CLLD Phonics

Find out why some children need additional teaching at Key Stage 2 and what you can do to support them. You can also refresh your knowledge of the terms used throughout this programme that you will need to use when teaching phonics.

Why is this necessary?

Most children at Key Stage 2 are comfortable with reading and writing, have completed a Phonics programme such as [Letters and Sounds] in Key Stage 1 and are now involved in a spelling programme such as [Support for Spelling].

However, some children may have misunderstood or missed some of the important aspects of the CLLD phonics programme, so they need additional teaching time to accelerate their development.

Most of these children will be secure in Units 2-4 (which relate to phases 2-4 in Letters and Sounds) and will just need additional support for Unit 5. This is the final phase before progressing to a Spelling programme. However, you can use the Assessment Tasks to find out which unit each child needs to start at.

Definition of terms
Term Definition Example
Phoneme The smallest unit of sound in a word.
  • m-a-t (three phonemes)
  • d-i-sh (three phonemes)
Grapheme A letter or sequence of letters that represent a phoneme. m, a, t
Digraph/trigraph Two or three letters representing one phoneme.
  • day = di (two)
  • night = tri (three)
Split digraph Two letters representing one phoneme but split within a word.
  • bike
  • made
  • tune
Adjacent consonants Two or more consonants next to each other in a word.
  • watch
  • strap
Phonics About sounds and how they are represented in letters.
Alphabetic principles (code)
  • Sounds (phonemes) are represented by letters.
  • A phoneme can be represented by one or more letters.
  • The same phoneme can be represented (spelled) in more than one way.
  • The same spelling can represent more than one sound.
  • a, sh, tch
  • cat, kennel, choir
  • me, set
  • Each beat in a word is a syllable. Words with only one beat are monosyllabic.
  • Words with more than one beat are multisyllabic or polysyllabic.
  • dog, loaf, bell
  • beautiful, morning, flower
Segment The ability to hear individual phonemes in a word.
  • f-i-sh
  • kn-igh-t
Blend The ability to merge individual phonemes together to pronounce a word.
CVC word A word in which the phonemes are a consonant phoneme, a vowel phoneme, a consonant phoneme. pan, chip, mash, rain
CCVCC word A word which is two consonants, vowel and two final consonants. crisp