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Research and Development



* Propagation research
* Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
* Mathematical research in spectrum management
* Sharing studies and co-ordination information
* Ultra Wide Band (UWB)
* Convergence and emerging technology
* Spectrum Efficiency Scheme (SES)
* Economic studies
* Future Spectrum Requirements
* Other
* Archive (reports completed before April 1998)

Disclaimer: Any opinions and suggestions expressed in any reports are those of the contractor concerned and may not reflect the opinion or policy of the Radiocommunications Agency.



Propagation research is concerned with the development of methods, which predict radiowave propagation. This is essential in the understanding of current and pdf logoin the development of future radio services. A significant amount of the Agency's propagation research has been carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL).

The following studies were undertaken outside RAL:

* Man Made Noise Measurement Programme Final Report pdf logo (5.1 MB) Zip logo Zipped PDF file (4.1 MB)

* The Provision of an Initial Study of Multiple In Multiple Out Technology S. Salous pdf logo (387KB)

* Rainfall Intensity Data for Use in Prediction of Attenuation on Terrestrial Fixed Links pdf logo (166KB)

* Relevance of the ionosphere to RF systems and the Radiocommunication Agency’s missions pdf logo (835KB)

* Theoretical appraisal of the highest usable frequencies pdf logo ( 1.10 MB)

* Development of A Numerical-Integration Rain Scatter Method for Recommendation ITU-R P.452 pdf logo ( 823KB)

* Removal of discontinuities in the clear-air model of Recommendation ITU-R P.452

* Propagation through Vegetation (Presentation, 2nd July 2002) pdf logo (1.42 MB) Zip logo Zipped PDF file (718 KB)

* A Generic Model of 1-60 GHz Radio Propagation through Vegetation (Final Report, May 2002) pdf logo (3.67 MB)

* Attenuation of Microwaves in Sleet (Final reports from University of Essex, August 2000) pdf logo (522 KB)

Feasibility study into a long term data capture programme (Final reports from DERA, March 2001)

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Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

EMC research is concerned with the susceptibility of non-radio devices to radio waves, and vice versa.

* Man Made Noise Measurement Programme Final Report pdf logo (5.1 MB) Zip logo Zipped PDF file (4.1 MB)

* Research to Scope Any EMC Implications of Software Radio Technology

* EMC Awareness

* PLT Measurements at Crieff pdf logo (2418KB)

* Study into how CISPR14 Part 1 - (Emissions from household appliances,electric tools and similar apparatus) may be improved to make it more relevant and accessible. pdf logo (359KB)

* Project AY 3920 - Development of Practical Methods and Equipment to Facilitate Detection and Measurement of Radiation From, and Wideband Radio Frequency Currents in, Unstructured Distribution Networks (March 2003) pdf logo (619KB)

* Limits and Methods of Measurement for Emissions at Frequencies above 1 Ghz (January 2003) Zip logo(Zipped PDF file - 6MB)

* Investigation of Electromagnetic Emissions from Alternative Powertrain Road Vehicles (May 2002) pdf logo (6.65 MB)

* Potential Electromagnetic Interference to Radio Services from Railways (May 2002) pdf logo (582KB)

* Specification of the scope of work needed to determine the technical and operational impact of emissions from Unstructured Telecommunications Transmission Networks interfering with Aeronautical and Maritime radio services in the UK (York EMC Services, April 2002) pdf logo (1.04 MB)

* Development of improved test methods for assessing the EMC emissions from luminaires and ancillary devices (York EMC Services, 26 March 2002) pdf logo (2.1 MB)

* An Impulsive Noise Source Position Locator: Final Report (University of Bath, February 2002) pdf logo (3.5 MB)

* Limits and Method of Measurement for Emissions at Frequencies above 1 GHz. (ERA Technology Ltd, April 2002)
Zip logo Download zipped Word File (10.2 MB)

* Further work into the potential effect of the use of Dithered Clock Oscillators on Wideband Digital Radio Services (York EMC Services Ltd, March 2002)

* Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Compatibility - Final Report (Aegis Systems Ltd, January 2002)

* Development of Novel Methodologies For Measuring Digital Hardware for Immunity to Electromagnetic Fields Contract AY3995 For The Radiocommunications Agency (York EMC Services Ltd, September 2001)

