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A38 Bodmin to Exeter - Report on the Final Route Management Strategy

7 Route Problems and Performance

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 The problems and performance issues raised both during the consultation process and identified by the data collection exercise have been identified below. The problems are either associated with specific locations within the individual sections along the route, or are broader route issues.

7.2 London to South West and South Wales Multi Modal Study

7.2.1 Issues that were identified in London to South West and South Wales Multi Modal Study associated with the A38 between Bodmin and Exeter have been summarised in Appendix IV. Where appropriate, London to South West and South Wales Multi Modal Study issues have been incorporated into the Route Outcomes. The London to South West and South Wales Multi Modal Study provides the overriding strategy for the longer-term improvements to the A38 between Bodmin and Exeter. Therefore this Route Management Strategy complements the London to South West and South Wales Multi Modal Study by focusing on making better use of the existing highway infrastructure.

7.3 General Route Issues

Incident Management

7.3.1 Concerns were raised by several District Councils and County Councils regarding the diversion routes used when there is a road traffic accident on the A38. Several consultees expressed a view that current diversion routes are inadequate for the level of diverted traffic flows.

Trunk Road User Facilities

7.3.2 The following issues have been raised in respect of the trunk road user facilities provided along the A38 between Exeter and Bodmin:

  • Lack of comprehensive facilities that include restaurant, petrol, picnic areas in a single location.
  • Lack of facilities for HGVs in service areas.
  • Lack of toilets in service areas.
  • Poor / inconsistent signing of existing service area facilities.
  • Poor access / egress layout A38 Link and Junction Capacity

7.3.3 The consultation process and the collection of data for this study has highlighted concerns regarding congestion on specific areas of the A38 between Bodmin and Exeter. Issues regarding capacity have been raised in respect of the following areas on the route:

  • Congestion in Dobwalls, especially during the holiday periods.
  • Congestion due to slow moving vehicles through the single carriageway sections between Bodmin and Liskeard.
  • Congestion due to substandard horizontal and vertical alignment from Trerulefoot to Saltash.
  • Congestion from Saltash Tunnel to the west of Plymouth to the east of Plymouth through the Deep Lane junction and towards Ivybridge.
  • Problems with exit queuing back onto the main carriageway at numerous junction through Plymouth and problems for vehicles accessing the A38 during peak periods.
  • Congestion due to large vehicles negotiating Dean Prior and Haldon hills between Plymouth and Exeter.
  • Capacity problems at Drumbridges roundabout during peak periods.
  • AM peak hour congestion where the A380 eastbound joins the A38.
  • General capacity and operational problems at the A38/A380 split at Kennford.

7.3.4 In addition to these existing congestion issues, consultation with the various Planning Authorities has identified numerous locations where development proposal could create or exacerbate a congestion problem. The major development proposals that could affect the operation of the A38 are highlighted in Section 6 of this report and have been summarised below:

  • Approximately 750 houses and 12.5ha of employment land in Bodmin.
  • 1135 houses, 11.5 ha industrial and 2.4ha retail proposals in Liskeard.
  • 795 houses and 5ha of employment proposals in Callington.
  • 40ha of employment development to the north of Plymouth at Derriford and the Plymouth International Business Park.
  • 1000 houses and 8ha of employment land at Plymstock Quarry.
  • Proposals for a new community at Sherford.
  • 43ha of employment proposals at Langage.
  • 280 houses, 5.7ha of employment and a rail / road freight interchange in the Heathfield area.
  • 985 houses in the Bovey Tracey area (including committed dwellings).
  • 661 dwellings (including committed dwellings) and 2.4ha of employment proposals at Chudleigh.
  • 615 houses and 12.4has of employment development adjacent to M5 junction 30.
  • 2900 houses, 33ha of employment development and the expansion of Exeter Airport adjacent to M5 junction 29.

Junction Numbering / Naming

7.3.5 During the initial consultation period for the A38 Route Management Strategy numerous consultees suggested that drivers visiting the area get confused because in many locations the signed junction names are not associated with a local destination and therefore do not appear on a road map. Example of named junctions that are not referenced on maps include:

  • Island Shop, Liskeard.
  • Marsh Mills, Plymouth.
  • Deep Lane, Plympton.
  • Woodpecker, South Brent.
  • Marley Head, A385 to Paignton.
  • Peartree, Ashburton.
  • Linhay, Ashburton.
  • Drumbridges, Bovey Tracey and Heathfield.
  • Wobbly Wheel, A379 to Dawlish.

