This session will help teachers focus on effective written feedback as a crucial element that enables all pupils to make progress. Pupils should have an expectation that the feedback they receive will explain what they have done well, with reasons, and where and how they can improve.

## Objective

To explore a variety of approaches to support effective written feedback.

## Outcome

By the end of the session participants will have identified the types of written feedback that help pupils to improve.

## Introduction (10 minutes)

Introduce the session by asking participants what makes effective written feedback and why it is important. Take some feedback and make the following points.

- The learning objectives and learning outcomes need to be the reference point for a teacher's written feedback. These need to be shared and made clear to pupils in advance of their attempting the task.
- Effective feedback depends on the pupils being clear about what is expected of them. Pupils should have an expectation that the feedback they receive will explain what they have done well, with reasons, and where and how they can improve.
- Pupils should be given written feedback that provides clear evaluation of their strengths and weaknesses, prompts further thought and reasoning and identifies the next steps in their education.
- To be able to identify the next steps in pupils' education, a teacher needs to have a secure understanding of progression in the subject and be able to recognise pupils' misconceptions and challenges in the context of the subject.

## Activity: Written feedback (25 minutes)

Give participants Handout 4: Pupil work (PDF-24 KB) Attachments . The pupil was asked to collect, record and analyse the data from a coffee-shop survey in which customers were asked to rank aspects of service and food on a five-point scale, and to draw conclusions.

What would written feedback look like for this pupil?

Ask participants to:

- identify the knowledge, skills and understanding that this pupil demonstrates
- identify the next steps that the pupil needs to make
- write comments that evaluate their strengths, prompt further thought and identify the next steps in the pupil's education.

You may wish to structure this activity by providing pointers or modelling one of the potential responses.

Encourage participants to see three sets of interrelated issues.

- 1. The use of formulae
The pupil has created formulae that are correct for the problem as they provide the right answers, creating totals and calculating average scores. The formulae used, however, are not particularly efficient. The pupil may need prompting to use a function, for example, and/or the use of absolute cell references. The response will depend on what has already been taught.

Potential written responses may include the following.

- For cell G3: Would using the SUM function be a quicker way to input these formulae?
- For cell H3: Well done. This is a complicated formula which you entered correctly and it works out the average scores. Putting in this sort of complex formula can be very time-consuming: is there a quicker way you could have written this formula?

- 2. The creation of the graph
The pupil has created a graph that is technically correct: it is labelled, has titles and can be used to analyse the results of the survey. However, it is not fit for purpose. Written responses need to encourage the pupil to reflect on the idea of fitness for purpose in this context.

Potential written responses may include the following.

- It is good that you have included a scale so that you can read off the results. Would it be better for your manager if you used a different scale?
- Don't forget to use a spell-checker!
- I have printed the graph in colour and it is easy to see which bar is which. I am not sure that when you put this into your report you will be able to print in colour. Can you change the graph so it is easy to read when printed in black and white?
- The key is good as it makes it easy to see what the bars represent. I think the manager will probably ask you to change the words. Can you think why that may be?

- 3. Solving the problem
The pupil has come a long way towards solving the problem but has not thought through what the final outcome needs to be. The graph is easy to read but it is difficult to compare the overall results and draw conclusions. Creating a graph of the average scores, for example, would enable the manager to see that, while the quality of food and drink is considered high, service needs to be improved and customers do not feel that they receive value for money.

Potential written responses may include the following.

- This is a useful graph as it displays all the results of the survey. Will the manager want all this detail?
- Is there an easier way to display the results of the survey?
- How easy is it to draw conclusions from this graph?

Take feedback and conclude the activity by asking participants to check whether their written comments reflect the main elements of written feedback.

## Plenary (5 minutes)

Conclude this activity by making the points that, to be effective, written feedback needs to:

- be planned as part of the learning sequence
- be presented at a point where the pupil is able to act on it to make a difference
- refer back to the learning objectives, learning outcomes and success criteria.

Clarify your expectations on how this activity will inform their future work.