Transport Ten Year Plan 2000

Chapter 6 - investment

6.1 This chapter sets out the resources we believe are needed over the next ten years to deliver the outcomes we want to achieve. These resources will be used to deliver specific projects and other improvements in our transport system. However, the Plan is not the appropriate vehicle for decisions on individual projects. These will flow from strategies and programmes developed by and in partnership with many other bodies, including:

  • local authorities and Passenger Transport Authorities
  • regional planning bodies and Regional Development Agencies
  • the Mayor of London
  • the Strategic Rail Authority
  • Railtrack and the train operating companies
  • the Highways Agency.

They will be subject to the normal planning and other decision-making processes.

6.2 This Plan sets out the broad strategies for improving and integrating the various elements of our transport system, the resources to be committed and the improvements that will be delivered.

6.3 We will be looking for ways to speed up the delivery of new transport infrastructure. Major projects often take more than a decade to complete. The Birmingham Northern Relief Road, for example, was first proposed in the early 1980s, and work is only now due to start later this year. We have published for consultation proposals for streamlining the handling of major infrastructure projects in the planning system, and will announce our conclusions shortly. We will consider how to carry through these improvements to the separate procedures applying to projects authorised under the Transport and Works Act (including railways and light rail) and under the Highways Act for roads.

6.4 We believe there is considerable scope for speeding up the procurement of new schemes. Highways Agency trunk roads, for example, currently take an average of ten years from the entry of a typical major scheme into the road programme to the start of construction. This is far too long. We believe that, by a combination of better procurement techniques, carrying out some tasks in parallel rather than sequentially, and by earlier and more effective consultation, it should be possible to reduce this period by at least a third, if not more.

6.5 The Government is committed to public transport that is accessible to disabled people. The rate and level of new investment in this Plan will ensure that improvements in the accessibility of public transport are brought forward more quickly. Building in accessibility for disabled people in all new investment is a condition of public money being spent. Local authorities and transport operators should ensure that the transport needs of disabled people are factored into their plans and that the full benefits of improved public transport are accessible to all.

6.6 We will be developing measures for evaluating accessibility in transport systems, and in streets and public spaces, to check that investment is delivering real improvements in the day-to-day mobility of disabled people. Based on this work, and building on the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act, we will also be setting targets for improvements in the quality of service delivery to disabled people.

Railways

6.7 We inherited a railway system where years of under-investment had produced an outdated and unreliable network(12). Privatisation in the mid-nineties created a fragmented system where reducing public subsidy, not improving or expanding services, was the priority. It was a system where:

  • there was no framework for strategic planning of the industry as a whole
  • most franchises were for only seven years, inhibiting long-term planning and investment by operators
  • performance standards generally were based on low historic standards and failed to look forward to the rising expectations of passengers
  • the industry structure did not anticipate the need for significant investment to cope with sharply increased passenger and freight traffic
  • there were no proper incentives for private companies to invest in expansion.

6.8 Recent trends in the use of the rail network have been strongly upwards (see chart 6a). Passenger travel has increased by 17% in the last three years, and is now at a level last seen 50 years ago. Freight traffic too is showing strong growth and has risen by 22% over the last three years. At many points the network is now being operated close to maximum capacity. This not only constrains future growth in rail use, but also undermines the quality of service that the railways can provide. Without major investment in the network to meet growing demand, levels of service will deteriorate and overcrowding on many lines will rise.

Chart 6a Passengers and freight moved on national railways

Chart 6a Passengers and freight moved on national railways

Strategy and delivery

6.9 Our aims are to increase the use of the railway by passengers and freight, to provide new capacity to meet demand, and to improve the quality of service to customers, while reducing most currently regulated fares in real terms. A large expansion of rail services will make an important contribution to reducing future levels of congestion on the roads.

6.10 This bigger and better railway will be created by a number of different organisations working to shared aims in a true public and private sector partnership:

  • The Strategic Rail Authority (SRA), already working in shadow form, will decide what quality and capacity improvements are needed. It will procure them, for example, from train operators when replacing existing passenger franchises or by contracting with Railtrack for new infrastructure. The SRA will monitor delivery of these obligations on behalf of passengers and taxpayers, and be empowered to take swift action if train operators are found wanting. The SRA will work to directions and guidance from Ministers to provide a bigger and better railway.
  • The Rail Regulator will set the level and structure of the charges that Railtrack can make for access to the network. The Regulator will ensure that the company does not abuse its monopoly position and enforce its network licence conditions. Under the Transport Bill, the Regulator will be subject to general guidance from Ministers and have a duty to facilitate the SRA's strategies. Otherwise the Rail Regulator is independent.
  • Railtrack plc is the private sector owner of the track and stations and so will have the key role in expanding the network to meet the obligations of its licence. The SRA has, however, reserved its right to secure publicly funded expansion through third parties where this would offer better value for money and would not impair the safety and operational integrity of the network.
  • Passenger and freight operators will continue to provide train services. In the case of passenger services, these will increasingly be via new, longer franchises which will demand higher standards and more investment, for example in new rolling stock. In the case of freight operators, improvements in operating efficiency and facilities, together with better use of the network, will be the objective.

Refranchising

Replacement of the current short franchises is central to the delivery of a better railway. The replacements are likely to run for between ten and twenty years, with review points every five to seven years, when adjustments to the original deals can be negotiated.

Punctuality, reliability, affordability and comfort are what passengers most want from their trains. In negotiating replacement franchises, the SRA will invite competition and commitments to secure improvements in customer satisfaction. The biggest improvements will be sought from franchises where performance is currently unsatisfactory.

The shadow SRA is currently considering best and final offers for the Chiltern, South Central and East Coast Main Line franchises. It has invited proposals for replacement of the existing South Western and Central franchises, and for a new Trans-Pennine franchise. It hopes to complete the selection of new franchisees before the end of 2001, and has published an indicative map of likely franchises.

6.11 We will seek real reductions in the cost of rail travel by continuing to cap increases in most currently regulated fares at 1% below the rate of inflation (RPI-1).

6.12 Through refranchising we intend to create by 2010 a railway where today's highest standards - for punctuality, reliability, comfort and customer service - have become the norm. Increased investment in higher standards and more capacity will lead to:

  • a better quality journey for passengers
  • more people choosing to travel by rail
  • a virtuous circle of passenger growth, rising revenue, more investment and further network expansion.

We will create new incentives for all parties to deliver quality, performance, investment and growth - including doubling the rates of performance payments and penalties applying to train operating companies. Longer-term franchises will be offered in return for commitments to service improvements.

