This programme is non-statutory and schools are not required to follow it. It is included so that schools can plan a whole curriculum.

During key stage 1 pupils learn about themselves as developing individuals and as members of their communities, building on their own experiences and on the early learning goals for personal, social and emotional development. They learn the basic rules and skills for keeping themselves healthy and safe and for behaving well. They have opportunities to show they can take some responsibility for themselves and their environment. They begin to learn about their own and other people's feelings and become aware of the views, needs and rights of other children and older people. As members of a class and school community, they learn social skills such as how to share, take turns, play, help others, resolve simple arguments and resist bullying. They begin to take an active part in the life of their school and its neighbourhood.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1. Pupils should be taught:
a. to recognise what they like and dislike, what is fair and unfair, and what is right and wrong
b. to share their opinions on things that matter to them and explain their views
c. to recognise, name and deal with their feelings in a positive way
d. to think about themselves, learn from their experiences and recognise what they are good at
e. how to set simple goals.

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

2. Pupils should be taught:
a. to take part in discussions with one other person and the whole class
b. to take part in a simple debate about topical issues
c. to recognise choices they can make, and recognise the difference between right and wrong
d. to agree and follow rules for their group and classroom, and understand how rules help them
e. to realise that people and other living things have needs, and that they have responsibilities to meet them
f. that they belong to various groups and communities, such as family and school
g. what improves and harms their local, natural and built environments and about some of the ways people look after them
h. to contribute to the life of the class and school
i. to realise that money comes from different sources and can be used for different purposes.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

3. Pupils should be taught:
a. how to make simple choices that improve their health and wellbeing
b. to maintain personal hygiene
c. how some diseases spread and can be controlled
d. about the process of growing from young to old and how people's needs change
e. the names of the main parts of the body
f. that all household products, including medicines, can be harmful if not used properly
g. rules for, and ways of, keeping safe, including basic road safety, and about people who can help them to stay safe.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

4. Pupils should be taught:
a. to recognise how their behaviour affects other people
b. to listen to other people, and play and work cooperatively
c. to identify and respect the differences and similarities between people
d. that family and friends should care for each other
e. that there are different types of teasing and bullying, that bullying is wrong, and how to get help to deal with bullying.

Breadth of opportunities

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:
a. take and share responsibility [for example, for their own behaviour; by helping to make classroom rules and following them; by looking after pets well]
b. feel positive about themselves [for example, by having their achievements recognised and by being given positive feedback about themselves]
c. take part in discussions [for example, talking about topics of school, local, national, European, Commonwealth and global concern, such as 'where our food and raw materials for industry come from']
d. make real choices [for example, between healthy options in school meals, what to watch on television, what games to play, how to spend and save money sensibly]
e. meet and talk with people [for example, with outside visitors such as religious leaders, police officers, the school nurse]
f. develop relationships through work and play [for example, by sharing equipment with other pupils or their friends in a group task]
g. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in everyday life [for example, aggressive behaviour, questions of fairness, right and wrong, simple political issues, use of money, simple environmental issues]
h. ask for help [for example, from family and friends, midday supervisors, older pupils, the police].

Explanatory notes and cross-curriculum references

Note for 2a, 2b - Cross reference to English

En1 Speaking and listening: Group discussion and interaction
3. To join in as members of a group, pupils should be taught to:
a. take turns in speaking
b. relate their contributions to what has gone on before
c. take different views into account
d. extend their ideas in the light of discussion
e. give reasons for opinions and actions

Note for 2g - Cross reference to geography

Geographical enquiry and skills
1. In undertaking geographical enquiry, pupils should be taught to:
c. express their own views about people, places and environments [for example, about litter in the school]

Knowledge and understanding of environmental change and sustainable development
5. Pupils should be taught to:
a. recognise changes in the environment [for example, traffic pollution in a street]
b. recognise how the environment may be improved and sustained [for example, by restricting the number of cars]

Note for 2g - Cross reference to science

Sc2 Life processes and living things: Living things in their environment
5. Pupils should be taught to:
c. care for the environment

Note for 3a - Cross reference to physical education

Knowledge and understanding of fitness and health
4. Pupils should be taught:
a. how important it is to be active
b. to recognise and describe how their bodies feel during different activities

Note for 3d-3f - Cross reference to science

Sc2 Life processes and living things: Humans and other animals
2. Pupils should be taught:
a. to recognise and compare the main external parts of the bodies of humans and other animals
b. that humans and other animals need food and water to stay alive
c. that taking exercise and eating the right types and amounts of food help humans to keep healthy
d. about the role of drugs as medicines
e. how to treat animals with care and sensitivity
f. that humans and other animals can produce offspring and that these offspring grow into adults
g. about the senses that enable humans and other animals to be aware of the world around them

Note for 3g - Cross reference to design and technology

Working with tools, equipment, materials and components to make quality products
2. Pupils should be taught to:
f. follow safe procedures for food safety and hygiene