.6 -0.3 -
Pork 1 1 6.0 0.9 -
Bacon 2 2 -0.8 0.6 -
Poultry 4 4 -1.4 -1.8 -
Other meat 7 7 - -0.9 -0.01
Processed fish 2 2 0.6 3.8 0.01
Butter 1 1 -0.9 4.0 -
Oils and fats 2 1 -0.2 -4.1 -
Cheese 4 4 - -0.7 -
Milk, fresh 4 3 0.1 -0.3 -
Milk products 4 4 -2.2 -0.8 0.01
Tea 1 1 0.3 0.4 -
Soft drinks 11 10 0.3 -0.6 -0.01
Sugar and preserves 1 1 -0.2 0.5 -
Sweets and chocolates 11 11 1.2 -0.3 -0.02
Potato products 3 3 -1.2 -0.6 -
Processed vegetables 2 2 0.7 -2.3 -0.01
Processed fruit 1 2 -1.0 1.5 -
Other foods 11 11 0.4 -0.1 -0.01
Coffee and other hot drinks 2 1 -0.3 1.7 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:
    • Sweets and chocolates; soft drinks; processed vegetables; and other food, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from bags of sweets, packs of bottled fruit drinks, canned tomatoes, canned soup, frozen pizza, and dried potted snacks. Partially offset by small upward contributions coming from fizzy bottled drinks, cook in sauces and ice cream; and
    • Bread and other meat, where prices overall fell this year but were little changed a year ago, particularly for sliced loaves of wholemeal bread.
  • Partially offset by:
    • Processed fish, where prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago; and
    • Milk products, where prices fell this year by less than a year ago, particularly for yoghurt/fromage frais.

Catering

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
CATERING 47 47 0.1 0.3 0.01
Restaurant meals 28 28 0.2 0.3 -
Canteen meals 3 3 - - -
Take-away meals and snacks 16 16 - 0.2 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago.

Alcoholic drinks

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 58 56 -0.4 -0.4 -
Beer on sales 20 19 0.2 -0.1 -0.01
Beer off sales 5 5 -0.1 -0.4 -
Wines and spirits on sales 18 18 0.3 0.1 -
Wines and spirits off sales 15 14 -2.1 -1.3 0.01

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • There was a small downward contribution from beer on sales, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago.

  • Offset by a small upward contribution from wines and spirits off sales, where prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from red wine. Partially offset by a small downward contribution coming from vodka and European white wine.

Tobacco

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
TOBACCO 29 27 2.6 1.6 -0.03
Cigarettes 25 23 2.7 1.6 -0.03
Other tobacco products 4 4 2.2 1.3 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to cigarettes, where prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.

Housing

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
HOUSING 253 263 0.7 0.6 -0.01
Rent 87 84 1.2 0.8 -0.03
Mortgage interest payments 30 29 - 0.1 -
Council tax and rates 42 40 0.9 1.1 0.01
Water and other charges 14 14 2.4 -0.7 -0.04
Repairs and maintenance charges 10 9 - 0.1 -
DIY materials 6 8 -0.6 - -
Dwelling insurance and ground rent 6 6 -0.4 -0.1 -
House depreciation 58 73 0.2 0.8 0.05

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:
    • Water and other charges, where average costs fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from England and Wales; and, to a lesser extent,
    • Rent, where local authority charges rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for England and Wales.
  • Partially offset by:
    • House depreciation, with the smoothed house price index used to calculate this component rising this year by more than year ago; and
    • Council tax and rates; where average charges rose this year by more than a year ago.

Fuel and light

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FUEL AND LIGHT 48 45 -0.6 -0.1 0.02
Coal and solid fuels 1 1 0.2 0.1 -
Electricity 22 21 -0.6 -0.2 0.01
Gas 21 21 -0.5 - 0.01
Oil and other fuels 4 2 -1.4 -0.3 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:
    • Electricity, and oil and other fuels, where average charges fell this year by less than a year ago, with upward contribution coming from kerosene; and
    • Gas, where average bills were unchanged this year but fell than a year ago.

