This programme is non-statutory and schools are not required to follow it. It is included so that schools can plan a whole curriculum.

During key stage 2 pupils learn about themselves as growing and changing individuals with their own experiences and ideas, and as members of their communities. They become more mature, independent and self-confident. They learn about the wider world and the interdependence of communities within it. They develop their sense of social justice and moral responsibility and begin to understand that their own choices and behaviour can affect local, national or global issues and political and social institutions. They learn how to take part more fully in school and community activities. As they begin to develop into young adults, they face the changes of puberty and transfer to secondary school with support and encouragement from their school. They learn how to make more confident and informed choices about their health and environment; to take more responsibility, individually and as a group, for their own learning; and to resist bullying.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1. Pupils should be taught:
a. to talk and write about their opinions, and explain their views, on issues that affect themselves and society
b. to recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements, seeing their mistakes, making amends and setting personal goals
c. to face new challenges positively by collecting information, looking for help, making responsible choices, and taking action
d. to recognise, as they approach puberty, how people's emotions change at that time and how to deal with their feelings towards themselves, their family and others in a positive way
e. about the range of jobs carried out by people they know, and to understand how they can develop skills to make their own contribution in the future
f. to look after their money and realise that future wants and needs may be met through saving.

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

2. Pupils should be taught:
a. to research, discuss and debate topical issues, problems and events
b. why and how rules and laws are made and enforced, why different rules are needed in different situations and how to take part in making and changing rules
c. to realise the consequences of anti-social and aggressive behaviours, such as bullying and racism, on individuals and communities
d. that there are different kinds of responsibilities, rights and duties at home, at school and in the community, and that these can sometimes conflict with each other
e. to reflect on spiritual, moral, social, and cultural issues, using imagination to understand other people's experiences
f. to resolve differences by looking at alternatives, making decisions and explaining choices
g. what democracy is, and about the basic institutions that support it locally and nationally
h. to recognise the role of voluntary, community and pressure groups
i. to appreciate the range of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom
j. that resources can be allocated in different ways and that these economic choices affect individuals, communities and the sustainability of the environment
k. to explore how the media present information.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

3. Pupils should be taught:
a. what makes a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of exercise and healthy eating, what affects mental health, and how to make informed choices
b. that bacteria and viruses can affect health and that following simple, safe routines can reduce their spread
c. about how the body changes as they approach puberty
d. which commonly available substances and drugs are legal and illegal, their effects and risks
e. to recognise the different risks in different situations and then decide how to behave responsibly, including sensible road use, and judging what kind of physical contact is acceptable or unacceptable
f. that pressure to behave in an unacceptable or risky way can come from a variety of sources, including people they know, and how to ask for help and use basic techniques for resisting pressure to do wrong
g. school rules about health and safety, basic emergency aid procedures and where to get help.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

4. Pupils should be taught:
a. that their actions affect themselves and others, to care about other people's feelings and to try to see things from their points of view
b. to think about the lives of people living in other places and times, and people with different values and customs
c. to be aware of different types of relationship, including marriage and those between friends and families, and to develop the skills to be effective in relationships
d. to realise the nature and consequences of racism, teasing, bullying and aggressive behaviours, and how to respond to them and ask for help
e. to recognise and challenge stereotypes
f. that differences and similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including cultural, ethnic, racial and religious diversity, gender and disability
g. where individuals, families and groups can get help and support.

Breadth of opportunities

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:
a. take responsibility [for example, for planning and looking after the school environment; for the needs of others, such as by acting as a peer supporter, as a befriender, or as a playground mediator for younger pupils; for looking after animals properly; for identifying safe, healthy and sustainable means of travel when planning their journey to school]
b. feel positive about themselves [for example, by producing personal diaries, profiles and portfolios of achievements; by having opportunities to show what they can do and how much responsibility they can take]
c. participate [for example, in the school's decision-making process, relating it to democratic structures and processes such as councils, parliaments, government and voting]
d. make real choices and decisions [for example, about issues affecting their health and well-being such as smoking; on the use of scarce resources; how to spend money, including pocket money and contributions to charities]
e. meet and talk with people [for example, people who contribute to society through environmental pressure groups or international aid organisations; people who work in the school and the neighbourhood, such as religious leaders, community police officers]
f. develop relationships through work and play [for example, taking part in activities with groups that have particular needs, such as children with special needs and the elderly; communicating with children in other countries by satellite, email or letters]
g. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in life [for example, encouraging respect and understanding between different races and dealing with harassment]
h. find information and advice [for example, through helplines; by understanding about welfare systems in society]
i. prepare for change [for example, transferring to secondary school].

