Assisted parturition - intervention by a farmer or veterinary surgeon to ensure safe delivery of offspring.
Blastocysts - a structure resulting from the division of the ovum consisting of a hollow outer sphere and an inner, solid mass of cells.
Chromosomally unstable - has a propensity to lose or duplicate all or parts of chromosomes. Unlikely to lead to a viable organism.
Cloning - duplicating animals or plants without sexual reproduction.
Elective caesarean - a pre-planned, deliberate laparotomy, which is not required by difficulties during natural birth, to deliver offspring.
Embryo splitting - the division of an embryo at pre-implantation stage into two equal halves which produce genetically identical embryos. It occurs naturally in many species, including humans, to give identical twins.
Genotype - the genetic composition of an organism.
Genome - the total set of genes on the chromosomes found in each living cell of an organism.
In vivo/in vitro - occurring in the living organism/outside the organism, in the test-tube, for example.
IVF - in vitro fertilisation; fertilisation of an ovum by a spermatozoon occurring outside the body (for example, in a laboratory culture vessel).
Laparotomy - surgical incision to allow entry into the abdominal cavity.
Ligated oviduct - procedure where the duct leading from the ovary to the uterus has been tied off.
Nuclear transfer - removal of nucleus from one cell (the donor) and insertion into an oocyte (the recipient) from which the nuclear material has been removed.
Nutraceuticals - foods with pharmaceutical properties.
Oocyte - an immature egg.
Pronuclear injection - using a fine needle to inject DNA into the nucleus of an unfertilised egg.
Superovulated - treatment with hormones to increase the number of eggs produced.
Totipotent - has the ability to create an entire organism from a single embryonic cell, before this cell has become specialised (differentiated into a skin or liver cell, for example).
Transgenic/transgenesis - animals which are derived from embryos into which isolated genomic DNA from another species has been introduced at an early stage of development. Such foreign genes may be incorporated into the nucleus and chromosomes so that the transgenic animal can express the foreign gene product.
Xenotransplantation - transplanting organs (such as heart or liver) from one species to another.