6.13 The private sector - usually Railtrack or train operators - will carry out the investment in new infrastructure. The Government will need to provide substantial financial support, reflecting the social, environmental and economic benefits that cannot be paid for through fares and charges. Public sector support for the railway will be injected through a number of channels. Revenue payments to train operators will support passenger services which cannot be fully funded through fares, including most of the cost of infrastructure maintenance and renewal. Revenue support will also continue to be available to help to defray the costs of freight operators' track access charges to Railtrack, and to remunerate private sector investment. Capital payments towards some of the cost of renewing the network will be made direct by the SRA to Railtrack. Support for enhancing the capacity of the network will be paid by the SRA to supplement Railtrack's resources and lever in private capital from other sources.

6.14 Total Government funding over the period of the Plan will be £29 billion(13),including:

  • £12 billion13 of revenue support for passenger and freight train operators
  • a new £7 billion Rail Modernisation Fund (see box), which will lever in private capital to secure the biggest rail expansion programme for more than a century
  • £4 billion of capital payments for renewal schemes, notably the West Coast Main Line (see box)
  • £5 billion for the completion of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link and the new rail hub at St Pancras/Kings Cross.

Rail Modernisation Fund

The Rail Modernisation Fund demonstrates our commitment to the massive investment programme that is necessary to expand the network and increase passenger rail use by 50% and rail freight by 80%. The fund will:

make available £7 billion over the 10 years of the Plan, and lever in a much greater amount of private capital

allow the SRA and the industry together to formulate a long-term investment programme

encompass a range of funding mechanisms, including capital grant and debt finance

use the most effective and innovative means to introduce capital support into the industry, address market failures and maximise the capacity to raise private capital.

The SRA's strategic plan, to be published later this year, will set out the principles of investment support and describe the forms of funding that will be available. The choice will be made case by case. The Government will work closely with the SRA to ensure that the objectives of the strategic plan reflect wider priorities and contain clear procedures that will deliver value for money.

West Coast Main Line

Modernising the West Coast Main Line from London to Glasgow is one of the most complex and important projects on the railway: 2,000 passenger and freight trains use this 1,024km (640-mile) route each day.

Railtrack announced in December 1999 that the costs of the project had increased very substantially from an original estimate of £2.3 billion to some £5.8 billion. Since then, Railtrack's figures have been scrutinised in detail by the Rail Regulator. In June 2000, the Regulator issued a consultation document which reviewed the costs of the maintenance and renewals elements of the West Coast scheme, which together represent about two-thirds of the entire project.

It is clear from the Regulator's document that Railtrack has already incurred significant additional renewals costs, which will not be remunerated.

Railtrack will in addition, over the next five years, need to spend further substantial sums, which would normally have been recovered through access charges. In view of the exceptional nature of this modernisation project, the Government has decided that the programme should be supported by direct capital payments rather than through access charges.

6.15 In setting its investment priorities the SRA will work with local and regional planning bodies to take account of their expectations and priorities. New and better rail services can, for instance, have a significant influence on patterns of development, contributing to regeneration and the creation of employment, leisure and tourism opportunities. Improving links with other forms of transport - through bus/rail interchanges, park and ride schemes, new links to airports and better facilities for cyclists and pedestrians - will also take priority. The SRA will be setting out how it will work with others to achieve these goals in its strategic plan, to be published later this year.

Chart 6b Railways - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) (see Annex 1 for figures)(14) (15)

Graph: Chart 6b Railways - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) (see Annex 1 for 
figures)

6.16 Recent growth has taken rail freight's share of domestic freight traffic to 7%. Extra support will be provided to maintain this momentum. Increased investment in track capacity and gauge enhancements will be needed to keep pace with developments in the logistics industry, and demands for more track space from passenger services. Government alone can only achieve so much, however. The industry's performance and efficiency will need to improve significantly. If this can be achieved, we believe it ought to be possible to increase rail freight's share of the market to 10% by 2010, an increase of 80% in the amount of freight carried by rail today.

6.17 The SRA will work with Railtrack to invest in new freight infrastructure, develop freight priority routes, eliminate bottlenecks, enable larger containers to be carried from the deep-sea ports and the Channel Tunnel, and to encourage market innovation. Support will be made available for new and improved freight terminals. We will increase the funding available for both capital and revenue support for rail freight. A new freight grant scheme will be launched by the SRA to ensure that the available funds are applied efficiently and promptly.

6.18 Rail remains the safest form of surface transport. But following recent tragic accidents there is a major job to be done to develop a more rigorous culture of safety across the industry and restore passenger confidence. Investment in safety will be a priority for the Government and for the industry. The Plan will ensure installation of the Train Protection and Warning System across the network, and full automatic train protection on the high-speed passenger network. And we will bring within the Plan any further measures arising from Lord Cullen's current inquiry into the Ladbroke Grove crash (see Chapter 7).

Investment and outputs

6.19 To deliver this strategy the Plan includes £15 billion of public investment, £7 billion of which will be provided through the Rail Modernisation Fund, and £34 billion of private capital. Together with £11 billion of public resource expenditure(15), this gives a total of £60 billion for rail funding over the next ten years.

6.20 The peak in public investment in 2005/06 reflects particularly the impact of spending on the Channel Tunnel Rail Link and the West Coast Main Line.

6.21 Improvements will be driven by the results of the refranchising process and by decisions on infrastructure enhancement. They will also reflect the multi-modal studies, capacity studies, regional transport strategies and planning decisions, as well as the strategies to be produced by the SRA and Railtrack. But our assessment is that the expected level of investment would be able to deliver the following broad range of projects over the life of this Plan:

  • completion of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link to St Pancras, opening up fast travel through Kent and the Thames Gateway, while reducing the London-Paris journey time to 2 hours 20 minutes
  • upgrading of the East Coast Main Line, which will increase the frequencies and speeds of trains between London and Leeds, Newcastle and Edinburgh, reducing the London-Edinburgh journey time to 3 hours 30 minutes
  • modernisation of the West Coast Main Line, which will increase the frequencies and speeds of trains between London and Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool and Glasgow, reducing journey times
  • upgrading of the Great Western Main Line, which will reduce London-Bristol and London-South Wales journey times
  • completion of Thameslink 2000, enhancement of commuter services into London (see paragraph 6.70), and construction of the East London Line extensions, possibly as part of a suggested new London orbital franchise
  • further capacity enhancements, for example on the London-Brighton and Chiltern lines and the trans-Pennine line
  • gauge and capacity enhancements on freight routes to major ports, such as Felixstowe, and to the Channel Tunnel
  • schemes to tackle strategic bottlenecks on the rail network, including those in the West Midlands and in the Manchester commuter area
  • installation of the Train Protection and Warning System across the network and full automatic train protection on the high speed passenger network
  • better rolling stock, including removal of all slam-door carriages and introduction of around 6,000 new vehicles, reducing the average age of rolling stock, improving quality, and improving provision for disabled people
  • station improvements, including improved information systems and personal security, with greater coverage of CCTV at stations and station car parks and increasing numbers of stations accredited under the Secure Stations Scheme.

