This study is a review of a wide range of literature relating to the involvement of parents in their children's education. It covers the age range from the early years of primary education to the end of key stage 4.

The study identifies and analyses two main types of literature: studies which aim to describe and understand the characteristics and impact of spontaneously occurring parental involvement, and those which seek to describe and evaluate interventions aimed at enhancing parents' spontaneous involvement in their children's education.

The study explores why and how parents become involved in supporting their children, the impact such support has and the particular characteristics of parental support that have the greatest effects.


  • Introduction
  • Researching parental involvement: Some conceptual and methodological issues
  • The impact of parental involvement on achievements and adjustments
  • How does parental involvement work?
  • Ethnicity, parental involvement and pupil achievement
  • Differences between parents in levels of involvement
  • Enhancing parental involvement in practice: Focus on parent/school links
  • Adult and community education and parent training programmes
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendices