This snapshot, taken on
10/08/2011
, shows web content acquired for preservation by The National Archives. External links, forms and search may not work in archived websites and contact details are likely to be out of date.
 
 
The UK Government Web Archive does not use cookies but some may be left in your browser from archived websites.

Substrand 8.4: Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques

This section of teaching for progression in writing provides a range of possible approaches to teaching linguistic and literary techniques that pupils can apply to their own writing.

The suggested approaches focus on teaching these techniques both through reading and writing activities.

Recognising progression

As pupils develop their skills, their writing will be distinguished by an increasing sophistication, as they exploit the full repertoire of linguistic and literary techniques, using language in imaginative, original and diverse ways across a range of texts and for a variety of audiences and purposes. The writing substrand from the Framework sets out in more detail the key elements of progression.

  • Year 7

    Develop in their own writing some of the key linguistic and literary techniques used by writers, and deploy them for deliberate effect on the reader.

  • Year 8

    Draw on a repertoire of linguistic and literary techniques, and select those most appropriate for creating specific effects in their own writing.

  • Year 9

    Elicit a range of responses from the reader, having made a judgement about the effectiveness of specific linguistic and literary techniques in particular contexts or for specific tasks.

  • Year 10

    Make appropriate and ambitious selections from a broad repertoire of linguistic and literary techniques to shape and affect the reader’s response.

  • Year 11

    Exploit the full repertoire of literary and linguistic techniques, combining and adapting them where appropriate to create specific planned effects in a wide range of forms and genres for a variety of audiences and purposes.

  • Extension

    Shape their writing in ambitious, inventive and original ways by exploiting the full repertoire of linguistic and literary techniques, adapting, manipulating and combining them for effect and impact.

Literary and linguistic techniques

Pupils can be taught the full repertoire of literary and linguistic techniques.

Literary techniques

Pupils learn the effective use of:

  • imagery – similes, metaphors, personification
  • sound patterns – alliteration, onomatopoeia, assonance, puns
  • repetition of words, phrases and structures
  • rhetorical questions
  • statistics or quotations
  • anecdote – telling an amusing or interesting incident in order to illustrate a point, for example, giving a specific example of someone's experience in order to highlight conditions
  • other rhetorical devices such as use of humour, direct address, contrast and emotive language.

Linguistic techniques

Linguistic techniques you can teach include:

  • sentence variety to change emphasis and importance – coordination and subordination
  • active and passive voice
  • abstract and concrete nouns
  • use of the first and second person to actively involve the audience
  • emotive language (use of verbs, adjectives and adverbs)
  • phrases that signpost each technique
  • differing levels of formality and colloquial language.
  • Using reading to build pupils' linguistic and literary techniques

    Find a set of teaching approaches that use a range of reading to build pupils' confidence in using a variety of linguistic and literary techniques. This focuses on the Framework for English substrand 8.4: 'Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques', and is part of Teaching for progression: Writing.

  • Using reading to help pupils develop and apply linguistic and literary techniques

    Find a set of teaching approaches that use a range of reading to help pupils move on from some basic analysis of writers' language techniques to more detailed analysis and exploration. This focuses on the Framework for English substrand 8.4: 'Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques', and is part of Teaching for progression: Writing.

  • Using reading to help pupils secure and extend their linguistic and literary techniques

    Find a set of teaching approaches that use a range of reading to help pupils secure their learning about key literary and linguistic techniques and devices, and in some cases move on to more challenging contexts and tasks. This focuses on the Framework for English substrand 8.4: 'Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques', and is part of Teaching for progression: Writing.

  • Using writing to build pupils' understanding of linguistic and literary techniques

    Find a set of teaching approaches to build pupils' confidence in using a range of linguistic and literary techniques. The context for the work is writing, with a focus on trying out a range of key language devices. This focuses on the Framework for English substrand 8.4: 'Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques', and is part of Teaching for progression: Writing.

  • Using writing to help pupils develop linguistic and literary techniques

    Find a set of teaching approaches designed to help pupils move from some basic use of writers' language techniques to more detailed application of them in their own writing. This focuses on the Framework for English substrand 8.4: 'Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques', and is part of Teaching for progression: Writing.

  • Using writing to help pupils secure and extend their use of literary and linguistic features

    Find a set of teaching approaches that use a range of ways of helping pupils secure their learning about key literary and linguistic techniques and devices, and apply what they have learned to their own writing in increasingly challenging ways. This focuses on the Framework for English substrand 8.4: 'Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques', and is part of Teaching for progression: Writing.