Map 2 shows the passenger lines we expect to be constructed and upgraded during the period of this Plan.

Map 2 - Major rail projects referred to in paragraph 6.21

Map: Map 2 - Major rail projects referred to in paragraph 6.21

Outcomes and targets

6.22 The outcomes we expect to be achieved over the period of this Plan include:

  • a 50% growth in passenger journeys overall(16)
  • more frequent services, faster journey times and an 80% increase in patronage on inter-city lines, contributing to the reduction of inter-urban road congestion
  • more frequent services on commuter lines
  • better cross-country network connections, for example across the Pennines and through or around London
  • increased reliability and punctuality, with quantified targets to be set in the light of franchise replacement
  • better integrated information for customers
  • improved levels of customer satisfaction with the quality of services and of stations
  • a significant increase in rail's share of the freight market to around 10% - an additional 15 billion tonne-km of rail freight, equivalent to 1 billion lorry trips in 2009/10
  • a more efficient and competitive service from rail freight, benefiting businesses across the UK.

6.23 Safety improvements will reduce the risk and severity of accidents on the railway. The industry is committed to halving the annual number of accidental equivalent fatalities per million train miles before 2010.

Chart 6c Passengers and freight moved on national railways - projected outcomes

The Strategic Road Network

6.24 The strategic road network(17) - that is, most motorways and other trunk roads - is the backbone of our transport system, providing fast, comparatively safe, long distance journeys. It comprises less than 4% of the English road network (10,500 km out of a total of 284,000 km), yet currently carries 34% of all traffic and 67% of freight (see Chart 6d). Our strategic road network is the safest in Europe; and the recent backlog of maintenance work has now been eliminated.

Chart 6d Comparison of trunk and non-trunk roads in England

Graph: Chart 6d Comparison of trunk and non-trunk roads in England

6.25 Map 3 shows the areas on the network that currently suffer the worst congestion pressures. About 7% of the network (coloured red on the map) currently suffers heavy peak and occasional non-peak congestion, and a further 13% suffers heavy congestion on at least half the days in the year. With further sustained growth in the economy, and without the measures in this Plan, demand for travel on the strategic road network is forecast to grow by 29% over the next ten years. Without new measures congestion will increase. Journeys will become slower and less reliable - for buses, coaches and lorries as well as motorists. Growth of trunk road traffic is also one of the main contributors to the forecast increase in CO2 emissions from the transport sector.

Map 3 - Congestion levels on the trunk road network (2000) (18)

Map 3 - Congestion levels on the trunk road network (2000)

Strategy and delivery

6.26 Tackling the problems we face on our trunk roads requires integrated solutions as no single solution would be effective on its own. There are physical and environmental, as well as financial, limits to the amount of extra road space we can build. Whilst providing extra capacity can provide real and immediate benefits, especially for congestion bottlenecks, it may also free-up suppressed demand and even generate new demand. Most people now accept that we cannot rely on road building as a sustainable long-term solution to the problems of traffic growth and congestion. Simply building more and bigger roads is not the answer: we need a more strategic approach.

6.27 In the longer term new land use planning and other policies will increasingly help to limit the growth in demand. In the meantime there is a range of actions we can take to tackle rising congestion. The large-scale expansion in rail passenger and freight traffic will cut road congestion by at least 3%. The additional package of measures we envisage will include:

  • better local public transport services to provide more attractive alternatives to car journeys
  • smarter road network management (see box)
  • promoting efficiency improvements in the road haulage sector
  • building bypasses to take traffic away from towns and villages and smooth traffic flows
  • localised improvements to optimise the performance of existing roads
  • improving larger junctions to reduce accidents and remove bottlenecks
  • adding capacity to the most congested corridors, largely by widening existing trunk roads
  • where appropriate, giving priority to particular types of vehicles, through measures such as lorry and coach lanes.

Smarter network management - motorways of the future

The next ten years will see increasing use of new technology by the Highways Agency to improve the real-time management of traffic on our strategic road network. New systems will provide more reliable journey times, improve safety and control traffic flows, for example by:

  • linking speed limits to traffic levels to improve the evenness of flows
  • rationing of access at junctions during busy periods
  • using lane control systems to make best use of available road space
  • faster response to incidents and quicker clearance of blocked lanes
  • giving priority to certain types of traffic on particular stretches at particular times of the day.

These will be significant steps towards the 'smart' roads of the future.

Within the next ten years, our 'electronic motorways' will include extensive new roadside monitoring and communications equipment, linked to variable message signs and ultimately to in-car computers, providing both network controllers and drivers with real-time information about traffic levels, road conditions and incidents.

In the next two years we will introduce a national Traffic Control Centre which will transmit up-to-date advice on which route to use if there are problems on the network.

A Traffic Information Highway will be established - a common pool of data for use by the public and by the increasing number of commercial companies providing services to drivers and transport operators.

6.28 The right mix of these measures will vary from corridor to corridor. That is why we set up the multi-modal and road-based studies to look individually at the most serious problem areas on the network. Detailed action plans will be approved once the reports from these studies have been considered by the regional planning bodies and the Secretary of State. Other problems not covered by the studies will be considered by the regional planning bodies, and by the Highways Agency as it develops its programme of targeted improvements on specific safety, congestion and environmental hot spots.

6.29 In all cases the options will be assessed using the New Approach To Appraisal (NATA) to ensure that decisions are based on a balanced view of the economic, environmental, safety, accessibility and integration implications. As stated in the Integrated Transport White Paper, there will be a strong presumption against schemes that would significantly affect environmentally sensitive sites, or important species, habitats or landscapes. All road schemes will include high standards of environmental mitigation to ensure that, so far as reasonably possible, noise and the impact on biodiversity, the landscape and our heritage are minimised. The Highways Agency's entire network will be managed in line with biodiversity action plans by 2005, and with landscape action plans by 2010.