7.3.6 The current approach also complicates the locating of accidents and breakdowns for the emergency services and roadside assistance companies. This in turn could exacerbate the situation in the case of an accident or cause significant congestion due a breakdown and the lack of hardshoulder on the A38. It is understood that within the catchment area of the Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital (Wonford) the REACT initiative was implemented. This involved placing a location sticker (containing the grid reference) on the back of marker posts so that callers could quote their location accurately. Although the initiative was publicised at the time (fronted by the Formula One driver Nigel Mansell) it does not seem to be widely used.

Lay-bys

7.3.7 An initial assessment of the Lay-bys along the A38 between Bodmin and Exeter has indicated that the majority of the facilities do not conform to current design standards in terms of both location and layout.

Tourist Signs and Tourism Boards in Lay-bys

7.3.8 Several consultees from the initial consultation process suggested that the Highways Agency's policy on the signing of tourist destinations was unclear. It was highlighted that while some small-scale destinations were signed other larger attractions were not. The consultation process also identified two specific proposals that the Route Management Strategy and the Highways Agency should consider further, namely:

  • The signing of routes to the Dartmoor National Park via the A30 and A38 in advance of Junction 31 on the M5.
  • The provision of tourist information boards in more lay-bys along the A38.

Rationalisation of access onto the A38 / close gaps

7.3.9 Currently the Liskeard dual carriageway incorporates gaps in the central reserve to accommodate right turning manoeuvres and the A38 between Plymouth and Exeter includes numerous low standard junctions direct onto the dual carriageway. While many of these gaps and junctions are not accident hot spots they do present the potential for a high speed, high severity accident. In addition, the presence of these gaps and low standard junctions with their tight radii can cause local congestion issues when vehicles join and leave the A38. They can also present unfamiliar drivers with low standard of provision they are not expecting on a high quality, high-speed route that includes many higher standard junctions.

Non-Motorised Users

7.3.10 The Highways Agency instructed the surveying of all Non-Motorised User crossing points, formal and otherwise, on the core network, nationally during 2001-2002. Non-Motorised Users were considered to be; pedestrians, cyclists, equestrians, disabled/mobility impaired people and latterly carriage drivers. Eight categories of crossing were identified, from at-grade field footpath/bridleway/cycleway to Pelican/Zebra and Toucan crossings.

7.3.11 The survey was intended to assist in the development of a Non-Motorised User related programme of improvement works.

7.3.12 The previous Managing Agent for Area 1 carried out surveys to identify and assess the safety and provision of all Non-Motorised User crossings of the trunk road network in the Devon and Cornwall area. Areas of concern were then considered further by Parsons Brinckerhoffs Area 1 team through a series of validation and liaison meetings held with the following organisations:

  • Devon / Cornwall County Council.
  • Plymouth City Council.
  • Dartmoor National Parks.
  • Ramblers Association.
  • British Horse Society.
  • British Driving Society.
  • Cycle Touring Club.
  • English Regions Cycle Development Team.
  • SUSTRANS.
  • Green Lanes Association.

7.3.13 The Non-Motorised User crossing points that were raised as areas for concern have been summarised in the tables below for each section of the A38 between Bodmin and Exeter.

7.3.14 Section 1 - Carminow Cross, Bodmin to the western end of Liskeard dual carriageway

Ref. Location Problems including feedback from Users
1NMU1 Turfdown High-speed single carriageway road.
1NMU2 Doublebois Single carriageway road, very busy junction between the A38 and B3360
1NMU3 Dobwalls Single carriageway road through the village, very bad severance issue with the A38 cutting the village into two.
1NMU4 Moorswater Single carriageway road very poor visibility

7.3.15 Section 2 - Liskeard dual carriageway

Ref. Location Problems including feedback from Users
2NMU1 Liskeard Railway underbridge footpath Bolithio, in the south and Liskeard. Path was extensively used until 1993 but is now considered too dangerous. Possible use of adjacent railway underbridge for pedestrians to be investigated.
2NMU2 B3252 Looe Road Junction with main road into Looe, County road to the south connects with footpath to the north. This is a preferred crossing point between this site and Torr Farm, below.
2NMU3 Torr Farm County road from the north connects to the A38.No links to footpath network on the south, limited use, part of study above