Explanatory notes and cross-curriculum references

Note for 1d - Cross reference to science

Sc2 Life processes and living things: Humans and other animals
2. Pupils should be taught:
Growth and reproduction
f. about the main stages of the human life cycle

Note for 2a - Cross reference to English

En1 Speaking and listening: Group discussion and interaction
3. To talk effectively as members of a group, pupils should be taught to:
a. make contributions relevant to the topic and take turns in discussion
b. vary contributions to suit the activity and purpose, including exploratory and tentative comments where ideas are being collected together, and reasoned, evaluative comments as discussion moves to conclusions or actions
c. qualify or justify what they think after listening to others' questions or accounts
d. deal politely with opposing points of view and enable discussion to move on
e. take up and sustain different roles, adapting them to suit the situation, including chair, scribe and spokesperson
f. use different ways to help the group move forward, including summarising the main points, reviewing what has been said, clarifying, drawing others in, reaching agreement, considering alternatives and anticipating consequences

En2 Reading: Reading for information
3. Pupils should be taught to:
a. scan texts to find information
b. skim for gist and overall impression
c. obtain specific information through detailed reading
d. draw on different features of texts, including print, sound and image, to obtain meaning
e. use organisational features and systems to find texts and information
f. distinguish between fact and opinion [for example, by looking at the purpose of the text, the reliability of information]
g. consider an argument critically

Note for 2i - Cross reference to history

Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past
2. Pupils should be taught:
b. about the social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity of the societies studied, in Britain and the wider world

Note for 2j - Cross reference to geography

Knowledge and understanding of environmental change and sustainable development
5. Pupils should be taught to:
a. recognise how people can improve the environment [for example, by reclaiming derelict land] or damage it [for example, by polluting a river], and how decisions about places and environments affect the future quality of people's lives
b. recognise how and why people may seek to manage environments sustainably, and to identify opportunities for their own involvement [for example, taking part in a local conservation project]

Note for 2j - Cross reference to science

Sc2 Life processes and living things: Living things in their environment
5. Pupils should be taught:

a. about ways in which living things and the environment need protection

Note for 2k - ICT opportunity

Pupils could use the internet to look at different reports about the same issue.

Note for 3 - Cross reference to science

Sc2 Life processes and living things: Humans and other animals
2. Pupils should be taught:

a. about the functions and care of teeth
b. about the need for food for activity and growth, and about the importance of an adequate and varied diet for health

c. that the heart acts as a pump to circulate the blood through vessels around the body, including through the lungs
d. about the effect of exercise and rest on pulse rate

e. that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles to support and protect their bodies and to help them to move

Growth and reproduction
f. about the main stages of the human life cycle

g. about the effects on the human body of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, and how these relate to their personal health
h. about the importance of exercise for good health

Note for 3a - Cross reference to physical education

Knowledge and understanding of fitness and health
4. Pupils should be taught:
a. how exercise affects the body in the short term
b. to warm up and prepare appropriately for different activities
c. why physical activity is good for their health and well-being
d. why wearing appropriate clothing and being hygienic is good for their health and safety

Note for 3b - Cross reference to science

Sc2 Life processes and living things: Living things in their environment
5. Pupils should be taught:

f. that micro-organisms are living organisms that are often too small to be seen, and that they may be beneficial [for example, in the breakdown of waste, in making bread] or harmful [for example, in causing disease, in causing food to go mouldy]

Note for 3g - Cross reference to design and technology

Working with tools, equipment, materials and components to make quality products
2. Pupils should be taught to:
f. follow safe procedures for food safety and hygiene

Note for 4b - Cross reference to geography

Knowledge and understanding of places
3. Pupils should be taught:
a. to identify and describe what places are like [for example, in terms of weather, jobs]

Note for 4b - Cross reference to history

Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past
2. Pupils should be taught:
a. about characteristic features of the periods and societies studied, including the ideas, beliefs, attitudes and experiences of men, women and children in the past