Research data can be the subject of Freedom of Information requests, as recent high profile cases have shown. As a researcher, how should you respond if faced with such a request? This document sets out to answer that question and some others you may have. Details of particular circumstances can make a major difference, so conclusions reached in an individual case may well differ from those suggested here.

Freedom of Information and research data: Questions and answers

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Research data can be the subject of Freedom of Information requests, as recent high profile cases have shown. As a researcher, how should you respond if faced with such a request? This document sets out to answer that question and some others you may have. Details of particular circumstances can make a major difference, so conclusions reached in an individual case may well differ from those suggested here. This document does not constitute, and should not be construed as, legal advice.

Introduction

Freedom of Information (FoI) and Environmental Information (EIR) legislation provides the public with a right to access information held by a UK public authority, which includes most universities, colleges, or publicly-funded research institutions. The information requested could include your research data, and must be provided unless an exemption or exception allows your institution not to disclose it. The request could be addressed to anyone in the organisation, and there are only 20 working days to respond. 

We assume that you are a researcher who works for, or with, or in a university or research institution, and you are concerned about requests for your research data under either Freedom of Information legislation, or Environmental Information Regulations, all of which came into force in 2005. These both differ slightly in Scotland versus the rest of the UK (the EIR differences are not significant for this document). Where significant, the differences are addressed in the relevant answers.

This publication is primarily designed to be accessible, and so may over-simplify complex issues. We assume there are one or more 'FoI Practitioners' in your institution who can deal with this complexity. We use this generic term as a wide range of different titles is used in practice. Most institutions will have a Freedom of Information link on their homepage that should lead you to the right person. FoI Practitioners will be crucial in responding to most requests.

You should always involve a FoI Practitioner unless you are simply supplying information in response to a request as part of 'business as usual'. Of course, we assume in the latter case that you will have taken due note of any constraints imposed by your ethical clearance, Data Protection etc before agreeing to release any data.

Remember, this FAQ is not advice; it is simply guidance aiming to help you have a better-informed discussion with your requester or FoI practitioner, or to consider steps you might take in advance. 

Questions
1 How do I recognise a FoI or EIR request? 12 But my research isn't finished. Do I still have to supply the information?
2 What's the short answer on what I should do if asked for data? 13 What's this Public Interest Test?
3 Why should I make my data available? 14 Are my data environmental information?
4 How long have I got to respond to a request? 15 What are the most likely exceptions to EIR for research data?
5 I don't want to provide my data. What must I do first? 16 What can the person who gets my data do with them?
6 What are the most likely FoI exemptions for research data? 17 How common are FoI/EIR requests for research data?
7 If there's an exemption/exception can I ignore the request? 18 Is the cost of providing the information an issue?
8 Some of the information may identify living individuals. Must I disclose it? 19 Can't I just delete data I don't want to disclose?
8a What does 'redacted' or 'redaction' mean?  20 What form should I provide my data in?
8b Disclosing some information could put people at risk of harm. Must I disclose it? 21 How would a data management plan be helpful?
9 The data are covered by confidentiality agreements, must I provide them? 21a What does 'holding the data' mean?
9a Some non-confidential data came from elsewhere, must I provide them? 21b Why is the country where my Institution is based important? 
10 Research is our business! Can I use the 'commercial' exemption? 21c What are the main differences between EIR and FoI?
11 But the requester is a competitor. Do I still have to comply? Further information and disclaimer

1 How do I recognise a FoI or EIR request? 

FoI request simply has to be in writing, give the name of the requester and an address for correspondence, and specify the information requested. However, 'writing' is interpreted liberally, and definitely includes email. A FoI request does not have to mention Freedom of Information. EIR requests can be made verbally, and also don’t have to mention the regulations.

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2 What's the short answer on what I should do if asked for data? 

Most requests for information you will receive are part of routine 'business as usual', and need not be treated as FoI or EIR requests (even if, formally speaking, some of them are). Researchers share or trade data all the time, so if you normally agree to share data, you should continue to do so, paying due care and attention to normal research considerations e.g. ethics, privacy and confidentiality. However, in circumstances where you don’t want to supply the data, or you think there are legal or ethical reasons why you shouldn’t supply it, or the request is specifically identified as a FoI or EIR request, then you should consult your FoI Practitioner as soon as possible. Explain the request, and the reasons why you don’t want to supply the information, and they should take it from there. However, they will still need your help.

The longer answer will depend on other questions, such as whether the request is for environmental information, whether your institution is in Scotland or the rest of the UK, and various detailed questions which will determine whether particular exemptions (confusingly called exceptions in EIR) are 'engaged', ie are applicable as grounds for refusing a request.

But in all cases where you are in any doubt, or wish not to supply the information, you should contact your FoI Practitioner as soon as possible.

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3 Why should I make my data available? 

The Freedom of Information Acts and Environmental Information Regulations (EIRs) are designed to ensure accountability and good governance in ‘public authorities’. Most UK universities are defined as ‘public authorities’, and thus have a legal obligation to disclose information unless the law specifically provides a reason why they need not. In other words, unless there is an overriding reason for not providing information to the public, you must provide it.  The reasons the law will consider as acceptable are contained in the FoI Acts as ‘exemptions’ and the EIRs as ‘exceptions’.  If in doubt whether your data might be ‘exempted’/excepted’, consult your FoI Practitioner, who should be familiar with all the details.

Some supporters of Open Science would make all their data publicly available as (or very soon after) they are created (e.g. see the Panton Principles for Open Data in Science). Paradoxically, having a policy to publish your data (say at the end of each research project) may help with exemptions to providing it prematurely.

Research suggests a citation advantage for researchers who make their data open (see Piwowar, Day and Fridsma, 2007). Research funders and journal editors are beginning to set policies in favour of making data available. Usually this applies to data from completed research, or supporting findings in publications. This is part of the ideal that science (and indeed all research) should be verifiable by others.

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4 How long have I got to respond to a request? 

The legislation requires your institution to supply the information, or a refusal notice, within 20 working days from receipt of the request.  It’s good practice to acknowledge a request on receipt. If you are in any doubt about how to respond, consult your FoI Practitioner immediately. If possible, get them to take over correspondence.

Where the request is not clear enough to identify what is being requested, you may have to ask the requester for clarification, and the ‘20-day clock’ will then stop until the requester provides this. An extension may also be possible to consider the public interest test (Q13).

It is highly advisable to keep a written record of all communications between you or your FoI Practitioner and the requester to be able to substantiate your position should a dispute arise further along the line.

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5 I don't want to provide my data. What must I do first? 

Ideally, you will have considered the FOI/EIR implications for your research data as part of your initial research data management plan (Q21), and identified whether you wish to, or are required to, withhold some or all of your research data from public access. 

Where your research data are required to be published in a data repository on completion of the project, e.g. with the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS) or an institutional data repository, this future publication might exempt you from making the data available before that point (see Q12).

As we’ve mentioned before, on receiving a request, you should contact your FoI Practitioner without delay and discuss the particular circumstances with them. In most cases, your institution has to confirm or deny whether it holds the information, and supply it or a refusal notice, within the 20-day time limit. There may need to be negotiation on the form of provision of the information.

There are three main grounds for not providing information to requesters:

  1. it would cost too much (see Q18)
  2. the request is repeated or 'vexatious'; or
  3. the request may be subject to a defined FoI ‘exemption’ (or EIR ‘exception’)

Some exemptions, such as those relating to personal information, are absolute, and in these cases there is no right to information under FoI; others are qualified and subject to a public interest test (see Q13). Whatever the grounds for not providing data, we strongly recommend that your FoI Practitioner take over correspondence with the requester. Where the exemptions/exceptions, and if appropriate, the public interest test supports withholding, a refusal notice must be issued.

The requester can challenge this via an internal review at your institution. If that also supports non-disclosure, the requester can apply to the relevant Information Commissioner to review the decision, and even appeal to an information tribunal.

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6 What are the most likely FoI exemptions for research data? 

While there are exemptions to the requirement to disclose information, there is generally a presumption in favour of release. Except for absolute exemptions, this means that institutions must justify decisions not to disclose by applying a public interest test (Q13).  Exemptions to disclosure include information accessible by other means, information containing personal data (Q8), information subject to a duty of confidentiality (Q9) and information the release of which would prejudice legitimate commercial interests (Q10). In addition, and of interest to research, exemptions can cover information that is to be published in the future (Q12). In Scotland there is an important additional exemption for information being gathered in a programme of research that will itself lead to publication. Of these, the otherwise accessible, personal data and confidentiality exemptions are absolute.