Public and private partnerships

There is a successful track record of public and private partnerships for trunk roads. We expect that around 25% by value of current and new major schemes will be procured using private finance contracts, including Design, Build, Finance and Operate (DBFO) contracts. The Highways Agency is also developing new procurement approaches for maintenance so as to introduce long-term maintenance contracts on DBFO lines.

6.30 The Highways Agency assesses that its network is close to optimum condition following the provision of almost 20% additional maintenance funding over the three years up to March 2001. It estimates that it needs to carry out maintenance to 7-8% of its network - some 730 to 850 km - each year to keep the network in a safe condition on a basis that minimises costs over time. We will require the Agency to ensure that our trunk roads are maintained to this optimum standard, whilst minimising the disruption from the roadworks related to our proposed investment across the network over the next ten years.

Long-distance coaches

Coaches account for only 0.5% of total passenger kilometres a year against 4.3% for the passenger rail network. However, coach travel enjoys a similar market share to rail for journeys between 75 and 350 miles. It therefore provides an important alternative for inter-urban journeys, and also for commuter trips into major cities. Demand for coach travel (including excursions and tours, which represent 60% of the market) has remained buoyant over the last decade, with operated mileage increasing by 6% between 1997/98 and 1998/99.

The coach industry expects to maintain investment over the next decade at broadly current levels - some £100 million a year. Coach services will benefit from the increased investment in the strategic road network, including measures to tackle bottlenecks and improve network management. Measures to tackle congestion in urban areas will also help to improve the speed and reliability of services.

Coach services will be an integral part of the new national passenger transport information systems giving timetable information over the telephone on all public transport modes (see Chapter 8). We believe that the flexibility and affordability of coach travel is an increasingly important option as we work to expand traveller choice.

Some of the larger multi-modal studies are examining the role of long-distance and regional express coaches, and the scope for reallocating road space to favour public transport. These include significant links to airports, including Gatwick, Heathrow, Luton and Stansted.

Coach services are generally run commercially, without subsidy. They are customised and marketed in a range from basic, cut-price services to luxury executive standards. The Commission for Integrated Transport is considering possible changes to the scope of Bus Fuel Duty Rebate, eligibility for which is presently restricted to local bus services. They are particularly considering whether changes might help to generate additional patronage or modal shift, and expect to make recommendations later in the year.

Investment and outputs

6.31 To deliver this strategy the Plan includes £13.5 billion of public investment in the strategic road network plus £2.5 billion of private capital. Together with £5 billion of public resources expenditure(19) this gives a total of £21 billion for strategic roads over ten years.

6.32 The choice of specific schemes will depend on the outcome of the multi-modal studies and decisions taken in the context of Regional Planning Strategies. But this increased level of investment should enable us to deliver the following improvements over the next decade:

  • all 40 schemes currently in the Highways Agency's Targeted Programme of Improvements
  • 30 trunk road bypasses
  • widening some 5% of the strategic road network (360 miles/576km) and associated junction improvements
  • 80 major20 schemes tackling bottlenecks at other junctions
  • £130 million a year on smaller-scale targeted improvements, including £90 million to relieve congestion and safety hot spots
  • widespread introduction of new technology for better network management to reduce delays and improve reliability
  • new incident warning systems to prevent multiple collisions and other safety improvements at accident blackspots
  • quieter surfaces installed on over 60% of the network including all concrete stretches.

Chart 6e Strategic roads - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) (see Annex 1 for figures)(20)

Graph: Chart 6e Strategic roads - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) 
(see Annex 1 for figures)(

 

Outcomes and targets

6.33 The outcomes we expect to be achieved over the period of this Plan include:

  • reduction in congestion on inter-urban trunk roads to 5% below current levels (compared with present forecast growth of 28%) by 2010 - see Chart 6f

Chart 6f Impact of the Plan on congestion

Graph: Chart 6f Impact of the Plan on congestion

  • road condition maintained to a high standard, so that the proportion requiring maintenance in any future year is held at an optimum level (between 7% and 8%)
  • a 33% reduction in the number of people killed or seriously injured on the strategic road network and a 10% reduction in the slight casualty rate[21] by 2010
  • greater confidence for road users in planning their journeys as a result of instant access to information about conditions on the network
  • reductions in traffic noise benefiting 3 million people living within 600m of trunk roads
  • a more effective roads programme, with better evaluation of needs, and options, quicker delivery, and lower impacts on the environment.

Local Transport

6.34 Research carried out for the Commission for Integrated Transport (CfIT)[22] confirms that at the local level it is transport issues that concern most people. 45% of all journeys are under two miles; and 35% of journeys under two miles are now made by car, compared with 26% just 15 years ago. Chart 6g shows the modes used for local journeys.

Chart 6g Local journeys by mode of transport (1996/1998)

Graph: Chart 6g Local journeys by mode of transport (1996/1998)

6.35 In urban areas the biggest concerns are traffic congestion and the cost, convenience and reliability of public transport. Air pollution, safety and traffic nuisance also worry many. Traffic jams and polluted streets make towns and cities less attractive places in which to live and do business. The report of the Urban Task Force, 'Towards an Urban Renaissance,'(23) recognised the importance of good public transport and better transport connections to help create neighbourhoods that function effectively. The Government's response to the report will be published alongside our Urban White Paper later this year. This Plan will deliver the new transport investment needed to help achieve these urban goals.

6.36 People in rural areas, particularly those without use of a car, are more worried about the lack of reliable, accessible public and community transport, and the difficulties this can create in access to work, health care, shops, schools and other services. The Rural White Paper, also to be published later this year, will address concerns about equitable access to services, including transport, and the need to develop sustainable rural communities with increased opportunity for all.

6.37 Better integration between land use and transport planning at national, regional and local levels will help to promote patterns of development that can be served more effectively by public transport. New planning policies will seek to increase the transport choices available for local journeys. We are updating national planning guidance(24) to ensure that new development provides safer and easier access to jobs, shopping, leisure and services. This means locating major travel-generating development in places such as town centres, and making more efficient use of land on prime sites, to help encourage use of public transport. It means encouraging shops and services at the neighbourhood level so people can walk or cycle for their day-to-day needs. It also means requiring developers to produce transport assessments illustrating their proposals for access by public transport, cycling and walking.

