This snapshot, taken on
03/03/2011
, shows web content acquired for preservation by The National Archives. External links, forms and search may not work in archived websites and contact details are likely to be out of date.
 
 
The UK Government Web Archive does not use cookies but some may be left in your browser from archived websites.

 

HOME  BACKGROUND  UK BIODIVERSITY PARTNERSHIP  UK PRIORITY LISTS REPORTING    OLD PLANSLIBRARY     SEARCH

Organisations | Joint Nature Conservation Committee

Organisation

Joint Nature Conservation Committee

Website details

Lead partner for the following species plans:

Lead partner for the following habitat plans:

Partner for the following LBAPs:

List of current UK actions

Habitat Actions

Upland oakwood
Encourage the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to produce estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Lowland beech and yew woodland
By 2004 designate those lowland beech and yew woodlands approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive and ensure that SSSI coverage of important lowland beech and yew woodland sites is adequate through periodic review of the series. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, WO)
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC)
Develop and implement systems for recording the occurrence, distribution, management and composition of lowland beech and yew woodland, based on the National Inventory of Woodland and Trees by 2000 and explore opportunities to make this widely available through the National Biodiversity Network initiative (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC).
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC)
Upland mixed ashwoods
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as the European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Review, by 2000, the status of species-rich coastal hazel scrub of west Scotland and investigate the possibility of adding this, as one of (with Ireland) the most westerly European example of this type, to the habitats listed under the EC Habitats Directive. (Action: DETR, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD)
Explore the possibilities for funding to support conservation work in these woods from the European Union. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement systems for recording the occurrence, distribution, management and composition of upland mixed ashwoods, based on the National Inventory of Woodland and Trees by 2000, and explore opportunities to make this information widely available through the National Biodiversity Network initiative. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Wet woodland
Develop methods for assessing the condition of wet woods suitable for use on both designated and non-designated sites and initiate sample surveys by 2000. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable/related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Explore the possibilities for funding to support conservation work in these woods from the European Union. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement systems for recording the occurrence, distribution, management and composition of wet woods, based on the National Inventory of Woodland and Trees by 2000, and explore opportunities to make this information widely available through the National Biodiversity Network initiative. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, EHS, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Lowland wood-pasture and parkland
If Annex I of the EC Habitats Directive is revised ensure that it provides adequate coverage of UK parklands and wood-pasture habitats and species assemblages. (Action: DETR, JNCC)
By 2004 designate those lowland wood-pasture sites approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as the European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related habitats, and exchange experience on research and management, by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Produce a comprehensive list of all parkland and wood-pasture sites with pointers to other data sources and evaluations relating to both the natural and cultural heritage of each site, by 2002. Make this information available, through a data catalogue linked to the National Biodiversity Network. (Action: CC, CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure veteran tree recording is reflected in SSSI and Wildlife Site reporting and is input, as it becomes available, into local record centres as part of the National Biodiversity Network initiative. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Native pine woodlands
Encourage the collation by 1998 of information on the status, ecology and management of native pinewood with that of other semi-natural woods on similar and related sites in Scandinavia and other north temperate/boreal regions. (ACTION: FA, SNH, JNCC)
Cereal field margins
Encourage the European Environment Agency to develop networks of interested groups and research data on cereal field margins. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC)
Coastal and floodplain grazing marsh
Encourage the exchange of data and information on best management practice for grazing marsh through Eurosite, the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau and the international voluntary Wader Study Group. (ACTION: JNCC)
Support projects which quantify the remaining extent and distribution of grazing marsh in the UK and evaluate the conservation status. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Lowland meadows
Encourage the development of new management techniques where required, e.g. for weed control, and the setting up of local farm networks, e.g. for livestock provision, that help to ensure sympathetic management. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network and if a review of community coverage of Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive is undertaken support adequate coverage of this habitat within the site network. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage actions at a European and international level which will help improve our understanding of the conservation of the resource at a UK level and promote measures which will strengthen the conservation of this habitat in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Review and promote research into the best ways of integrating modern agricultural practices with the conservation of species-rich grasslands in lowland farmland. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Review current research and where appropriate promote applied research to inform the conservation and restoration of different forms of dry and floodplain neutral grasslands. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Review current research and where appropriate promote research on the establishment and expansion of species-rich neutral meadows and pastures, covering methodology and landscape ecological components. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage and support conservation studies on scarce animal and plant taxa associated with unimproved neutral grasslands with particular relevance to amelioration of damaging impacts from habitat depletion and fragmentation. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Evaluate the need for impact assessment of the effect of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on community composition, and commission research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards achieving action plan targets. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Seek opportunities to present neutral meadow and pasture conservation in the scientific press and popular media. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Upland hay meadows
Encourage the development of new management techniques where required, e.g. for weed control, and the setting up of local farm networks, e.g. for livestock provision, that help to ensure sympathetic management. (Action: NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Review representation of upland hay meadows in other European countries, to determine their international extent and status, to help inform the conservation of the resource at a UK level. (Action: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Participate in initiatives to develop and strengthen measures for the conservation of unimproved upland meadows in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Seek opportunities to exchange information about the management and conservation of unimproved upland meadows in the international literature and at conferences. (Action: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Review current research and where appropriate promote Commission, undertake and promote appropriate applied research to inform the conservation management and restoration of upland hay meadow, and the best ways of integrating agricultural management with the conservation of this habitat type. (Action: NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Review current research and where appropriate support research into the establishment and expansion of upland hay meadow, covering methodology, geographical range and landscape ecological components. (Action: NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Encourage and support conservation studies on scarce animal and plant taxa associated with upland hay meadow. (Action: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Evaluate the need for impact assessment of the effect of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on community composition, and commission research as appropriate. (Action: EA, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Seek opportunities to present upland hay meadow conservation in the scientific press and popular media. (Action: NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Lowland calcareous grassland
Complete the designation of lowland calcareous grassland SPAs and SACs and prepare and implement management plans by 2004. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC)
Encourage the development of new management techniques where required, e.g. for weed control, and the setting up of local farm networks, e.g. for livestock provision, that will ensure sympathetic management is possible. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, WOAD)
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Review representation of lowland calcareous grasslands in other European countries to determine their extent and status so that the international status of the UK resource can be determined. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Participate in initiatives to develop and strengthen measures for conservation of the habitat in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, MAFF, WO, WOAD)
Disseminate information about the UK's experience in conservation of the resource in international literature and conferences and take opportunities to learn from colleagues in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, MAFF, WO, WOAD)
Review research needs into the conservation and restoration management of the habitat and the integration of this with agriculture, to identify significant gaps in knowledge. Commission and undertake new research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, WOAD)
Commission and support research on establishment and expansion of species-rich calcareous grassland, covering methodology and landscape ecological components. (Action: CCW, NE, FC JNCC, MAFF, WOAD)
Encourage and support conservation studies on scarce animal and plant taxa associated with unimproved calcareous grasslands with particular relevance to amelioration of damaging impacts from habitat depletion and fragmentation. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Evaluate the need for impact assessment of the effect of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on community composition, and commission research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, EA, NE, JNCC)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Seek opportunities to present lowland grassland conservation in the scientific press and the popular media. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Upland calcareous grassland
By 2004 designate those areas of upland calcareous grasslands approved by the EC as SACs under the EC Habitats Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Continue to influence the EU to review livestock support mechanisms and to make greater use of European funding (see 5.1.1). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Participate in initiatives, such as EU Biodiversity and Forestry strategies, to develop and strengthen measures for the conservation of upland calcareous grassland in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop guidance on defining favourable condition for upland calcareous grassland by 2000. By 2002 undertake a sampled condition assessment of the habitat throughout the UK (covering up to 25% of the total extent), using standardised and repeatable methodologies. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Continue to commission applied research to help develop beneficial and practical management techniques (including appropriate stocking levels) for the conservation of different forms of upland calcareous grassland. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Continue to support applied research to develop techniques for the re-creation of upland calcareous grasslands, and the restoration of degraded stands. Identify by 2002 former sites that are suitable for re-creation of upland calcareous grassland, and draw up a strategy to meet the target for re-creation. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Commission and encourage conservation studies on scarce animals and plants associated with upland calcareous grassland and develop appropriate management techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote research into the best ways of integrating agriculture and conservation of upland calcareous grassland in upland farm systems. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review research requirements on the effects of air pollution and climate change on upland calcareous grassland and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Lowland dry acid grassland