7.3.16 Section 3 - Eastern end of Liskeard dual carriageway to Carkeel Roundabout

Ref. Location Problems including feedback from Users
3NMU1 Pulyne garage County roads from the north and south connect at a crossroads just west of Budge's Shop. This site is considered to be very dangerous.
3NMU2 Bethany County roads from the north and south connect at a crossroads just south of Budge's Shop. Currently equestrian movements from Budge's Shop in the north to Bake in the south are along the A38 and round the A38 / A374 roundabout.
3NMU3 Wheal Honey County roads from the north connects to the east of Budge's Shop. Preferred site for pedestrians. Local Transport Plan and Draft Structure Plan have plans for a new railway station in the southeast corner of Trerulefoot roundabout. This will increase pedestrian and cycle movements.
3NMU4 Heskyn Mill County road from the north passes under the trunk road to connect with the B3249 road to the south of the trunk road. B3249 connects to TR at an at grade junction.
3NMU5 Tideford Village County road from the north connects with a county road in the south at a crossroads. Extensive community severance within Tideford.
3NMU6 Landrake Network of cycle ways, footpaths and local roads to the west to be linked to Landrake for amenity use. Existing footbridge over A38 adequate for pedestrians only.
3NMU7 Broadmoor Farm County road from the north connects with a county road to the south and links two sets of footpaths and bridleways.
3NMU8 Pillmere Residential development and new school to South to link with amenity areas to the North.

7.3.17 Section 4 - Carkeel Roundabout to Deep Lane Junction

Ref. Location Problems including feedback from Users
4NMU1 Honicknowle F/B, Mowhay Rd Footbridge just West of Western Interchange, Plymouth. History of vandalism and debris being thrown from the bridge onto the A38 below.

7.3.18 Section 5 - Deep Lane Junction to Drumbridges Interchange

Ref. Location Problems including feedback from Users
5NMU1 Deep Lane B3146 full grade separated interchange, extensive equestrian and cyclists movements across top of slip roads.
5NMU2 Lee Mill Extensively used by equestrians. Visibility is poor, traffic volumes and speeds are high.
5NMU3 Wrangaton Footpath from Longford Barton to Wrangaton crossing at bottom of slip roads.
5NMU4 Dean Prior Accident site, two fatal accidents involving pedestrians crossing to the church.
5NMU5 Pridhamsleigh County road over A38 used by equestrians.
5NMU6 Whistley Hill At grade junction, no right turn provision. Weekly farmers market results in parking on the verge and pedestrian crossings of A38.
5NMU7 Caton Cross At grade junction, no right turn provision. Bus stops adjacent to side road junctions, some severance problems.

7.3.19 Section 6 - Drumbridges Interchange to South Chudleigh Junction

Ref. Location Problems including feedback from Users
6NMU1 Drumbridges Templar Way crosses A38 at Drumbridges Interchange. Conflict of movements across top of slip roads and across A382 on Eastern side.
6NMU2 Stover Park At grade junctions, no right turn provision, it is within 300 metres of the ends of Drumbridges I/C slip roads. Severance of residential area from Stover Country Park.
6NMU3 Heathfield Railway A38 over railway. Railway only feeds industrial estate, very limited usage.
6NMU4 Swallow nest Existing underbridge to sewage works.

7.3.20 Section 7 - South Chudleigh Junction to West of the A38/A380 Split

Ref. Location Problems including feedback from Users
7NMU1 Haldon race course Existing underbridge links A380 to the A38 Eastbound carriageway. Bridge does not have any provision for Non-Motorised User's. Only crossing point to link East and West sections of Haldon Forest. Cyclists from Exeter to Plymouth use A380 and county roads. No link from at grade junction to underbridge. At Splatford Bridge cyclists ride against the flow for over 400m of the A380 to access county roads to Haldon.

7.3.21 Section 8 - West of the A38/A380 Split to M5 Junction 31

7.3.22 No specific issues identified.

Cyclist Issues

7.3.23 National Cycle Network Route 2 currently runs predominantly on local roads parallel to the A38 trunk road between Plympton and South Brent. West of Plympton the National Cycle Network Route 2 deviates south towards the Yealmpton and the A379. East of South Brent National Cycle Network Route 2 deviates via Buckfastleigh to Totnes. National Cycle Network Route 27 runs from Barnstaple to the south coast and crosses the A38 at Plymouth.

