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National Curriculum

Attainment target for citizenship

Level 1

Pupils ask questions about issues that are suggested to them.  They share their ideas about these issues with others.  They begin to recognise that all people have needs and wants. They identify some of the groups they belong to and recognise some similarities and differences between people. They take part in some of the decisions that affect them and their communities.

Level 2

Pupils ask questions to find out about the different groups and communities they belong to.  They select information from given sources to find answers to these and other questions. They discuss what is fair and unfair in different situations and identify the difference between peoples’ needs and wants. They identify similarities and differences between themselves and between the communities to which they belong. They give opinions about issues that affect them and suggest how things might be improved in their community through the actions that they or others take.

Level 3

Pupils begin to explore issues that affect people in their neighbourhood and wider communities in different ways. They find answers to questions using different sources. They discuss issues and communicate their ideas to others and begin to acknowledge different viewpoints. They recognise that in a democracy people have a say in what happens locally and nationally.  They describe some of the rights and responsibilities people have towards each other and the environment.  They describe some of the different features of their communities and how they are changing. They identify what could be done to change things in communities, plan some action and take part in decision-making activities with others, in familiar contexts.

Level 4

Pupils investigate issues affecting communities using a range of sources.  They identify different viewpoints involved. They make informed contributions to discussions and debates giving some reasons for their view. They begin to explain some of the different ways in which people can participate in democracy in the UK and how they can change things. They discuss what is fair and unfair and describe how justice is applied in some situations. They consider situations where rights or responsibilities conflict. They begin to explore some of the diverse groups and communities in the UK and the wider world, identifying how these relate to their own identities and communities.  They work with others to plan and carry out a course of action to address issues that they feel are significant in their communities.

Level 5

Pupils use different methods of enquiry and sources of information to investigate issues.  They identify a range of viewpoints, weighing up different ideas and draw some conclusions. They discuss their arguments clearly, giving relevant reasons for their views. They describe key features of the political and justice systems in the UK and consider what is fair and unfair to individuals and groups in different situations. They describe situations where rights and interests conflict. They give examples of how the UK is a diverse society and is interconnected with the wider world. They work with others to plan and carry out actions aimed at making a difference to the lives of others. They explain the impact of actions taken.

Level 6

Pupils decide on appropriate questions and research strategies to investigate issues affecting society.  They interpret different sources of information and begin to assess these for validity. They are aware of the diversity of viewpoints and describe some of the influences that shape these. They develop structured and balanced arguments, challenging others' assumptions or ideas.  They begin to compare democracy and justice in the UK and different parts of the world. They explain how different rights need to be protected, supported and balanced, drawing on examples from local to global contexts. They describe changing identities and communities in the UK and explain some of the political, social, economic interdependencies with the wider world. They present a persuasive argument  for a particular course of action, giving reasons for their view. They work with others to negotiate, plan and carry out actions aimed at improving or influencing the community and, after reflecting on the extent of their success, suggest what they might do next.

Level 7

Pupils use a range of research strategies and sources with confidence to explore issues affecting society. They select and evaluate relevant evidence to question different ideas and views including their own. They show understanding of the complexity of issues affecting different stakeholders in communities. They make reasoned and persuasive arguments, representing the different viewpoints, including those they do not agree with. They begin to evaluate the roles citizens can take in shaping decisions and holding those in power to account. They compare democracy and justice in the UK with different forms of government in the world. They weigh up the implications of issues for groups in society, including in situations where rights and obligations are contested or in tension. They analyse the reasons for change in UK society and its diversity, over time.  They work with others to initiate, negotiate, plan and carry out appropriate courses of action in the local and wider community to bring about change for the common good.  They evaluate the impact of their actions and suggest alternate approaches.

Level 8

Pupils carry out different types of research into a range of issues, problems and events and analyse how these affect groups and communities in different parts of the world. They make connections between information derived from different sources and their own experience in order to make perceptive observations and coherent arguments.  They show a detailed understanding of democracy and justice, rights and responsibilities, identities and diversity, and how these change over time.  They explore and question the ways in which justice, laws and governments operate in different places and evaluate how citizens use democratic processes and the actions they can take to bring about or resist change in society.  They hypothesise alternative courses of action exploring the different implications of each. They work with others to put courses of action to the test and evaluate the impact and limitations of these for the wider community.

Exceptional performance

Pupils research complex issues and challenges facing society, selecting appropriate methodologies and drawing on their own and others’ experience of taking action.  They assess and evaluate the validity of a wide range of viewpoints and evidence, synthesising them to draw clear conclusions. They present coherent, perceptive and compelling arguments. They take an overview of democracy and justice, rights and responsibilities, identities and diversity, and make sophisticated observations relating to the connections between them. They evaluate the impact and limitations of policies affecting communities (local to global) now and in the future and suggest alternatives. They debate challenging questions about the relationship between the UK and the wider world and the kind of society they as citizens would like to live in.  They evaluate the approaches citizens can take to improve society through individual and collective actions, and democratic processes.  They take a leading role in defining, negotiating and undertaking courses of action with others to address issues and problems in society.

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