* Investigation of impedance and mode conversion of telecommunications cables for xDSL systems Final Report (York EMC Services Ltd, June 2001)

* Continuation of investigations into the possible effect of DSL related systems on Radio Services (ERA Technology Ltd, May 2001)

* An Investigation Into The Feasibility Of Designing Frequency Selective Windows Employing Periodic Structures (Nottingham Trent University, May 2001)

* Radiocommunications Agency -Feasibility Study into the Measurement of Man-Made Noise (DERA, March 2001)

        * Optically transparent RF attenuating structures (RTCG, November 2000)

* A Study to asses the possible effects on radio based services of electromagnetic emissions from the proposed increase of electrically powered public and private transport (Transport Research Laboratory, October 2000)

* Practical limits for EMC emission testing at frequencies above 1 GHz (York EMC Services, 2000)

* Cumulative effect of radiated emissions from metallic data distribution systems on radio based services (York EMC Services, June 2000)

* EMC susceptibility of low power radio services (York EMC Services, May 2000)

* Design and development of a methodology for efficiently tracing the source of intermittent wideband EMC disturbances to radio reception (University of Surrey, May 2000)

* Investigation into possible effects resulting from dithered clock oscillators on EMC measurements and interference to radio transmissions systems (University of Hertfordshire, March 2000)

* An investigation into the potential impact of ultra-wideband transmission systems (MAC, February 2000)

* Electromagnetic compatibility aspects of radio-based mobile telecommunication systems (DTI Link report, 1999)

* Study to predict the electromagnetic interference for a typical house in 2010 (Anita Woogara, Bristol University, & Smith Group)

* Development of a portable measuring system (University of Hertfordshire, June 1999)

* Preliminary investigation into a methodology for assessing the direct RF susceptibility of digital hardware (York EMC Services, May 1999) PDF Logo PDF file (565 Kb)

* Development of an ISM Harmonic RF Attenuation Model for Combating Interference Generated by 13 MHz and 27 MHz Industrial RF Processing Machines (ERA Technology,1999)

* Practical implementation of radiated emission reduction and frequency stabilisation of ISM equipment operating in the 27 MHz Band (ERA Technology)

* Study to investigate PLT radiation (Smith Group, November 1998)

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Mathematical Research in Spectrum Management

The Agency's mathematical programme is concerned with constructing mathematical models that can be used in spectrum management. The goal of the mathematical programme is to find an objective measure of spectrum efficiency which will enable the calculation of better assignments. In addition to the theoretical work, considerable effort is being focussed on computational techniques.

* Frequency assignment heuristics for area coverage problems (Cardiff University, September 2000)

* The mathematics of radio spectrum management (St. Catherine’s College, Oxford, May 1999)

* Research into the mathematics of radio channel assignment (University of Oxford, October 2000)

* Higher-order constraint techniques for the frequency assignment problem (Cardiff University, January 2002)

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Sharing studies and co-ordination information

Traditionally, propagation research has concentrated on intra-service interference. Inter-service interference is a common phenomenon, particularly at the boundaries of designates frequency bands.

* Report on UK/US Maritime Radar Trials (QinetiQ, November 2002)PDF Logo (6.8 MB)

* The Report of an Investigation into the Characteristics, Operation and Protection Requirements of Civil Aeronautical and Civil Maritime Radar Systems (Alenia Marconi Systems Limited, October 2002) PDF Logo (6.5 MB)

* Investigation of the Compatibility Between the Terrestrial (WCDMA) Component and the Satellite Component of IMT-2000 in the 2 500 - 2 690 MHz band Phase II (Transfinite Systems, January 2003) Zip logo Zipped Word file (1,458KB)

* Study of 2.6 GHz BSS (Sound) Satellite PFD Threshold Values to Protect IMT-2000 (Transfinite Systems, 2002)PDF Logo(516KB)

* Further Work on the re-examination of the protection requirements for the Radio Astronomy Service in light of the Broadband Fixed Wireless Access Multimedia Wireless Systems proposed for the 42.5 - 43.5 GHz frequency band (Transfinite Systems, 2002)

* Design and test of high performance choke tunnels for industrial microwave ovens ( York EMC Services Ltd, April 2002)

* Investigation to determine optimisation routes for new choke tunnel design for 900MHz ISM machines ( York EMC Services Ltd, April 2002)

* Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Compatibility - Final Report (Aegis Systems Ltd, January 2002)

* Re- examination of the protection requirements for the Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) in light of the Broadband Fixed Wireless Access (BFWA) Multimedia Wireless Systems proposed for the 42.5 - 43.5 GHz frequency band (Transfinite Systems 2000)

* BFWA co-existence at 28 and 42 GHz (Aegis) PDF Logo PDF File (343Kb)

* Co-ordination between broadband fixed wireless access systems in the 28 and 42GHz frequency bands – Extended study (Aegis, 2000)

* An investigation into the potential impact of ultra-wideband transmission systems (MAC, February 2000)

* FS – FSS sharing in the 37.5-42.5 GHz band (Aegis, May 1999)

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Ultra Wide Band (UWB)

* Man portable UWB monitor and locator feasibility study pdf logo PDF File (1.45 MB) New

* Impact of UWB on Third-Generation Telecommunications (3G) (Final Report by Mason Communications Ltd) March 2003 Zip icon Zipped Word File (2.8 MB)

* Study into the Effects of UWB Technology on Third Generation Telecommunications (3G) (Final Report by Mason Communications Ltd) October 2003

Zip icon Zipped Word File (8.2 MB)
pdf logo PDF File (4.5 MB)
Zip icon Zipped PDF File (3.4 MB)

* Ultra Wide Band Colloquium - Tuesday 23 July 2002


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Convergence and emerging technology

Research on convergence and emerging technology is related to the Convergence Green Paper and to scenario studies on the Future of Communication in 2010.

* Software-Defined Radio - Regulator's Forum (September 2003)

* The benefits of Adaptive Antennas on Mobile Handsets for 3G systems pdf logo (February 2003)

* CDMA / CAD & CT2 compatibility (Version 1.2) (RTCG, November 1998)


See also: Convergence topic page

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Spectrum Efficiency Scheme (SES)

Spectrum Efficiency Scheme 2004/05 - Call for expressions of interest

Ofcom has secured funding from HM Treasury in 2004/05 for research to improve the efficiency of radio spectrum management and use.

The Spectrum Efficiency Scheme (SES) will include research in support of Ofcom's duty to ensure the optimal use of the electro-magnetic spectrum and further Ofcom's aim to remain at the forefront of technological understanding. It also supports the recommendations made in the Review of Radio Spectrum Management (Professor Martin Cave, March 2002), and aims to foster the early sharing of information between members of the radio community.

We are now seeking expressions of interest under the SES. The closing date for these is 22 January 2004, with research work expected to begin by 1 April 2004 and to end by March 2005.

For details please vist the Ofcom website at http://www.ofcom.org.uk/about_ofcom/contract_tenders/ses/index.htm

Spectrum Efficiency Scheme 2003/04

Aims of Scheme

This Treasury funded research programme seeks technical innovation in the efficient use of the radio spectrum in the UK. In order to do this, it aims to encourage collaborative studies and the sharing of information between members of the radio community at the earliest possible stage in their exploration of new radio technologies and market opportunities.

The research is directed at novel technology that is pre-competitive, collaborative and speculative. By encouraging the cross-fertilisation of ideas between academia and commercial partners, it is forging new links in the radio industry and new opportunities for the use of the radio spectrum in the UK.

Overview of Current Status

Brief Descriptions of Projects

Culham Electromagnetics and Lightning, Arup Communications, University of Warwick, National Physical Laboratory
Description: Demonstration of a practical implementation of Isolated Spectrum Selective Islands (ISSI), including design of passive FSS panels, solving practical deployment issues, benefit analysis and using novel FSS structures. The materials used for internal walls within buildings will be assessed for their RF characteristics in the course of this work.

Consortium: BAE Systems Limited
Project will make active (electrically switched) FSS panels which can be used to electrically switch WLAN propagation on or off between one room and another. These will be used in an office demonstration of switched ISSI in which two adjoining rooms are either radio isolated or joined at the flick of a switch.

Consortium: Cotares Ltd, Cambridge Broadband Ltd, Cambridge University
Full-scale demonstration of a FWA using 3.5GHz band with WLAN local distribution. Area will cover urban, suburban and rural areas and examine spectrum efficiency, coexistence and boundary issues. Trial system users will be recruited and their experience monitored as the demonstration system is stressed with a variety of data flows. The work will also examine the accuracy of ray tracing models in planning such FWA networks.