The exemption for information accessible to the applicant by other means can apply even if the 'other means' would involve paying a charge. However, it is relatively unlikely to apply to your research data, unless you or a research partner are already making it publicly available.

However, the exemptions are complex and subject to interpretation as a result of decisions by the Information Commissioners. Always discuss a request with your FoI Practitioner.

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7 If there's an exemption/exception can I ignore the request? 

You should never ignore a FoI or EIR request. Unless you are going to supply the information requested as normal 'business as usual', and within 20 working days, you should always consult your FoI Practitioner.

  1. FoI/EIR requests should always be acknowledged to the requester, so that both parties are clear that it has been received
  2. There is likely to be an obligation to confirm or deny whether your institution holds the data (although in some circumstances there are exemptions to this, too)
  3. Although there may be an exemption or exception that seems to apply, a public interest test may still be required. This might mean that disclosure is still required, in the public interest
  4. If your institution is planning to refuse to supply the information, a refusal notice must be provided, with reasons, within the 20-day limit
  5. After receiving a refusal notice, a requester has the right to ask for an internal review of the decision. If the internal review goes against them, they may ask the relevant Information Commissioner for a ruling, and if that goes against them they may appeal further

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8 Some of the information may identify living individuals. Must I disclose it? 

The relationship between the Data Protection Act and FOI/EIR is complex. The FoI Acts make personal data, where the requester is the subject, exempt information (there is a similar exception under EIR). The requester should apply under the UK-wide Data Protection Act (for which different rules, timescales and fees apply).

If the requester is not the subject of the personal data, the exemptions become more complicated. Always discuss such cases with your FoI Practitioner and/or Data Protection Officer. In most cases where an exemption applies, it will be an absolute exemption, so no public interest test is needed.

The exceptions under EIR are differently worded but similar in effect, although a public interest test may be needed in this case.

Please remember that some kinds of anonymised, summary, tabular or statistical information that does not directly identify individuals may, when combined with other information, disclose the identity of those individuals. Specialist guidance is available, e.g. from the UK Data Achive

Where there is personal information in a document, but that information is not the information requested, it might be possible to remove the personal information and fulfil the request (this process is known as redaction).  Again, under such circumstances you should always consult your FoI Practitioner.

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8a What does 'redacted' or 'redaction' mean? 

This term refers to the practice of removing some information from a document while leaving other information intact. It is typically used to remove exempt information such as personal information. Sometimes this data can be incidental to the request, and such redactions are unlikely to be controversial. However, sometimes information is redacted that does form part of the information requested, because an exemption/exception is believed to apply to it.

Because redactions must be done carefully, always consult your FoI Practitioner if you are supplying a document, dataset or file with some information redacted.

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8b Disclosing some information could put people at risk of harm. Must I disclose it? 

There are Health and Safety exemptions/exceptions that can apply under these circumstances. It is essential to consult your FoI Practitioner if you suspect that anyone could be put at risk of harm if information is disclosed.

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9 The data are covered by confidentiality agreements, must I provide them? 

If the information comes from elsewhere and is covered by a confidentiality agreement, an exemption may apply. However, simply stating that information is confidential is not enough – there must be a real likelihood that disclosure would open the public authority to legal action for breach of confidence.  Equally, marking documents 'Confidential' or 'Commercial in Confidence' is not sufficient evidence that their contents are in fact confidential. Consult your FoI Practitioner.

You may also have to consult the data supplier to determine if they would be willing for the information to be disclosed. The exact terms of the contract, licence agreement or consent form may be critical here; always keep copies of such agreements, and treat them as records.

A high profile case relating to climate and tree ring data (environmental information) was considered by the Information Commissioner’s Office, and in the end the data had to be provided (note that the relevant Decision  (PDF) shows that particular circumstances contributed to the outcome). While raw research data may attract a duty of confidence at law, you will have to clearly demonstrate that there is a third party to whom this duty is owed.  Your institution cannot owe a duty of confidence to itself.

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9a Some non-confidential data came from elsewhere, must I provide them? 

If the information came from elsewhere in circumstances where there were no written conditions of confidentiality, or the provider has no reasonable expectation of confidentiality, and is not otherwise available, then you may have to provide it. Consult your FoI Practitioner.