Complete the designation of lowland dry acid grassland SPAs and SACs and prepare and implement management plans on these by 2004. (Action: DETR, NE, JNCC)
Encourage the development of new management techniques where required, e.g. for weed control, and the setting up of networks, e.g. for livestock provision, that facilitate sympathetic management. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network and if a review of Community coverage of Annex I of the Directive is undertaken support adequate representation of this habitat in the site network. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Review representation of lowland <a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=53">acid grasslands</a> in other European countries, to determine their international extent and status, to help inform the conservation of the resource at a UK level. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Participate in initiatives to develop and strengthen measures for conservation of the habitat in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, NE, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SO, SOAEFD, WO, WOAD)
Disseminate information about the UKs experience in conservation of the resource in international literature and at conferences and take opportunities to learn from organisations in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, NE, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SO, SOAEFD, WO, WOAD)
Review research needs into the conservation management of the habitat and the integration of this with agriculture, to identify significant gaps in knowledge. Commission and undertake new research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Consider commissioning and promoting appropriate applied research to inform the conservation and restoration of different forms of lowland dry acid grasslands. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Review current research and where appropriate support research on establishment and expansion of lowland acid grassland, covering methodology and landscape ecological components. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage and support conservation studies on scarce animal and plant taxa associated with lowland acid grasslands with particular relevance to amelioration of damaging impacts from habitat depletion and fragmentation. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Evaluate the need for impact assessment of the effect of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on community composition, and commission research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, EA, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH)
Seek opportunities to present lowland acid grassland conservation in the scientific press and the popular media. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Upland heathland
By 2004 designate the upland heath areas approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive, and classify appropriate areas as SPAs under the EC Birds Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Continue to influence the EU to review livestock support mechanisms and to make greater use of European funding (see 5.1.1). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Participate in initiatives, such as EU Biodiversity and Forestry strategies, to develop and strengthen measures for the conservation of upland heathland in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote the international significance of the UK’s upland heathland resource. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop national inventories, with agreed definitions, to determine the extent, distribution and composition of upland heathland by the year 2004. Make this information available through a World Wide Web based catalogue of survey information. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop agreed definitions and methods by 2000 for describing and assessing the condition of upland heathland, and complete condition assessments for all SSSIs/ASSIs by the year 2006. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
By 2004 undertake a sample survey (covering 5-10% of the resource) using standardised and repeatable methodology of vegetation condition of upland heath throughout the UK and consider the need for repeat surveys as part of a monitoring programme. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Continue to support applied research to develop methods for the enhancement, restoration and re-creation of upland heath and populations of associated characteristic species through practical management. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SE, SNH)
Commission and undertake research on the environmental impacts of reducing or removing burning (especially wet heath) and grazing management from upland heath to allow vegetation succession. (ACTION: CCW,NE EHS, NE, HS, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Review research requirements on the effects of air pollution and climate change on upland heathland and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SNH)
Continue to promote research to explore the most effective ways of integrating agriculture, other rural economies and social needs, and recreation with nature conservation objectives. (ACTION:NE CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), DETR, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Purple moor grass and rush pastures
Encourage surveys in the Republic of Ireland, Portugal and the Low Countries to determine the extent and status of purple moor grass and rush pasture in these countries, so that the international status of the habitat may be fully determined. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Initiate a review of purple moor grass and rush pasture and their conservation in Europe. (ACTION: JNCC)
Support research into optimal methods of purple moor grass and rush pasture re-creation, especially into nutrient stripping techniques, seed banks and seeding techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage further surveys of the invertebrates of purple moor grass and rush pasture, and research into the management requirements of key species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage the making of a documentary on the wildlife of purple moor grass and rush pasture, to foster public appreciation of the habitat. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Reedbeds
Develop a clear national strategy for reedbed creation and management by 1997, cross-relating to coastal management plans, ESAs, set-aside and mineral extraction plans, and ensuring that an effective level of monitoring and inventory is maintained. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH, SO, WO)
