Teaching should ensure that 'listening, and applying knowledge and understanding', are developed through the interrelated skills of 'performing', 'composing' and 'appraising'.

During Key Stage 2 pupils sing songs and play instruments with increasing confidence, skill, expression and awareness of their own contribution to a group or class performance. They improvise, and develop their own musical compositions, in response to a variety of different stimuli with increasing personal involvement, independence and creativity. They explore their thoughts and feelings through responding physically, intellectually and emotionally to a variety of music from different times and cultures.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Controlling sounds through singing and playing - performing skills

1. Pupils should be taught how to:
a. sing songs, in unison and two parts, with clear diction, control of pitch, a sense of phrase and musical expression
b. play tuned and untuned instruments with control and rhythmic accuracy
c. practise, rehearse and present performances with an awareness of the audience.

Creating and developing musical ideas - composing skills

2. Pupils should be taught how to:
a. improvise, developing rhythmic and melodic material when performing
b. explore, choose, combine and organise musical ideas within musical structures.

Responding and reviewing - appraising skills

3. Pupils should be taught how to:
a. analyse and compare sounds
b. explore and explain their own ideas and feelings about music using movement, dance, expressive language and musical vocabulary
c. improve their own and others' work in relation to its intended effect.

Listening, and applying knowledge and understanding

4. Pupils should be taught:
a. to listen with attention to detail and to internalise and recall sounds with increasing aural memory
b. how the combined musical elements of pitch, duration, dynamics, tempo, timbre, texture and silence can be organised within musical structures [for example, ostinato] and used to communicate different moods and effects
c. how music is produced in different ways [for example, through the use of different resources, including ICT] and described through relevant established and invented notations
d. how time and place can influence the way music is created, performed and heard [for example, the effect of occasion and venue].

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through:
a. a range of musical activities that integrate performing, composing and appraising
b. responding to a range of musical and non-musical starting points
c. working on their own, in groups of different sizes and as a class
d. using ICT to capture, change and combine sounds
e. a range of live and recorded music from different times and cultures [for example, from the British Isles, from classical, folk and popular genres, by well-known composers and performers].

Explanatory notes and cross-curriculum references

Note for 1a - Cross reference to English

En1 Speaking and listening: Speaking
1. To speak with confidence in a range of contexts, adapting their speech for a range of purposes and audiences, pupils should be taught to:
e. speak audibly and clearly, using spoken standard English in formal contexts

Note for 1c - Cross reference to English

En1 Speaking and listening: Speaking
1. To speak with confidence in a range of contexts, adapting their speech for a range of purposes and audiences, pupils should be taught to:
b. gain and maintain the interest and response of different audiences [for example, by exaggeration, humour, varying pace and using persuasive language to achieve particular effects]

Note for 3b - Cross reference to English

En1 Speaking and listening: Speaking
1. To speak with confidence in a range of contexts, adapting their speech for a range of purposes and audiences, pupils should be taught to:
a. use vocabulary and syntax that enables them to communicate more complex meanings

Note for 3b - Cross reference to PE (Dance activities)

6. Pupils should be taught to:
b. respond to a range of stimuli and accompaniment

Note for 4

Listening is integral to the development of all aspects of pupils' knowledge and understanding of music.

Note for 4a - Cross reference to English

En1 Speaking and listening: Listening
2. To listen, understand and respond appropriately to others, pupils should be taught to:
c. recall and re-present important features of an argument, talk, reading, radio or television programme, film

Note for 4b

'pitch' - higher/lower
'duration' - longer/shorter, steady pulse, beat, rhythm
'dynamics' - louder/quieter/silence
'tempo' - faster/slower
'timbre' - different types of sound
'texture' - different ways sounds are combined
'structure' - different ways sounds are organised

Note for 4b, 4c - Cross reference to science

Sc4 Physical processes: Light and sound
3. Pupils should be taught:
Vibration and sound
e. that sounds are made when objects [for example, strings on musical instruments] vibrate but that vibrations are not always directly visible
f. how to change the pitch and loudness of sounds produced by some vibrating objects [for example, a drum skin, a plucked string]
g. that vibrations from sound sources require a medium [for example, metal, wood, glass, air] through which to travel to the ear

Note for 5b - Cross reference to English

En2 Reading: Literature
8. The range should include:
a. a range of modern fiction by significant children's authors
b. long-established children's fiction
c. a range of good-quality modern poetry
d. classic poetry
e. texts, drawn from a variety of cultures and traditions
f. myths, legends and traditional stories
g. playscripts

Note for 5b - Cross reference to PE (Dance activities)

6. Pupils should be taught to:
a. create and perform dances using a range of movement patterns, including those from different times, places and cultures
b. respond to a range of stimuli and accompaniment

Note for 5d - Cross reference to ICT

Finding things out
1. Pupils should be taught:
b. how to prepare information for development using ICT, including selecting suitable sources, finding information, classifying it and checking it for accuracy [for example, finding information from books or newspapers, creating a class database, classifying by characteristics and purposes, checking the spelling of names is consistent]