6.38 Although it will take time to influence broader patterns of development, planning policies will have significant effects during the period of this Plan on the location of activities such as retail, leisure and office development, reducing the need to travel. They will give people who do not have a car easier access to the things they need - and provide car owners with a greater range of choices. These policies will also increase the cost-effectiveness of future investment in the public transport network.

Strategy and delivery

6.39 Local problems need local solutions. Our strategy in this Plan is to make a substantial increase in funding, both capital and revenue, available to local authorities, Passenger Transport Authorities and other transport providers to develop the packages of measures that best answer people's needs and reflect local conditions.

6.40 Outside London, local solutions will be identified in Local Transport Plans (see box). Guidance on the production of these plans was issued earlier this year(25). Success or failure to deliver them, and to meet the objectives set out in the Guidance and in this Plan, will be reflected in future funding decisions. We have invited local authorities that consider they have ideas from which others could learn, to bid to become centres of excellence to spread best practice in integrated transport solutions.

Local Transport Plans

Integrated Local Transport Plans (which will become statutory under the terms of the Transport Bill) have now replaced the scheme-by-scheme approach under which resources were allocated for new local transport projects. They will offer a major improvement over the previous arrangements by:

  • covering five-year periods, offering greater certainty of future funding for local authorities
  • providing a strategic transport planning framework, linked to local development plans and regeneration proposals
  • covering both capital and revenue spending
  • giving local authorities more say in the allocation of capital resources
  • taking a partnership approach, involving local communities, local business and transport providers
  • placing greater emphasis on targets, performance indicators and monitoring
  • emphasising integrated solutions, looking across all types of transport.

6.41 There are important synergies between Local Transport Plans and the air quality action plans that many authorities are required to draw up. In many cases the measures that authorities will be taking to improve air quality are transport-related, and funding is therefore available through the Local Transport Plan system.

6.42 The conditition of our roads is a matter of concern not just for motorists, but also for cyclists, pedestrians and bus passengers. Due to past underinvestment, local roads are now in their worst condition for thirty years, with a backlog of maintenance estimated at several billion pounds and their condition is still declining. This means that substantial sums are being wasted as roads are allowed to deteriorate to the point where more extensive, costly and disruptive repairs are required.

6.43 Whilst some increases have already been made in central government funding, more needs to be done. We will increase funding progressively with the objective of enabling local authorities to eliminate the local road maintenance backlog by the end of the Plan period. A total of £30 billion will be provided over the Plan period. This will allow local authorities to undertake an extensive programme of works on roads, bridges and lighting to deliver substantial improvements in the condition of local roads and to maintain them on a basis which minimises costs over time and the disruption caused.

Light rail

Light rail, trams and other rapid transit systems can play a significant part in improving the attractiveness and quality of public transport in major conurbations. They can move large flows of passengers quickly and reliably. They compete with the car in terms of journey times and convenience. And they help to reduce congestion and pollution.

There is growing evidence that light rail can be successful in attracting people out of their cars. On Manchester Metrolink, for example, around 20% of passengers previously used a car for the same journey.

There are currently only four such systems in operation outside London - in Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield and the West Midlands - far fewer than in countries such as Germany and France. We will fund a substantial increase in the role of light rail in our larger cities and conurbations over the next ten years, backing schemes that offer good value for money as part of integrated transport strategies.

This will require a public and private partnership, using the resources made available through this Plan, together with local and private sector contributions. Because of the high cost and the benefits light rail schemes bring locally, we shall expect local contributions towards the cost of these projects, including developer and operator payments and the proceeds of local congestion charging schemes.



Park and ride

Park and ride schemes are increasingly used as a way of relieving traffic pressures while maintaining accessibility to town and city centres. Around 70 schemes are already in operation. They can offer an effective way of reducing congestion and pollution in busy urban centres, especially when combined with bus priority measures on the routes to the centre and parking controls. They need to be well designed and located, safe and secure, and with good connecting services so that drivers choose to leave their cars behind for the last and most congested part of their journey.

Park and ride can be linked to light or heavy rail services, though most urban schemes are currently bus-based. Recent examples include Swindon, where the first of several planned sites opened 18 months ago and is already attracting 115,000 passengers a year. At the same time Chester opened its fourth site, of 1,200 spaces, as part of its strategy for keeping commuter and visitor traffic out of the historic core. Here the bus service uses low floor gas-powered buses to maximise accessibility and minimise pollution. York's innovative park and ride system now carries over a million passengers a year, and there are plans to increase this by a further half a million passengers, linked to new bus priority measures.

Park and ride therefore provides a flexible tool for local authorities, and we see considerable scope for new schemes in a wide range of towns and cities, including where light rail or guided bus systems are being introduced.

In addition to urban park and ride, longer-distance schemes such as 'parkways' linked to rail services are needed. Again, the same principles of good location and design, and good integration within an overall planning and transport strategy, must apply.



6.44 We expect local authorities to develop and implement strategies to eliminate the backlog by 2010, taking full advantage of efficiency gains from up-to-date maintenance planning and procurement techniques. Performance in achieving this will be monitored through best value indicators and the annual reports which authorities are required to make on the delivery of their Local Transport Plans. Future funding for LTPs will depend in part on the progress made.

6.45 For travel in towns and cities, our underlying objective is to create more attractive public transport alternatives. We want each town and city to have a high quality public transport system that is safe, integrated, efficient and affordable, that helps to reduce social exclusion and supports our wider vision of an urban renaissance.

6.46 For most towns and cities a co-ordinated package of new measures will be needed. In many cases packages of quite small schemes and projects can secure large benefits for local people. Bus priority schemes, traffic management measures such as Home Zones and traffic calming, parking strategies, and new walking and cycling routes can individually or collectively improve transport choices and make a significant difference to the quality of the local environment.

6.47 In other cases - especially our larger towns and cities - we will provide the resources to achieve a step change through large and innovative projects, such as major bus infrastructure schemes (including guided bus routes), light rail systems, and park and ride schemes.

6.48 The Transport Bill when enacted will give local authorities powers to set up congestion charging schemes and/or workplace parking levies in their areas in order to tackle congestion and other problems. Such schemes must be preceded by transport improvements and command local support before approval will be given by the Secretary of State. Revenues from these schemes must be used solely for transport purposes for at least ten years. We have established the Charging Development Partnership, bringing together central government and interested local authorities, to help tackle the many practical issues that need to be addressed in developing these innovative schemes. To assess the overall impacts of this Plan we have assumed that eight of our largest towns and cities will introduce congestion charging schemes and a further twelve will bring in workplace parking schemes over the next decade.