Household goods

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
HOUSEHOLD GOODS 61 59 -1.1 -1.4 -0.02
Furniture 21 22 -2.4 -2.3 -
Furnishings 9 9 -0.9 -2.1 -0.01
Electrical appliances 6 5 -1.1 - 0.01
Other household equipment 4 4 0.2 0.3 -
Household consumables 12 12 - -1.5 -0.02
Pet care 9 7 - 0.7 0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:
    • Household consumables, where prices overall fell this year but were little changed a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from household cleaning products and dishwasher tablets; and
    • Furnishings, where prices fell this year by more than a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from rugs.
  • Partially offset by:
    • Electrical appliances, where prices overall were little changed this year but fell a year ago; and
    • Pet care, where prices overall rose this year but were little changed a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from dry dog food.

Household services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
HOUSEHOLD SERVICES 62 65 - 0.3 0.02
Domestic services 13 13 0.1 0.2 -
Fees and subscriptions 24 26 0.2 0.5 0.01
Postage 1 1 3.7 1.7 -
Telephone charges 24 25 -0.4 0.1 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:
    • Fees and subscriptions, where average charges rose this year by more than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from estate agent fees and pet insurance. Partially offset by a small downward contribution from house contents insurance; and
    • Telephone charges, where prices rose this year but fell a year ago, particularly for mobile telephone charges.

Clothing and footwear

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR 45 42 1.5 1.2 -0.02
Men’s outerwear 10 8 1.0 1.6 -
Women’s outerwear 16 16 1.9 2.0 -
Children’s outerwear 5 5 0.2 0.3 -
Other clothing 5 5 1.0 0.9 -
Footwear 9 8 2.4 0.2 -0.02

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to footwear, where prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from women’s high heeled shoes and walking/hiking boots.

Personal goods & services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
PERSONAL GOODS & SERVICES 40 41 - 0.1 -
Personal articles 10 10 -0.6 -0.3 -
Chemists' goods 16 17 -0.4 -0.4 -
Personal services 14 14 0.9 1.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

Motoring expenditure

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
MOTORING EXPENDITURE 120 115 0.2 0.6 0.06
Purchase of motor vehicles 36 42 0.7 0.6 -
Maintenance of motor vehicles 17 16 - 0.2 -
Petrol and oil 43 35 - 1.2 0.04
Vehicle tax and insurance 24 22 -0.4 0.3 0.02

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  • Largest upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:
    • Petrol and oil, where prices rose this year but were little changed a year ago. The price of petrol, as recorded for the RPI, rose by 1.5 pence per litre between March and April 2015, to stand at 112.5 pence per litre, compared with a rise of 0.1 pence per litre last year to stand at 128.9 pence per litre. Diesel prices rose by 0.9 pence per litre, to stand at 119.2 pence per litre in April 2015, compared with a fall of 0.2 pence per litre last year to stand at 136.1 pence per litre; and, to a lesser extent,
    • Vehicle tax and insurance, where average premiums for car insurance rose this year but fell a year ago. Partially offset by a small downward contribution from vehicle excise duty where charges rose this year by less than a year ago.

Fares and other travel costs

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FARES AND OTHER TRAVEL COSTS 22 25 5.8 1.8 -0.08
Rail fares 7 7 1.4 0.7 -
Bus and coach fares 4 3 5.9 1.6 -0.02
Other travel costs 11 15 8.4 2.3 -0.06

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  • Largest downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to other travel costs and, to a lesser extent, bus and coach fares, where prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for air fares, and, to a lesser extent, coach fares.

  • The timing of Easter was likely a factor, with the Easter weekend missing the April collection period this year, but falling within the April collection period last year.

Leisure goods

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
LEISURE GOODS 30 28 -0.5 -0.2 0.01
Audio-visual equipment 7 7 -1.2 -1.3 -
CDs and tapes 2 2 0.4 0.8 -
Toys, photographic and sports goods 9 8 -1.8 -1.7 -
Books and newspapers 7 6 1.2 1.6 -
Gardening products 5 5 -0.1 0.4 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago.