7.3.24 In addition to the National Cycle Network routes, the Highways Agency has been keen to promote, with Devon County Council, a cycle route between Exeter and Plymouth parallel but not on the A38 trunk road. The table below summaries the cycle route currently provided between Plymouth and Exeter.

No: From To Comments
1 Plymouth Plympton Route signed via county roads
2 Plympton South Brent Route signed via county roads
3 South Brent Linhay junction, Ashburton Route signed via county roads.
4 Linhay junction, Ashburton Goodstone junction Route provided adjacent to the e/b carriageway of the A38.
5 Goodstone Junction Drumbridges Roundabout Route signed via county roads
6 Drumbridges Roundabout Chudleigh Knighton Junction Route adjacent to the e/b carriageway designed, due to be constructed in 2003/2004
7 Chudleigh Knighton Junction Harcombe Back Lane Route available via county roads but signing may be required
8 Harcombe Back Lane Kennford Gap in route - various options have been considered via the C19, Old Exeter Road and sections adjacent to the A38.
9 Kennford A379 Matford roundabout Route available via county roads but signing is required.

7.3.25 From the above table it can be seen that there are primarily two gaps in the cycle route between Plymouth and Exeter. One of these sections, from Drumbridges roundabout to Chudleigh Knighton junction, has been designed and is likely to be constructed in 2003/2004. The above table and the consultation process, has also indicated that numerous sections of the cycle route are poorly signed or not signed at all.

7.3.26 Currently very few cycle facilities are provided along the A38 to the west of Plymouth. The exceptions to this are the cycle facilities on Tamar Bridge and a short length of cycleway between Dobwalls and Liskeard on the north side of the A38. An improvement in terms of provision and signing of the section of cycleway between Dobwalls and Liskeard is being designed and is currently due to be constructed in 2004/2005. In addition, cycle access between the Bodmin Parkway Station and Bodmin is provided by an off road route that forms part of National Cycle Network Routes 2 and 3. The route uses a purpose built bridge to cross the A30 trunk road.

7.3.27 It is also noted that on completion of the Dobwalls Target Programme of Improvements scheme further pedestrian/cycle facilities are proposed between Dobwalls and Doublebois.

Public Transport

7.3.28 Numerous bus companies operate throughout Cornwall and Devon along the A38. The bus companies providing the main services include First Group, Stagecoach and National Express. The table below summarises the services typically provided by these operators on the A38.

Section Service Route Numbers Frequency per day
1 - Carminow Cross, Bodmin to the western end of Liskeard dual carriageway National Express 504,406,316 3
First Group 55 11
2 - Liskeard dual carriageway National Express 504,406,316 3
Stagecoach X77, 77 24
3 - Eastern end of Liskeard dual carriageway to Carkeel Roundabout National Express 504,406,316 3
Stagecoach X77, 77, 70 26
4 - Carkeel Roundabout to Deep Lane Junction National Express 504,406,316,315,501,336 5
Stagecoach X77, 77, X80, 39 24
5 - Deep Lane Junction to Drumbridges Interchange National Express 406,316,315,501,336 4
Stagecoach 39,X80, X38, 39,88,X39 40
6 - Drumbridges Interchange to South Chudleigh Junction National Express 406,316,315,501,336 4
Stagecoach X38, X39 25
7 - South Chudleigh Junction to West of the A38/A380 Split National Express 315,501,316,336,406 4
Stagecoach X38, X39, X40, 39 31
8 - West of the A38/A380 Split to M5 Junction 31 National Express 315,501,316,336,406 4
Stagecoach X38, X39, X40, 39,X46, 82 42

7.3.29 The following table highlights the location of the varying bus stops and bus lay-bys along the A38 trunk road or in close proximity to the route.

Section Location Direction
Westbound Eastbound
1 - Carminow Cross, Bodmin to the western end of Liskeard dual carriageway Dobwalls Yes Being constructed
2 - Liskeard dual carriageway No bus stops on the A38
3 - Eastern end of Liskeard dual carriageway to Carkeel Roundabout Tideford Yes Yes
4 - Carkeel Roundabout to Deep Lane Junction No bus stops on the A38
5 - Deep Lane Junction to Drumbridges Interchange Lee Mill Junction Yes Yes
Smithaleigh Junction Yes Yes
Ivybridge Yes Yes
Near Cadleigh Park Yes No
North of Hudson Farm Yes No
South Brent Junction (eastern) Three stops in the vicinity of the junction but not on trunk road
South Brent Junction (western) Yes Two other stops in the vicinity of the junction but not on the trunk road
Caton Yes Yes
Lower Dean
Three stops in an eastbound direction
No Yes
Dean Prior Yes Yes
Ashburton GSJ Bus stop on over bridge off the trunk road
6 - Drumbridges Interchange to South Chudleigh Junction Drumbridges roundabout.
Four stops within the vicinity of the junction
Yes Yes
7 - South Chudleigh Junction to West of the A38/A380 Split Haldon Hill No Yes
Harcombe Bends Yes Yes
8 - West of the A38/A380 Split to M5 Junction 31 Kennford - Grade Separated junction Yes Yes