6.49 Buses are, and will remain, the main public transport option for most local journeys. Bus patronage has been in decline for the past half-century, though it has recently begun to stabilise (see Chart 6h). The decline has been most marked in metropolitan areas outside London, where bus patronage has fallen by 42% since 1985/86. Almost a quarter of bus users are dissatisfied with services, and a similar proportion rate their reliability as 'poor' or 'very poor'. Congestion is a major factor in making bus services slower and less reliable than they should be.

Chart 6h Bus passenger journeys in England

Graph: Chart 6h Bus passenger journeys in England

 

6.50 Our aim is to drive up service standards so that buses provide a high quality service for those who already use them, and an attractive alternative for people who currently drive for short journeys. Part of the solution lies in bus Quality Partnerships, which will be placed on a statutory basis through the Transport Bill. These aim to build on the success of existing voluntary partnerships, in which local authorities and bus operators work together to improve bus services and related facilities. These have seen substantial investment by bus operators in recent years, resulting in fleets of new buses, improved services and passenger growth of typically 10-20% on partnership routes.

'Fasttrack'

A local partnership between the public and private sector, the Kent Thames-side Association is developing 'Fasttrack' - a part-segregated, bus-based system to link existing centres with a series of brownfield development sites in the Thames Gateway, providing new jobs and housing. By integrating land use planning and transport in this way, the aim is to create a high quality, well-designed transport system to support tomorrow's new urban centres.



6.51 Statutory Quality Partnership schemes will give greater confidence for both parties to invest, and will enable quality standards to be set and enforced. They will deliver more new buses and new infrastructure, including improved interchange and waiting facilities, better passenger information services and bus priority measures. Reallocating road space to buses, allowing them to avoid the worst congestion spots, can greatly improve journey times and reliability. Guided buses - of the kind already operating in Ipswich and Leeds - involve dedicated 'track' on sections of the route and offer many of the advantages of light rail at lower capital costs.

6.52 Older people and disabled people tend to be particularly reliant on bus services. That is why we are requiring, as a statutory minimum for local authority concessionary bus fare schemes, that all pensioners and disabled people will be entitled to a free bus pass, giving at least half-fare reductions.

6.53 As a further measure to tackle social exclusion and help build sustainable communities we will introduce a new Urban Bus Challenge Fund to improve links to deprived urban areas. This will be based on the scheme already introduced for rural areas (which has supported over 100 schemes in the first two years alone).

6.54 We wish to see a significant expansion of walking and cycling schemes, including safer routes to school and stations (see box).

Cycling and walking

Poor facilities and an unsafe environment continue to inhibit growth in walking and cycling. Cycling accounted for less than 2% of all trips in 1998. This compares unfavourably with other European countries (including those with similar climates, such as Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands). In 1995 the EU average stood at 186km cycled per person, compared with 76km per annum in the UK. Indicative of the decline in walking is the increase in car use for journeys to school, which has nearly doubled in the last ten years from 16% to 29%, and which in turn makes for an even more hostile pedestrian environment.

The substantial increase in local transport funding over the period of this Plan will enable local authorities to bring forward a significant expansion of schemes to make walking and cycling easier and safer. These should include strategies aimed at specific journeys and destinations, such as creating safe routes to schools and stations. Although we do not in this Plan seek to ring-fence national provision for these purposes, we do expect to see evidence in Local Transport Plans that local authorities have developed and will implement strategies to secure substantial increases in cycling and walking.

Our target is to treble the number of cycling trips from their 2000 level by 2010. This is an ambitious, but achievable objective. Growth is expected to be triggered both by improved local provision for cycling, and from the impetus created by the National Cycle Network currently being set up, co-ordinated by SUSTRANS.

The increased provision for Local Transport Plans will also allow all local authorities to do more to improve safety, particularly for children. We have set a target of reducing by 50% the number of children killed or seriously injured in road accidents by 2010 compared with the average for 1994-98.

So we will be looking to authorities to create more traffic-calmed 20mph zones, particularly around schools and in residential areas, where most child accidents occur. We are also evaluating a number of 'Home Zones' - residential areas treated with traffic-calming and other measures, which aim to improve residents' quality of life and improve safety.

6.55 Powered two-wheelers can also offer a flexible and affordable alternative to the car for some local journeys and therefore have a part to play in an integrated transport policy. They can, for example, make more efficient use of road space in congested town centres and provide a cheaper alternative for people on low incomes living in rural areas.

6.56 For rural areas our aim is to improve access to jobs and services for those without use of a car through increased support for bus services and other forms of transport. We want to offer longer-term core funding for proven schemes, while continuing to foster innovation. In most cases, the key to delivering better transport will be support for local solutions to local needs. We shall, for example, significantly increase support for more flexible transport in rural communities. To help co-ordinate provision and establish what needs to be done, we aim to have a Rural Transport Partnership in every rural county in England by next year.

6.57 Support for scheduled rural bus services will be increased and will be extended to cover more journeys serving market towns. There will be additional funding for other types of service, including those run by the voluntary sector, community projects (such as the setting up and operation of social car and community minibus schemes) and flexible, innovative schemes (which could include taxi-based services). Constraints on the development of flexibly routed services, will be relaxed or removed. For commercial services we will relax the requirement to specify routes and timetables. For community-based services we will be reviewing the requirement to give notice before starting or withdrawing a service. Guided by the emerging proposals from CfIT, we will work up proposals for extending fuel duty rebate to a wider range of community transport services. We will ask the Motorists' Forum, set up under the auspices of CfIT, to advise on how to promote car-sharing and car clubs in rural areas.

6.58 Many rural communities are increasingly concerned about the safety and environmental implications of growing traffic levels. Where a good case can be made we will meet these concerns by building bypasses to take through-traffic out of some of the worst affected communities. All schemes will be assessed using our New Approach To Appraisal.

Investment and outputs

6.59 To deliver our objectives for local transport the Plan includes £19 billion of public investment and £9 billion private investment. Together with public resources expenditure(26) of £31 billion this gives a total of £59 billion over ten years.

Chart 6i Local transport - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) (see Annex 1 for figures)(26)

Chart 6i Local transport - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) (see 
Annex 1 for figures)

6.60 Funding for Local Transport Plans this year is £755 million (covering major schemes, road maintenance and integrated transport), an increase of 21% over 1999/2000. The additional funding delivered through this Plan will mean that capital investment delivered through LTPs will rise by a further 77% to £1.3 billion in 2001/02. The new funding in this Plan will add further sums for capital investment in the new statutory local plans.

