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Department for Work and Pensions

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Households Below Average Income (HBAI)

The National Statistics First Release contains a digest of key results taken from the publication HBAI 1994/5-2010/11 published 14 June 2012

Dataset release

The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) has completed its review of the access arrangements it requires for the sensitive versions of the Family Resources Survey (FRS), Households Below Average Income (HBAI) and Pensioners' Incomes (PI) data previously released under the Special Licence. DWP has concluded that a higher level of security is required for them to continue making these data available.

Potential users of these data will only be able to access them via the UK Data Service’s safe room at the UK Data Archive. Details of the application process are available at Secure Data Service - Special conditions for DWP datasets.

This decision reflects DWP-specific requirements, which are based in part on legislation affecting DWP alone; this is why other organisations are able to release data of similar sensitivity by Special Licence while DWP cannot.

DWP regrets the inconvenience this will place on the user community but without arrangements that meet this higher standard DWP could not give access to data of this sensitivity. However, these additional security requirements have enabled the inclusion of a number of additional variables which were previously not included and will increase the value and scope of the research which these data can support.

We wish to reassure users that DWP and the UK Data Service are working closely to improve access and are discussing options for transferring the data into the UK Data Service’s secure remote access system as soon as is practicable within the legal framework to which DWP data is subject.

Earlier Special Licence versions of these data will be available through the same secure access mechanisms.

Revision to 2008/09 and 2009/10 results

This note outlines the revision to results for 2008/09 and 2009/10 PDF to improve the methodology for direct taxes in Northern Ireland and to adjust for new tenure information from the Department for Communities and Local Government.

Households Below Average Income Publication (HBAI) Usage Survey 2009-10: Results

The Households Below Average Income team undertook a publication usage survey to capture data about the users of our publication with the aim of ensuring that the report continues to meet their needs. The survey closed on Friday 29 July 2011 and a summary of the responses has been published.

Download the HBAI Usage Survey Results PDF

Households Below Average Income Publication (HBAI) - Severe Child Poverty Indicator Technical Note

The following technical note outlines a new severe child poverty indicator to be introduced in HBAI 1994/95-2009/10. Technical note  PDF

Households Below Average Income Publication (HBAI) - Pensioner Material Deprivation Technical Note

The following technical note outlines a new material deprivation indicator for pensioners to be introduced in HBAI 1994/95-2009/10. Technical note  PDF

Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series

HBAI 1994/95-2010/11

This is the twenty-third edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2010/11, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/95-2009/10

This is the twenty-second edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2009/10, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2008/09

This is the twenty-first edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2008/09, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2007/08

This is the twentieth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2007/08, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2006/07

This is the nineteenth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2006/07, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2005/06

This is the eighteenth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2005/06, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2004/05

This is the seventeenth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2004/05, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2003/04

This is the sixteenth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2003/04, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2002/03

This is the fifteenth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2002/03, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2001/02

This is the fourteenth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series. This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2001/02, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.

HBAI 1994/5-2000/01

This is the thirteenth edition of the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series.This report presents information on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2000/01, changes in income patterns over time and also income mobility in the 1990s.

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Low-Income Dynamics

This statistical paper is based upon results from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) for the period 1991 to 2008. It analyses the movements around the income distribution by individuals between 1991 and 2008 and examines the extent to which individuals persistently experience low income, on both Before Housing Costs (BHC) and After Housing Costs (AHC) bases. The report also contains tables showing the likelihood for individuals, of making a transition either into or out of low income, and identifies events and characteristics which are associated with the transitions.

Low-Income Dynamics: Future publication planning and data source technical note

The source data for the annual National Statistics report Low-Income Dynamics has changed from the British Household Panel Survey to the new Understanding Society Survey. This technical note outlines the future publications planning and details of the data source change, it also seeks to capture user's views on the content of future reports:

Low-Income Dynamics: Future publication planning and data source technical note  PDF

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Historical series

The following technical note published in spring 2009 outlines the review of the persistent low-income series carried out by DWP statisticians

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Summaries of HBAI consultations

Exception report to the National Statistics protocol on release practices

These reports for the years 2004, 2005 and 2008 detail the events for which there was an operational need for early access to Households Below Average Income statistics. They are published here in accordance with DWP's compliance statement on the National Statistics Code of Practice.

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National Statistics Quality Review

This review, which was published on the 27 February 2004, covered two annual publications, namely the Households Below Average Income and Pensioners' incomes series. It includes recommendations aimed to improve provision and quality of information provided to users.

Robustness assessment report

This report is intended to identify known or suspected imperfections in micro-data on incomes, which may affect the validity of income distribution results or require particular care in their interpretation; and to report estimates of the impact of these imperfections on results.

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Time series consultation document

The use of data from the “Family Resources Survey” as the source for HBAI and the Pensioners' income series instead of data from the “Family Expenditure Survey” raises questions about the most appropriate methodology to use in presenting time series which straddle the period of change. In December 1999 a consultation paper was issued to external analysts seeking views on various methodologies, this paper summarises the comments received and details the resulting actions that will be undertaken in future analysis of time series.

Comparisons of income data between the Family Expenditure Survey and the Family Resources Survey (GSS Methodological Series 18)

After the publication of the 1979 to 1992/93 volume of the “Households Below Average Income” (HBAI), a methodological review “Households Below Average Income: Methodological Review Report of a Working Group, DSS, May 1996” was undertaken. The review recommended a transition from the “Family Expenditure Survey” (FES) to the “Family Resources Survey” (FRS) as the survey base for the HBAI statistics. The reasons for the reported difference between the two surveys in relation to HBAI statistics are investigated in detail in this report, which also provides background information that has influenced the decisions on handling of the transition in HBAI.

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