7.3.30 As the above table demonstrates, there are currently no bus stops in Section 4 of the A38 study route, this is between Deep Lane Junction and Saltash roundabout. This is most likely because many of the bus services leave the A38 at Plymouth (Marsh Mills) travel into the city and rejoin the A38 at the Tamar Bridge roundabout. In addition, it is also noted that Section 2 of the route (Liskeard dual carriageway) also has no bus stop provision on the A38. This is probably because the Public Transport services divert into Liskeard and there are no other major built up areas on this section of the A38 that would justify specific bus stop facilities.

7.3.31 A brief assessment of the facilities provided at the bus stops on the trunk road indicates that in most cases provision in terms of waiting area, raised access kerbs and bus shelter is minimal and inconsistent. No bus priority facilities are provided for public transport along the route.

7.4 Specific Issues Raised During the Consultation Process and Data Collection

7.4.1 The following tables summarise the specific issues raised during consultation and data collection for each section of the A38 in terms of the Governments 5 objectives.

7.4.2 Section 1 - Carminow Cross, Bodmin to the western end of Liskeard dual carriageway

Safety
1S1 The accident rate on this section of the A38 is twice the national average for a single carriageway. The accident rate is especially poor in the Glynn Valley area.
1S2 Specific accident problem areas have been identified at Turfdown Crossroads (8 PIAs in 5 years), Colesloggett bends (11 PIAs in 5 years), Bodmin Parkway junction (12 PIAs in 5 years), Trago Mills junction (10 PIAs in 5 years) and through Dobwalls (24 PIAs in 5 years over 850m).
1S3 A combination of poor alignment and enclosed nature of the road means that forward visibility is in places obscured by vegetation.
Economy
1E1 Congestion problems at Dobwalls that become extensive during the Holiday period.
1E2 From Bodmin to the A390 junction the route is a sub-standard single carriageway, however it generally has adequate capacity for the 12000 Annual Average Daily Traffic plus the predicted flow over the next 10 years.
1E3 Lack of north facing slips at Carminow Cross (direct link between the A38 and A30).
1E4 Congestion caused by slow moving vehicles (predominately lorries and agricultural vehicles) due to little overtaking opportunities.
Environment
1EN1 No service facilities provided with the exception of the Dobwalls petrol station.
1EN2 Inadequate standard of lay-bys
Accessibility
1A1 Severance issues for pedestrians in the village Dobwalls.
1A2 Severance issues for pedestrians in the village Doublebois.
1A3 Pedestrian access issues to Bodmin Parkway.
1A4 Non-Motorised User issues between Lanhydrock and Cardinham Woods (Turfdown)
Integration
1I1 Poor access to Bodmin Parkway Railway Station
PIA = Personal Injury Accident

7.4.3 Section 2 - Liskeard dual carriageway

Safety
2S1 The accident rate on Liskeard dual carriageway is notably higher than the national average for a dual carriageway
2S2 Specific accident problem at Moorswater grade separated junction (6 PIAs in 5 years).
2S3 Specific accident problem at Menheniot at-grade staggered junction (14 PIAs in 5 years).
2S4 Perceived and recorded accident problems due to numerous low standard junctions and gaps in the central reserve. Roseland (1 PIA in 5 years), Cartuther Barton (2 PIAs in 5 years), private access with central reserve gap, North Treviddo (1 PIA in 5 years), B3252 Looe junction (7 PIAs in 5 years), Torr Farm (2 PIAs in 5 years, both fatal), adjacent to Castle Air, Castle Air, opposite Catchfrench Manor (2 PIAs in 5 years), Bethany and Catchfrench Manor (1 fatal PIA in 5 years).
Economy
2E1 The Annual Average Daily Traffic (23,000) on this section of the A38 is well within the capacity on the 2-lane dual carriageway both currently and within the predicted traffic flow for the next 10 years.
2E2 Congestion (and poor visibility) at B3252 Looe Lane junction due to heavy right turn. Possible impact due to proposed expansion of Lean Quarry.
2E3 Development proposals in Liskeard may impact on A38 junctions.
2E4 Increased traffic at the Looe Mills Blue Circle cement site may impact on the A38 junction
Environment
2EN1 No service facilities are provided on this section of the A38.
2EN2 Some lay-bys are of an inadequate standard
Accessibility
  No issues Identified
Integration
2I1 Potential for a rail based Park & Ride at Menheniot, however this junction currently is a safety issue.