Several exemptions may come into play here. There is an exemption relating to information that is reasonably available to the requester (even for a charge), so if the supplier of your information makes it available, it is exempt as far as you are concerned.
It may be worth noting that many research collaborations involving multiple institutions will result in the exchange of research data under informal arrangements, so the research data could be at risk of disclosure. A formal collaboration or consortium agreement covering confidentiality of exchanged data could be helpful. This may be particularly important in cross-border collaborations, where different FoI laws may apply in some parts of the project.

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10 Research is our business! Can I use the 'commercial' exemption? 

Universities have made use of the 'commercial' exemption, but we don’t know of anyone who has successfully used it as an exemption for research data. However, if you can show a real possibility that disclosure would seriously harm your research and follow-on research projects, or the possibility of commercial exploitation by the university or spin-out companies, then use of this exemption is possible. 

It is likely however, that a successful use of the exemption would need to be carefully argued. Your FoI Practitioner may need to take advice.

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11 But the requester is a competitor. Do I still have to comply?  

In principle, the FoI Acts and EIR are 'applicant blind and motive blind'. The location, nature and/or motives of the requester are irrelevant.

The requester could be anyone: a competitor, a member of the public, someone hostile to your research, a research funder, a member of your Ethics Committee, or anyone else anywhere in the world.

If your work is being disrupted by repeated FoI or EIR requests, you may be able to aggregate them (for cost purposes), or make use of provisions related to 'vexatious' requests. You should definitely consult your FoI Practitioner.

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12 But my research isn't finished. Do I still have to supply the information? 

The fact that your research is not complete is not enough on its own to prevent disclosure, although under EIR there is an exception for information that is incomplete.

There is a FoI exemption from the duty to provide information that is intended for future publication. The intention must have existed before the request was received. However, under Scottish FoI the planned publication must be within 12 weeks of the request date; this period is not defined in the rest of the UK. This exemption may be of limited use as there must be a plan to publish the information requested, not simply an article based on the information.

However, if you have a policy to publish all research data once research is completed, then this exemption might be available. So a plan to publish later will protect your data from premature disclosure.

There is an extremely important research exemption under Scottish FoI (but not in the rest of the UK) for information obtained in the course of an ongoing programme of research (where a report of that research will be published, whether or not it includes the information requested). However for the exemption to apply, early disclosure must substantially prejudice the research programme, participants or the institution.

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13 What's this Public Interest Test? 

A few exemptions are 'absolute', and so always apply (see Q6). But many exemptions and all EIR exceptions are subject to a public interest test. In short, this says that the particular exemption or exception only applies where the public interest in withholding the information is greater than the public interest in disclosing. This will be a matter of judgement; in the first instance the judgement of your institution will apply, but there may well be a call for review or appeal. The Information Commissioners tend to view exemptions narrowly and the public interest broadly, so care must be taken in applying the public interest test.

Since large amounts of public funds are spent on research, there is arguably a public interest in the research being successful, which may require some information to be kept confidential until a publication is ready. In the highly competitive environment under which research operates, this could be a factor in a public interest test. Similarly you might argue that incomplete or un-validated information could be seriously misleading or damaging. But other factors relating to the specific case could also apply, and decisions could go either way.

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14 Are my data environmental information? 

Environmental Information is broadly defined. Pretty much everything relating to the environment counts as environmental information, including information relating to environmental research, or plans, policies, advice etc, as well as the environment directly. Ask your FoI Practitioner if you are in any doubt.

Both sets of regulations (UK and Scotland) quote definitions from the relevant European Directive:

  • (a) the state of the elements of the environment, such as air and atmosphere, water, soil, land, landscape and natural sites including wetlands, coastal and marine areas, biological diversity and its components, including genetically modified organisms, and the interaction among these elements
  • (b) factors, such as substances, energy, noise, radiation or waste, including radioactive waste, emissions, discharges and other releases into the environment, affecting or likely to affect the elements of the environment referred to in (a)
  • (c) measures (including administrative measures), such as policies, legislation, plans, programmes, environmental agreements, and activities affecting or likely to affect the elements and factors referred to in (a) and (b) as well as measures or activities designed to protect those elements
  • (d) reports on the implementation of environmental legislation
  • (e) cost-benefit and other economic analyses and assumptions used within the framework of the measures and activities referred to in (c); and
  • (f) the state of human health and safety, including the contamination of the food chain, where relevant, conditions of human life, cultural sites and built structures inasmuch as they are or may be affected by the state of the elements of the environment referred to in (a) or, through those elements, by any of the matters referred to in (b) and (c)

If the information fits the definitions, then the Environmental Information Regulations apply.