6.61 The choice of measures will be determined through Local Transport Plans and other decision-making processes. Our assessment is that this heightened level of investment would be able to deliver - in addition to the smaller schemes that will form the bulk of activity for local authorities - the following broad range of improvements over the life of this Plan:

  • up to 25 new light rail lines in major cities and conurbations around the country. These will include the six new lines to be added to the Manchester Metrolink (three), the DLR extension to London City Airport, Newcastle to Sunderland, and Nottingham. Proposals for new lines in Leeds, the West Midlands, Bristol/South Gloucestershire, Portsmouth and South Hampshire are all currently under consideration
  • extensive bus priority schemes supporting bus Quality Partnerships, including bus infrastructure projects such as guided bus routes, in many of our cities and larger towns
  • up to 100 new park and ride schemes
  • 200 major local road improvements, including over 70 bypasses
  • a new Urban Bus Challenge Fund to improve public transport links to isolated urban estates
  • a major expansion of local traffic management schemes, safer routes for cycling and walking, and environmental improvements in towns and cities across the country
  • additional support for rural bus services through extension of Rural Bus Subsidy Grant to cover more journeys serving market towns
  • increased support for Rural Transport Partnerships and for community-based projects in rural areas, delivering up to 500 new schemes over the next three years. Fuel duty rebate to be extended to community transport services
  • a £30 billion programme to eliminate the backlog in local road and bridge maintenance, complete the bridge strengthening programme, and replace life-expired lighting.

Outcomes and targets

6.62 The outcomes we expect to be achieved over the period of this Plan include:

  • a 10% increase in bus passenger journeys by 2010
  • more reliable bus services, supported by a new customer satisfaction survey
  • better quality, less polluting, more accessible buses, with the average age of the bus fleet reduced to eight years by 2001 and speeding up introduction of low-emission vehicles
  • light rail passenger journeys at least doubled by 2010
  • congestion in larger urban areas reduced from a forecast growth of 15% by 2010 to an 8% reduction. In other urban areas congestion growth reduced from 15% to 7%
  • halting the deterioration in local road condition by 2004 and eliminating the backlog by the end of the Plan period
  • better integration and co-ordination between transport modes through local transport plans and improved interchanges
  • for disabled people improvements in the accessibility of public transport and the pedestrian environment
  • integrated information, ticketing and booking, including smartcard ticketing
  • improvements in air quality, noise pollution and the local environment, and reductions in CO2 emissions
  • improvements in local road safety, contributing to the achievement of national targets
  • better access to jobs and services, including for deprived and rural areas
  • growth of innovative and flexible transport services, including voluntary and community transport, with up to 500 new schemes over three years
  • improved access, with a one-third increase in the proportion of rural households living within around ten minutes walk of an hourly (or better) bus service
  • free bus passes entitling all pensioners and disabled people to at least half-fare discounts.

London

6.63 The scale of London and the complexity of its transport system, coupled with the high level of demand, mean that transport problems in London are of a different magnitude from those in any other metropolitan area in the country. Public transport plays a much more important role than elsewhere: people working in London account for 65% of all public transport passenger miles on journeys to work in England. Demand for rail and Underground travel in London is at record levels, causing serious overcrowding (see chart 6j), and is expected to increase further. Each weekday there are over 3 million journeys on the London Underground - more than on the entire rail network in the UK. At the same time London experiences the most intense and most widespread traffic congestion in the country. Although London has areas with high average incomes, it also contains some of the most deprived areas in the country. Road accidents in many parts of London are significantly higher than the national average, and air quality is lower.

Chart 6j Overcrowding on the London Underground today

Graph: Chart 6j Overcrowding on the London Underground 
today

6.64 Addressing the capital's transport problems is the priority concern for those who live, work and do business in London. Given London's role as the nation's administrative capital, a major centre in the global economy, and as a national and international transport hub, it is important for the UK economy as a whole that these problems are addressed quickly and effectively.

Strategy and delivery

6.65 The new arrangements we have put in place for the capital require the Mayor to develop and implement a transport strategy for London, in consultation with the Greater London Assembly, the 33 London boroughs, business and other stakeholders. He is expected to finalise his first strategy during 2001. Through Transport for London the Mayor now has direct responsibility for buses, taxis, management of the strategic road network, Docklands Light Railway, Croydon Tramlink, river services and will assume responsibility for the London Underground - once the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is in place (see box). In addition the Mayor will provide funding for the boroughs' local implementation plans.

London Underground Public-Private Partnership

Under the London Underground PPP, the private sector will be responsible for delivering a programme of around £8 billion worth of renewals and £5 billion of maintenance over 15 years.

Operation of the Underground - including the drivers and station staff - will remain in the public sector, with the focus on improving the quality of service to passengers. So too will the safety function.

The PPP contracts, which are likely to run for 30 years, are currently being negotiated. They will target the improvements that passengers want - quicker, more reliable services, and a safe, high quality travelling environment. The PPP does not cover major new projects to extend the Underground. The contractors will eliminate the backlog of maintenance and renewal work that has built up, removing the need for speed restrictions, reducing breakdowns, replacing old escalators, and providing cleaner, less congested trains and stations.

For reasons of commercial confidentiality relating to PPP negotiations, our spending figures do not include projections of London Underground's future cash flow, including provision for ongoing grant. However, these projections will be taken into account when setting the Government's Reserve.

Once the PPP is in place, responsibility for the Underground will pass from the Government to the Mayor of London. The PPP will give London an Underground that is publicly owned, publicly run and properly financed.

6.66 The Mayor's new powers and resources give him an opportunity to make a real difference to transport in the capital. The Government will work in close co-operation with the Mayor. Taking account of his transport strategy, we will provide an annual transport grant. We will set the level of grant for the year ahead after consultation with the Mayor, and at the same time give an indication of the level of funding for future years. This should allow the Mayor, the boroughs and transport providers to plan ahead with a degree of certainty.

6.67 The Greater London Authority Act 1999 provides powers to introduce congestion charging. The net revenues must be used for transport measures which support integrated transport objectives and the Mayor's transport strategy. The Mayor has indicated that he proposes, following consultation, to use these powers to introduce congestion charging in central London. The revenues could potentially be used to support investment in infrastructure projects or measures to increase the attractiveness and uptake of existing services or a mixture of the two.