7.4.4 Section 3 - Eastern end of Liskeard dual carriageway to Carkeel Roundabout

Safety
3S1 The accident rate on this section of the A38 is consistent with the national average accident rate for single carriageway roads.
3S2 Specific accident problem areas have been identified at Whity Cross (5 PIAs in 5 years) and Carkeel roundabout (14 PIAs in 5 years).
3S3 Sub standard headroom of 4.65m at the railway bridge between Polymarkyn and Trerulefoot.
3S4 Perceived problems with excessive speed in Tideford and Landrake.
3S5 Perceived accident problems have been identified at Trerulefoot roundabout (4 PIAs in 5 years), Stoketon Cross (10 PIAs in 5 years) and Notter Bridge (4 PIAs in 5 years)
Economy
3E1 The Annual Average Daily Traffic (23,000) on this section of road is close to the operational capacity of a single carriageway and local factors currently cause congestion. Therefore the future traffic growth that will occur on this section of the A38 in the next 10 years will further exacerbate the traffic flow breakdown.
3E2 Both vertical and horizontal alignment is poor and with section of 3-lane working and overtaking vehicles speed vary.
3E3 Potential impact if proposed development at Broadmoor Farm progresses.
3E4 Development proposed in the Local Plan at Liskeard and down the A390 will increase traffic flows on this section of the A38. The local capacity problems could restrain future development therefore not fulfilling the criteria of Objective 1.
Environment
3EN1 Inadequate standard of lay-bys
3EN2 Service facilities are provided at Trerulefoot roundabout and Carkeel roundabout and fuel is also provided at Tideford and Notter Bridge.
Accessibility
3A1 Non-motorised crossing issues at Trerulefoot Roundabout and Carkeel Roundabout
3A2 Severance issues in Tideford
3A3 Severance issues in Landrake
Integration
3I1 Potential for a rail based Park & Ride at Trerulefoot

7.4.5 Section 4 - Carkeel Roundabout to Deep Lane Junction

Safety
4S1 Accident rate within Plymouth area is more than double the national average for this type of road.
4S2 Perception that queuing at the Saltash tunnel gives rise to many accidents involving vehicles queuing for the tunnel. (4 PIAs in 5 years)
4S3 Specific accident problems have been identified on the westbound slip road approach to Marsh Mills roundabout (10 PIAs in 5 years), Forder valley roundabout (81 PIAs in 5 years), Manadon eastbound merge (14 PIAs in 5 years), Weston Mill junction (25 PIAs in 5 years) and on Marsh Mills flyover (6 PIAs in 5 years, perceived to be due to drainage problems).
4S4 Potential for vehicles to travel on the wrong side of the road at the western end of Saltash Tunnel.
4S5 Issue with pedestrians throwing objects off footbridges onto the A38 in Plymouth
4S6 A perceived accident problem has been identified at the westbound approach to Tamar Bridge roundabout (3 PIAs in 5 years)
Economy
4E1 The traffic flow through Saltash Tunnel is currently close to capacity during peak periods. Similarly the bridge and associated tollbooths is also close to capacity during peak periods. There is little capacity for peak hour growth in these locations but growth can be accommodated during the off peak.
4E2 Peak hour congestion occurs at the junctions through Plymouth and on the links towards the eastern end of the city. There is some capacity to accommodate growth during the off peak period.
4E3 Congestion issues throughout the A38 from Deep Lane junction to Saltash Tunnel during peak periods. Specific problems have been identified between Tamar Bridge and St Budeaux junction, on Tamar Bridge and in Saltash Tunnel, Manadon westbound off slip queuing back onto the A38, Deep Lane queuing on off slips.
4E4 A key part to the management of traffic around Plymouth is the development of alternative cross Tamar transport systems including rail, ferry and bus based park and ride.
4E5 Potential impact due to possible developments at Langage, Sherford and Broadmoor farm. This will require the development of alternative transport modes from the West and East of Plymouth to ensure that conditions on the A38 do not deteriorate significantly.
Environment
4EN1 No service facilities are provided on this section of the A38
4EN2 Inadequate standard of lay-bys
4EN3 Perceived noise pollution problems for Plymouth residents (New quiet surfacing - Marsh Mills to Manadon is programme for 2005 funding permitting.)
Accessibility
4A1 Requirement for a pedestrian link between Carkeel Roundabout and Tamar Bridge. (Pillmere pedestrian bridge, still in the early design stage. Severance issues at Carkeel for access to the supermarket)
4A2 Pedestrian crossing facilities through Plymouth are segregated. But many bridges are used by cyclists. Potential conflict between pedestrians and cyclists. Also safety issue since the footbridges have pedestrian guardrails, which at 1.0m high are 400mm too low for cyclists.
Integration
4I1 Potential for bus based Park & Ride sites at Deep Lane and Carkeel roundabout.