Leisure services

  Weight 2014 Weight 2015 1 month % change Apr-14 1 month % change Apr-15 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
LEISURE SERVICES 71 78 0.6 0.8 0.02
TV licence and rentals 12 12 0.1 - -
Entertainment and other recreation 15 15 2.7 2.4 -0.01
Foreign holidays 34 41 - 0.3 0.01
UK holidays 10 10 - 1.3 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to foreign holidays and UK holidays, where prices overall rose this year but were little changed a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from foreign holidays and self catering UK holidays. Partially offset by a small downward contribution from late booked foreign holidays, where prices fell this year but rose a year ago.

  • Partially offset by a small downward contribution from entertainment and other recreation, where charges overall rose this year by less than a year ago.

Reconciliation of CPI and RPI

(Table 5 of the Consumer Price Inflation Reference Tables) (2.49 Mb Excel sheet)

This table identifies the main factors contributing to the differences between the unrounded inflation rates for the CPI and the RPI. These differences are broken down into: mortgage interest payments, other housing components excluded from the CPI, other differences in the coverage of goods and services, and the formula effect. The final column titled ‘other differences including weights’ is derived as a residual.

The difference between the CPI and RPI unrounded annual rates in April 2015 was -1.03 percentage points, widening from -0.92 percentage points in March 2015. 

 

The main factors contributing to the widening were:

  • Other housing components, which increased the RPI 12-month rate relative to the CPI 12-month rate by 0.07 percentage points between March and April 2015 but are excluded from the CPI. The effect was mainly due to house depreciation.

  • Other differences including weights, which increased the RPI 12-month rate relative to the CPI 12-month rate by 0.04 percentage points between March and April 2015. The effect was mainly due to sea fares; air fares; and insurance. This was partially offset by fuels and lubricants; games toys and hobbies and equipment for sport; and financial services.           

The only offsetting factor was:

  • Other differences in coverage of goods and services, which increased the CPI 12-month rate relative to the RPI 12 month rate by 0.02 percentage points between March and April 2015. The widening effect mainly came from financial and accommodation services.

RPI miscellaneous data

Selected average prices

Description February 2015 March 2015 April 2015
Petrol per litre Diesel £1.15 £1.18 £1.19
Petrol £1.07 £1.11 £1.13
Alcohol pub prices Draught bitter (pint) £2.96 £2.97 £2.96
Draught lager (pint) £3.43 £3.44 £3.44
Whisky (per nip) £2.58 £2.59 £2.58
Cigarettes Per 20 king size £8.72 £8.71 £8.86

Table notes:

  1. Average prices are as recorded for the RPI.

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Changes in Mortgage Interest Rates

This table gives an estimate of the contribution that changes in the average mortgage interest rate (MI) make to the 1-month percentage change in the RPI.

Changes in mortgage interest rates

Month 1-month % change in the RPI Approx. change in average MI rate Approx. contribution to the 1-month % change in the RPI
April 2014 +0.4 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points
May 2014 +0.1 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
June 2014 +0.2 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points
July 2014 -0.1 Negligible -
August 2014 +0.4 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points
September 2014 +0.2 Negligible -
October 2014 +0.0 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
November 2014 -0.2 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points
December 2014 +0.2 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points
January 2015 -0.8 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points
February 2015 +0.5 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
March 2015 +0.2 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
April 2015 +0.4 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points

Table notes:

  1. A one percentage point change in the average mortgage interest rate contributes approx 0.9 percentage points to the 1-month percentage change in the RPI.

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Outlook

The outlook is a summary of seasonal trends, selected news cuttings and other sources of information. It gives some indication of expected changes to the annual rate of the CPI and RPI in the next few months.

FOOD

Seasonal Food

  • Seasonal food prices have shown a mixed pattern of rise and falls in May of recent years, but are typically dependent on weather conditions both in the UK and around the world.