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15 What are the most likely exceptions to the Environmental Information Regulations for research data? 

The exceptions to EIR are fewer than for FoI, and none are absolute (so all are subject to the public interest test) as environmental information is seen as extremely important to citizens. Once again there are exceptions for personal data and for confidential information. There are also exceptions for information that is incomplete, and an exception concerning disclosure of internal communications. It is not clear how these might apply, and it is very important to consult your FoI Practitioner, and for them to proceed carefully.

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16 What can the person who gets my data do with them? 

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) cannot prevent the disclosure of information under FoI, but the rights still apply. So if, for example, you or your university own copyright in the information, the person to whom it is disclosed will require your permission to perform acts controlled by copyright, such as publication. Any restrictions on re-use should be made clear when data are released.  IPRs may be raised as an exception under EIR Regulation 12 if you can prove they would be adversely affected by disclosure, and the public interest in maintaining the exception outweighs the public interest in disclosure.  However, there can be difficulties in establishing:

  1. The extent of copyright if the information is data (copyright may not be applicable to all factual data, although other IPRs such as the Database Right may apply)
  2. The ownership of any IPRs, particularly where research collaborations are involved (and doubly so if the collaborations are international, as data can have different copyright status in different jurisdictions)

It is important to make ownership rights to any information including research data explicit as part of a Data Management Plan (see Q21) or Collaboration Agreement prior to the research starting. This is particularly important for collaborations, whether national or international.

As well as the law, 'community norms' still apply. In research within an academic context, these norms mean that any publication based in part on the use of data from others should acknowledge and properly cite those data.

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17 How common are FoI/EIR requests for research data? 

To date (2010) FoI or EIR requests for research data have been rare, although the high profile case at Queen’s University, Belfast has received a lot of publicity. So, at present, you are extremely unlikely to receive a request for research data. However, special interest groups and journalists are getting more familiar with using FoI requests, so this likelihood may increase, particularly in controversial areas or research affecting public policy.

Currently FoI/EIR requests for research data are running at significantly less than 1% of all FoI/EIR requests to research universities. The number of requests does appear to be increasing by around 50% per year, however.

Since neither special interest groups nor journalists are necessarily renowned for their impartiality (especially when dealing with controversial topics), if information does have to be released it may be worth ensuring it is comprehensive enough to reduce the chance of misinterpretations. This might imply releasing additional information (background, explanations, interpretations, caveats etc) that will make it harder to selectively misinterpret the requested information.

Using legal measures to force premature disclosure of information goes against the community norms of science and research, so it is comparatively less likely that you will receive requests from competitors.

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18 Is the cost of providing the information an issue? 

Both FoI Acts have an exemption where the cost of supplying information is above an 'appropriate limit'. There is guidance relating to the calculation of such costs, although it differs in Scotland  from the rest of the UK (PDF). The threshold may change, but was originally set at £450 for public authorities other than Central Government bodies (£600 in Scotland). Direct 'disbursements' like copying and postage can be charged.

Even if it would be too expensive to provide the data as requested, your institution has an obligation to help the requester re-frame the request in a way that could be satisfied.

There is no 'appropriate limit' to the cost of complying with requests for environmental information. However, EIR Regulation 8 provides for the recovery of “reasonable” costs.  There is an exception in EIR Regulation 12 which applies where the request for information is ‘manifestly unreasonable’, which could potentially be applied to unreasonable costs.

In some cases, different requests can be aggregated for cost calculations.

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19 Can't I just delete data I don't want to disclose? 

You can delete your research data unless a request has been made for it under FoI/EIR. Once a request has been made it becomes a criminal offence to delete or destroy the information. Most of the sanctions under this legislation apply to your institution, but if you delete requested information or order deletion, you could be personally liable. Don’t do it, and make sure it is not deleted accidentally after the request. 

A policy on managing research records (which may be required by your funder anyway) can be helpful in demonstrating that any data deletions were the result of a pre-determined schedule, and not to avoid FoI requests. 

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20 What form should I provide my data in? 

If the requester asks for the information in a particular form, and you can reasonably easily supply it in that form, then your duty to be helpful to the requester suggests you should supply it as requested.