7.4.6 Section 5 - Deep Lane Junction to Drumbridges Interchange

Safety
5S1 The accident rate on this section of the A38 is consistent with the national average for dual carriageways.
5S2 Specific accident problems have been identified at Deep Lane junction (30 PIAs in 5 years), this may increase if the Sherford development progresses.
5S3 Perceived and recorded accident problems due to numerous low standard junctions. Cadleigh, Woodpecker (South Brent) petrol station exit (2 PIAs in 5 years), Rattery (2 PIAs in 5 years), Dean Prior, Upper Dean (2 PIAs in 5 years), Whistley Hill, Alston Cross (1 PIA in 5 years) and Caton (2 PIAs in 5 years).
5S4 Quarry expansion at Linhay Hill and Whitecleaves could increase potential for incidents with slow moving lorries.
Economy
5E1 The traffic flow on this section of the A38 is close to capacity in the peak hour in the peak direction.
5E2 Some congestion due to slow moving HGVs, cars and caravans and agricultural vehicles on hills
5E3 The traffic flow increase to the west of Ivybridge results in congestion during peak periods.
5E4 Lee Mill: adversely affected by eastbound HGVs passing through village to access the industrial estate.
5E5 Traffic originating to the east of Ivybridge travels through the town to access the A38.
5E6 New waste management site proposed in the South Hams area, which is likely to have some impact on the A38.
Environment
5EN1 Inadequate standard of lay-bys
5EN2 Buckfastleigh services (Dart Bridge) has no petrol station and is poorly signed. The lack of signing is due to the lack of fuel facilities in this location.
5EN3 Ashburton Services (Peartree) include motel and petrol but facilities are spread out.
5EN4 At Marley Head junction the verge of the slip roads is often used by HGVs as a rest area, this possibly indicates a lack of official rest areas for HGV drivers.
5EN5 The close proximity of Dartmoor National Park constrains the opportunities for new and improved roadside service facilities.
5EN6 Complaints regarding noise pollution at Ashburton
Accessibility
5A1 Non motorised crossing issues at Dean Prior.
5A2 Non-motorised crossing issues at Filham, Ivybridge.
Integration
5I1 Access to Ivybridge Park and Ride site is poor as it is situated on the Exeter side of Ivybridge. Drivers from Exeter have to travel down 4km of local roads before reaching the P & R site and drivers from Ivybridge have to head away from Plymouth to take a trip to Plymouth.

7.4.7 Section 6 - Drumbridges Interchange to South Chudleigh Junction

Safety
6S1 The accident rate on this section of the A38 is lower than the national average for dual carriageways.
6S2 Perceived accident problems due to numerous low standard junctions. Old Newton Road (1 PIA in 5 years), Newton Road and Teigngrace (3 PIAs in 5 years).
6S3 HGVs have been observed using the closed Stover Country Park access for parking.
6S4 Substandard visibility at the top of the slip roads at South Chudleigh junction. (9 PIAs in 5 years)
Economy
6E1 The traffic flow on this section of the A38 is close to capacity in the peak hour in the peak direction.
6E2 Capacity issues at Drumbridges roundabout as the Heathfield / Trago Mills area is a destination in its own right.
6E3 During peak hours large slow moving vehicles (HGVs and Agricultural vehicles) can cause delays. This problem is intensified in this area due to the adjacent quarry works.
6E4 Local Plans identify future development at Heathfield, Bovey Tracey and Newton Abbot.
Environment
6EN1 No service facilities are provided on this section of the A38
6EN2 Inadequate standard of lay-bys
6EN3 There have been proposals for a service area adjacent to Drumbridges junction, however it is understood that these have been withdrawn.
Accessibility
6A1 Non-motorised crossing issues at Heathfield, need for grade-separated facilities (Study being undertaken in 2003).
6A2 Non-motorised crossing issues at Chudleigh Knighton - crossing leads to a recreational area, which is also used by carriage drivers. It may be possible to use the sewage access bridge.
6A3 Non-motorised crossing issues at Drumbridges junction where a local route crosses the A38 at the interchange. A safe crossing is needed at the top of the slip roads and at the A382 junction.
Integration
  No issues identified