Consortium: Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Telecoms Connect, Your Communications
Evaluation of a FWA using 28GHz band with WLAN local distribution to businesses and home users. It will cover both urban and rural and examine technical issues and usage patterns as well as relative cost of providing service at this frequency. A full-scale demonstration of the technology will be implemented and used as a test bed to gather data and to evaluate novel ideas.

Consortium: ERA Technology Ltd, Building Research Establishment, QinetiQ, National Physical Laboratory, University of Kent
Application of FSS to selectively control propagation into, out and through buildings. Evaluation of the practicalities of FSS panels to clad the outside of buildings including building regulatory, cost, aesthetics and maintenance issues. The work will use novel manufacturing technology to formulate FSS panels for use in the demonstrators. These will show the ability of FSS to increase signal in difficult areas e.g. stairwells and corridors.

Consortium: National Physical Laboratory, University of Warwick
Novel design of ultra-narrow band FSS panels with bandwidths that are significantly narrower than those achievable with current state-of-the-art structures. In addition, the demonstration on a scaled model of a method of using waveguiding structures to control the propagation of radio around buildings. This will consider both the technical and financial cost of using such technology.

Consortium: Antenova Ltd, Orange Ltd, Queen Mary, University of London
Design of novel MIMO antennas for PDAs, mobiles, and laptops. Aim is to get signal independent, diverse, antennas in a small overall package and at low cost. The project will investigate the use of high dielectric materials and photonic band gap structures in order to get compact antenna designs for use in these applications.

Consortium: York EMC Services Ltd, University of Bristol, University of York, BT Exact Technologies, Toshiba Research Europe Limited
System demonstration of a MIMO test bed. This will use monopole antennas and the antenna designs produced by AY4476A. Measurements of MIMO channel and system capacity in the 5GHz band in mainly indoor environments in order to ascertain the increase in spectrum efficiency that MIMO could deliver.

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Manchester, Cardiff University, Discrete Time Communications, Satconsult Ltd
Investigating methods that would allow the spectrum used for WLAN to be utilised more efficiently. Also covers use of WLAN for FWA and the development of automatic planning tools at these frequencies. Intelligent routing algorithms will be evaluated as a means of reducing network congestion in a multiple hop, wide area, scenario.

QinetiQ, University College London, University of Bath, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Investigating ideas for improving the spectrum efficiency of radar systems including using narrow band radar, frequency agile systems and CDMA waveform coding. Setting up a user panel from industry to examine proposed high-efficiency radar schemes with key stakeholders. Overall, the aim is to formulate a workable strategy for improving radar spectrum usage in the UK.

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Economic studies

There are currently no reports available.

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Future Spectrum Requirements

Future spectrum requirements for IMT 2000 systems (Methodologies to Estimate Spectrum Requirements - final report by Quotient Associates Ltd, October 2003) pdf logo PDF File (1.2 MB)

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* AY4434 - 2.4 GHz Monitoring Exercise pdf logo PDF File (6,094 KB)

* The Impact of GPS Signal Loss on UK Civil Infrastructure (QinetiQ, October 2001) pdf logo PDF File (497KB)

Note: The views expressed in this report are those of QinetiQ and should not be regarded as those of the Radiocommunications Agency.

* Spectrum Management Strategies for Licence Exempt Spectrum: Final Report (Mason Report, December 2001)
Download pdf logo PDF File (675KB)
Download PowerPoint Logo PowerPoint Presentation (3,943KB) * Download Zip icon zipped PowerPoint Presentation (3,449KB)

* Examination of issues related to spectrum efficiency of point-to-multipoint and mesh multimedia wireless system architectures proposed for 40.5-43.5 GHz (December 2001)
Download the Word Document (342KB) MS Word logo
Download the PDF document (141KB) pdf logo

* Suppression and mitigation techniques for interference from 900MHz microwave ovens (York EMC Services, January 2001)
* Low power radio devices – A guide for the purchaser and systems designer (York EMC Services, June 2000)
* Communications via domestic mains wiring investigation (March 1999)
* Investigation into the implementation of digital techniques for radiomicrophones (April 1998)


Most reports , which were completed befeore April 1998, can be found in the Archive.

For further questions and comments, please contact research@ra.gsi.gov.uk

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