6.68 The Government and the Mayor share a broad approach to improving transport in London, which includes the following main elements:

  • delivering increased public transport capacity and efficiency to cater for London's growing economy and to reduce overcrowding
  • tackling road congestion with improved public transport and congestion charging in central London to encourage motorists to transfer to other modes of transport
  • improving access to jobs, regeneration areas and key local facilities to promote social inclusion
  • reducing road accidents and improving the environment through town centre and local area improvements; and
  • providing a better door-to-door journey for all - including cyclists and pedestrians - for example through measures to improve safety, personal security, accessibility, integration and information.

6.69 We have assumed this broad approach in making financial provision for London in this 10 Year Plan. However, it is for the Mayor, after consultation on his transport strategy, to determine his priorities within the resources available to him.

6.70 The provision and funding of national rail services in London remains a matter for the Strategic Rail Authority. The SRA will work closely with the Mayor to develop solutions to overcrowding on commuter services into central London, and to improve access to other key business centres in the London area. An early priority will be the East London Line extensions project, where co-operation between the SRA and the Mayor could join together the rail networks of north and south London, providing significant regeneration as well as transport benefits.

Investment and outputs

6.71 The Plan includes £8 billion of public investment and £10 billion of private investment for transport in London. Together with public resource expenditure(27) of £7 billion this gives a total of £25 billion over ten years.

Chart 6k London - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) (see Annex 1 for figures)(28), (29)

Chart 6k London - public and private investment and public resource spend (1991/92 to 2010/11) (see Annex 1 for 
figures)

6.72 Except in the case of national rail services, and working within the PPP framework for the Underground, the specific outputs will be decided by the Mayor and through the London boroughs' transport plans. However, assuming the broad approach set out above, the following could be delivered with this level of investment:

  • 'Quality Plus' standards on all major bus corridors (i.e. the highest standards of bus quality, accessibility for passengers, enforcement, bus stop information and increased bus priority)
  • improved bus frequencies and enhanced off-peak and night bus services
  • the infrastructure for effective congestion charging in central London
  • street management and local transport initiatives, including the 'World Squares' scheme; completion of the London Cycle Network; safety schemes; and improvements to major roads
  • town centre improvements to re-route traffic, improve the pedestrian environment and improve public transport facilities
  • better maintenance of roads and bridges
  • the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) City Airport extension and at least two other tram/guided bus schemes
  • possible new East Thames crossings for road and rail and other schemes to improve access to regeneration areas, encouraging investment and jobs
  • extension of smartcard ticketing to the DLR and Croydon Tramlink, on top of existing plans for Underground and bus
  • elimination of the backlog of maintenance and renewal work on the Underground through a Public-Private Partnership, improving the quality of the service and travelling environment, and increasing reliability and capacity on the existing network
  • completion of Thameslink 2000, with additional capacity at London Bridge, and construction of East London Line extensions29
  • a new east-west rail link, such as CrossRail, delivering up to a 15% increase in total national rail and Underground seats into central London during the morning peak
  • rail franchise replacements leading to upgrade of London Victoria services, Chiltern Line capacity increase and enhancement of the commuter routes out of Waterloo.

In addition, the Plan provision would allow for preparatory work on longer-term projects, such as a possible new Wimbledon-Hackney rail link. Other proposals for improving surface access to London's airports are described in Chapter 4.

Outcomes and targets

6.73 Demand on London Underground services is forecast to grow by 10%-20% by 2010. For London commuter rail services, the figure is about 15%. On present baseline assumptions, road congestion is forecast to grow by 13%. Against this background, the level of investment set out above (together with rail investment benefiting London) could be expected to deliver over the life of this Plan:

  • a 50% increase in the number of bus passengers entering central London and across the whole network
  • a 10% reduction in average bus journey times, with larger reductions in key corridors, plus significant improvements in reliability, with long unscheduled waits largely eliminated
  • a possible 10%-15% reduction in road traffic in central London as a result of congestion charging
  • less disruption to traffic through better co-ordinated and better quality road and bridge maintenance
  • a 15% reduction in traffic congestion across London
  • new routes and faster journeys by light rail, tram or guided bus
  • a reduction in Underground overcrowding, improved reliability and improvements in customer satisfaction
  • access to jobs and other facilities through new cross-London and orbital rail routes
  • a reduction in overcrowding on London commuter rail services to meet the sSRA's current standards
  • improved interchanges, better and more widely available travel information, and easier-to-use ticketing
  • improved access to London's airports
  • regeneration, jobs and investment as a result of better access to priority development areas
  • safety and environmental improvements in local areas, safer routes to schools and better conditions for cyclists
  • a reduction in the impact of road traffic on London's environment.

(12) References and figures in this Plan relating to railways apply to Great Britain.
(13) Includes direct support for private investment. The £29 billion total also includes around £1 billion of other expenditure on, for example, residuary liabilities of the British Railways Board and contributions to railway industry pensions.
(14) Figures before 1994/95 reflect pre-privatisation structure.
(15) Excludes direct revenue support for private investment and assumes no contribution from the unallocated investment.
(16) Measured in passenger kilometres.
(17) The strategic road network means the trunk roads currently operated by the Highways Agency. It comprises nearly all motorways and the more important A roads. It is proposed to transfer to local authorities (de-trunk) some 30% of existing trunk roads considered to be of regional rather than national importance. Funding for major improvements schemes on these roads is included in local transport funding. Other resources relating to these roads have for present purposes been included with funding for the strategic road network, but will be transferred to local highway authorities when de-trunking occurs.
(18) Includes trunk roads transferred to the Greater London Authority in July 2000.
(19) Excludes direct public revenue support for private investment and assumes no contribution from the unallocated investment.
(20) 'Major' here means schemes costing above £5 million.
(21) Compared with the annual average for 1994-98.
(22) CfIT Report on Public Attitudes to Transport, July 2000.
(23) Towards an Urban Renaissance, DETR, June 1999.
(24) Planning Policy Guidance Note 13 (Transport), DETR.
(25) Guidance on Full Local Transport Plans, DETR, March 2000.
(26) Excludes direct public revenue support for private investment and assumes no contribution from the unallocated investment.
(27) Excludes direct revenue support for private investment and assumes no contribution from the unallocated investment.
(28) Public investment between 2001/02 and 2004/05 includes one-off preparatory costs for an east-west rail link (£154 million) and set-up costs for congestion charging. Revenue generated from congestion charging is not included. The peak in private investment in 2006/07 to 2008/09 reflects the assumed profile of spend on the east-west rail link.
(29) Provision for these is included in the national rail totals.

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