Monthly % change for CPI seasonal food index

Year March April May
2009 -2.4 -0.6 +2.0
2010 +0.2 +0.6 -0.6
2011 -2.0 -1.1 +2.9
2012 -0.2 -1.3 +0.5
2013 -0.7 +0.5 -0.3
2014 -0.5 -1.7 -1.6
2015 -0.4 -0.7

Table notes:

  1. Seasonal food prices in the RPI tend to show a similar movement.

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CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR

  • With the exception of 2012 and 2014, prices for clothing and footwear tend to rise slightly in May.

Monthly % change for CPI clothing and footwear index

Year March April May
2009 +1.1 +0.2 +0.4
2010 +1.8 +2.2 +0.3
2011 +1.1 +1.3 +0.4
2012 +2.2 +0.2 -0.1
2013 +2.4 +0.0 +1.2
2014 +1.8 +1.0 -0.1
2015 -0.1 +0.7

Table notes:

  1. The clothing and footwear group in the RPI exhibits a similar seasonal pattern.

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ELECTRICITY, GAS AND OTHER FUELS

  • SSE has announced a reduction of 4.1% in its household gas prices, taking effect from 30 April 2015. (sse.com 26 January 2015). This will take effect in the May index.

FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  • Prices for furniture, household equipment and maintenance tend to rise in May.

Monthly % change for CPI furniture, household equipment and maintenance index

Year March April May
2009 +2.1 -1.0 +1.0
2010 +1.6 -1.6 +1.2
2011 +1.7 -0.8 +0.4
2012 +1.3 -1.2 +0.6
2013 +0.8 -1.3 +1.1
2014 +0.3 -0.9 +0.5
2015 +0.4 -1.2

Table notes:

  1. The household goods group in the RPI exhibits a similar seasonal pattern.

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TRANSPORT

Fuels and Lubricants

  • Expiring front-month Brent June crude fell 22 cents to settle at $66.59 a barrel.  July Brent fell 57 cents to settle at $66.70. (uk.reuters.com 14 May 2015)

  • When considering the price of petrol between April and May 2015, it may be useful to note that the average price of petrol rose by 0.4 pence per litre between April and May 2014, standing at 129.4 pence per litre as measured in the CPI.

  • A 1 pence change on average in the cost of a litre of motor fuel contributes approximately 0.03 percentage points to the 1-month change in the CPI.

Passenger Transport by Air

  • Air fares tend to rise in May, but this can depend on the timing of Easter.

Monthly % change for CPI air fares index

Year March April May
2009 -0.6 -1.2 +6.9
2010 +7.7 -1.0 +6.0
2011 +2.1 +29.0 -11.1
2012 +4.4 +7.4 +1.4
2013 +5.3 -6.4 +22.0
2014 +1.9 +17.9 -3.2
2015 +2.7 +4.5

Table notes:

  1. The air fares index used in the RPI is the same as that used in the CPI, and is included in the other travel costs section.

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HOUSING (RPI)

Mortgage interest payments (MIPs)

  • The Bank of England Bank Rate remained unchanged at 0.5% on Friday 8 May 2015.

  • The change in average mortgage interest rates recorded in the RPI was -0.02% between April and May 2014. The Bank of England Bank Rate remained unchanged at 0.5% in April 2014.

  • A one percentage point change in the average mortgage interest rate contributes approximately 0.9 percentage points to the 1-month percentage change in the RPI.

Contacts

Media contact:

Tel: Luke Croydon +44 (0) 845 6041858

Out of hours media line +44 (0) 7867 906553

Email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

Statistical contact:

Tel: Richard Campbell +44 (0) 1633 651536

Email: richard.campbell@ons.gsi.gov.uk

Website: www.ons.gov.uk

Email: cpi@ons.gsi.gov.uk

Consumer Price Inflation recorded message (available after 9.45 am on release day):

Tel: +44 (0) 800 0113703

Consumer Price Inflation Enquiries:

Tel: +44 (0) 1633 456900

Background notes

  1. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/code-of-practice/index.html or from the Media Relations Office email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

    These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

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