7.4.8 Section 7 - South Chudleigh Junction to West of the A38/A380 Split

Safety
7S1 The accident rate on this section of the A38 is above the national average for dual carriageways.
7S2 Accident problems with vehicles leaving the carriageway due to poor horizontal alignment and inappropriate vehicle speed on the eastbound uphill section. Problems are created when vehicles breakdown on the Harcombe Bends
7S3 Potential accident problem at the end of the westbound climbing lane up Haldon Hill due to the poor forward visibility of the end of the climbing lane.
7S4 Slow moving vehicles due to vertical alignment result in safety issues.
7S5 Perceived accident problem due to high number of animal hits (2 PIAs in 5 years).
7S6 Potential accident problem at the westbound Chudleigh (Harcombe) off slip where conflict occur between Chudleigh traffic and vehicles access / egressing the petrol station.
7S7 Potential accident problems due to numerous low standard junctions.-Exeter Racecourse junctions, eastbound service area, westbound little chef .
Economy
7E1 Although the existing Annual Average Daily Traffic can be accommodated on the links, the steep hills and horizontal alignment cause flow breakdown throughout the day. Future traffic growth will increase this flow breakdown thereby increasing congestion.
7E2 Slow moving vehicles due to vertical alignment result in congestion and safety issues.
7E3 Potential development in Chudleigh may increase congestion issues
Environment
7EN1 Inadequate service facilities at Exeter Racecourse southbound
7EN2 Inadequate standard of lay-bys, though a preliminary design for a type-A modified lay-by is due this financial year for Haldon Hill. However, this will require land take from a SSSI site.
Accessibility
7A1 Cyclists use this route to travel between Chudleigh and Exeter and find this section difficult to cross. In addition carriage drivers use the route and travel between Kennford and Haldon Hill
Integration
7I1 Egress from bus stop in lay-by opposite the racecourse is difficult.

7.4.9 Section 8 - West of the A38/A380 Split to M5 Junction 31

Safety
8S1 The accident rate on this section of the A38 is consistent with the national average for dual carriageways.
8S2 Numerous conflicts involving the two Kennford off slips and the petrol station access on the A38 westbound carriageway. (5 PIAs in 5 years, 2 fatal).
8S3 Accident potential due to difficulties in vehicles accessing the A38 westbound from the Kennford on slip as they have to negotiate two lane of traffic bound for the A380 and contend with the increasing gradient.
8S4 Eastbound on slip from Kennford is short and on the inside of a bend
Economy
8E1 Congestion problems on the A380 where the single lane A380 meets the A38 eastbound during the am peak periods.
8E2 This 3-lane section of the A38 is close to capacity for the peak hours in the peak directions, however outside this period there are no capacity issues.
Environment
8EN1 Inadequate standard of lay-bys
Accessibility
  No issues identified
Integration
8I1 Bus stop on westbound carriageway at Kennford is located in the slip road to the petrol station.

Personal Injury Accidents involving Animals

7.4.10 Several stakeholders have commented that they have concerns over the number of Personal Injury Accidents involving animals throughout the length of the A38. In the last 5-year period, 15 personal Injury Accidents have involved drivers either hitting or taking evasive action to avoid an animal in the carriageway between Bodmin and Exeter. This equates to 1.3% of the total 1144 accidents that occurred on the A38 during this period. The Department for Transport publication "Road Casualties Great Britain" indicates that in for all roads in 2002 1.2% of accidents involved an animal in the carriageway. Further analysis of the accidents involving animals that have occurred on the A38 between Bodmin and Exeter indicates that the incidents are spread throughout the study area and there are no particular cluster sites.