You should remember however that some digital data formats could contain information that is not visible but can still be extracted, so you must take care not to supply information inadvertently that you should not provide. For this reason (and others), some FoI officers make a habit of supplying information in PDF format, even though this makes it harder for the requester to make use of the information.

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21 How would a data management plan be helpful? 

Research funders increasingly require data management plans  (PDF) to be created at the grant application stage. Maintained throughout the research lifecycle, a 'living' data management plan should help you think carefully about issues such as ethics, confidentiality, anonymisation, security, openness and sharing, data structures, records management and retention periods. The decisions you take in planning your data management may have a significant effect on how easy it would be to answer a FoI or EIR request, and could have an impact on whether a request can legitimately be refused. For larger, or long term, research projects it may be advisable to have protocols in place specifying how requests will be handled, to ensure all personnel involved with the project have a clear reference point with regard to FoI/EIR requests. For advice, consult your local research support office, records management office and/or FoI Practitioner.

Data management plans are doubly important in collaborations, particularly international ones (including within the UK).

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21a What does 'holding the data' mean? 

Your institution holds the information if that information exists within the institution’s computing or paper filing systems. Theoretically, the information could be in a hand-written note on a memo about something else in that tall pile at the back of your desk! It could also be on the work laptop computer sitting in your “office” at home, or even on your personal computer if it contains information that relates to work.

Where another party retains information on behalf of your institution, it may still count as being held by your institution. An example of this would be where a sub-contractor or a wholly owned company has the information on your behalf. An example in research could be information in an external service such as Survey Monkey, emails in Hotmail, GMail etc, or information temporarily at a partner institution.  As this information belongs to your institution it will be subject to the provisions of the Act.
This is the point at which you can expect comments about good records management practice (and there’s almost certainly institutional guidance that is worth a read). But you are a researcher so you already know you need to be well-organised as far as your information and data are concerned, don’t you? (See Q21 about data management plans)

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21b Why is the country where my institution is based important? 

The legislation (both FoI and EIR) applicable differs in Scotland from the rest of the UK (England, Wales and Northern Ireland). The differences could be significant in relation to exemptions or exceptions that might apply to research data. Further, the Scottish Information Commissioner (SIC) may have reached different conclusions from the (UK) Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO). Other countries will have different FoI laws, and these could apply in international collaborations.
If your research collaboration includes partners in Scotland and in the rest of the UK, and you share data, you should have considered this when forming your collaboration and writing any agreements. Consult your FoI Practitioner, and possibly your collaborators’ FoI Practitioners.

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21c What are the main differences between EIR and FoI? 

This is much too broad to answer in full, but there are several key differences. First, the definition of 'public authority' is slightly broader, although this may not affect the audience for this FAQ. Second, an EIR request does not have to be in writing (although it would seem sensible for the requester to make the request in writing). Third, exceptions (which is the term used in EIR rather than exemptions) are different, and there is a higher expectation that information will be made available. Time limits are different in terms of extensions, and so are the fee regimes.

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Further information

 

Your first call should be to local information sources, including your FoI Practitioner. JISC has funded JISC Legal and JISC InfoNET to provide information on FoI, so their web pages may prove helpful.

  • JISC Legal provides a section on Freedom of Information, including an Essentials document and other publications
  • JISC InfoNet also provides some information on FoI, mainly from a Records Management perspective. They also have a useful guide to managing research records

JISC is also running a programme on managing research data that may point to further useful information .

You may also find useful information through the Information Commissioner’s Office, which has a useful FAQ for organisations. guidance on exemptions is provided by the Ministry of Justice. The Scottish Information Commissioner has a good set of briefings and guidance. These include a briefing on the future publication and research exemptions under the Scottish Act, and the incomplete information exception under EIR.

Disclaimer

JISC makes no warranties, representations or undertakings about any of the content of these Q&A web pages (including, without limitation, any as to the quality, accuracy, completeness or fitness for any particular purpose of such content); or any content of any other web site referred to or accessed by hypertext link through the Q&A web pages ('3rd party site').

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1. Piwowar, H., Day, R. S., & Fridsma, D. B. (2007). Sharing detailed research data is associated with increased citation rate. PLoS ONE, 2(3), e308. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000308 Back to question 3

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Summary
Author
Andrew Charlesworth and Chris Rusbridge
Publication Date
17 December 2010
Publication Type
Programmes
Topic
Strategic Themes