Promote pan-European co-operation on research, conservation and management of reedbeds and reedbed species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Lowland raised bog
Produce regional guidelines on the requirements for lowland raised bog conservation, including issues of regional land use and drainage, in a wider landscape context. Prepare and agree these through a cross-sectoral steering group by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop links with European and international organisations and programmes to promote the exchange of information and experience in research, management techniques, and conservation strategies. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Review research requirements on the effects of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on lowland raised bog and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards achieving action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Blanket bog
By 2004 designate as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) those areas of blanket mire approved by the EC under the EC Habitats Directive and classify, as appropriate, as Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under the EC Birds Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote exchange of restoration and other management expertise and practices in relation to common issues (eg peat cutting and overgrazing) with other European partners. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Continue to influence the EU to review livestock support mechanisms and to make greater use of European funding (see 5.1.1). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Participate in initiatives, such as EU Biodiversity and Forestry strategies, to develop and strengthen measures for the conservation of blanket mire in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage other countries to determine the extent and nature of blanket mire and promote a co-operative approach to its conservation. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Establish a national inventory of blanket mire habitats by 2004 using agreed methodologies and with agreed definitions for determining the extent and condition of the habitat. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Improve access to, and exchange of information on, UK blanket mires, including the use of the World Wide Web, by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage research to determine and subsequently monitor the nature and extent of diversity within the habitat throughout its range, especially studies of vegetation, hydrology, vertebrate and invertebrate populations and the peat archive, and take any necessary action to arrest, and if possible reverse, any negative trends. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Commission and undertake research on the conservation management of blanket bog, the causes of degradation and appropriate restoration techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EA, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA)
Review research requirements on the effects of pollution and climate change on blanket bog and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), EA, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Eutrophic standing waters
Develop an integrated national approach to measuring environmental change in eutrophic waters and to solving problems affecting these habitats and resources. (Action: CCW, DETR, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH, JNCC)
Make full use of the provisions of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981 and the Wildlife (Northern Ireland ) Order, 1985 to ensure effective control of the release to the wild of alien aquatic species. Review and where appropriate amend Schedule 9 of these Acts by 2000. (Action: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
By 2004 designate the eutrophic standing waters approved by the EC as Special Areas of Conservation under the Habitats Directive and classify, as appropriate, as Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under the EC Birds Directive. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Complete the programme for designation of eutrophic standing waters as Ramsar sites by 2004. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH,SOAEFD, WO)
Promote the interchange of information between the UK and other countries on management techniques, conservation and research relevant to eutrophic waters. (Action: DETR, EA, SEPA, CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH, IFE, IH, ITE)
By 1999 develop a rapid screening system to assess the biological quality of eutrophic standing waters, in order to classify them (see 5.1.1) as Tier 1, Tier 2 or Tier 3 and to determine priorities within these categories. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH)
Investigate the impact of introduced species on eutrophic standing waters and develop strategies to mitigate their effects. (Action: DETR, EA, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Ensure that information on well-studied eutrophic standing waters is made readily available and publish advice on good management practice, targeting site managers and policy makers. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA SNH)
Continue to contribute to symposia on the conservation of fresh waters and to encourage the publication of papers on issues relating to eutrophic standing waters in peer-reviewed scientific literature. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA SNH)
Aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies
Consider proposing the presently recognised UK turloughs as SACs. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, JNCC, WO)
Consider designating by 2002 as Ramsar sites all good examples of aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, WO)
Contribute to knowledge of the status and importance of naturally fluctuating water bodies and of their effective management, by exchanging information gained in the UK with colleagues in other countries which contain similar sites. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC SNH)
Limestone pavements
Consider the need for and scale of a repeat of the 1975 national survey (to include Northern Ireland) of limestone pavement. Assess the requirement for an information system for maintaining data on the extent and quality of limestone pavements. (ACTION: DoE(NI), JNCC)
Maritime cliff and slopes
Promote the exchange of information on maritime cliff ecology and management among European maritime states through the European Union for Coastal Conservation and Eurosite. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2003 commission a literature review and full survey of the maritime cliff and slope resource in the UK to assess its relative conservation value, how much can be improved by alternative management, and to what extend it is affected by coastal defence and engineering works. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2003 commission a study to identify areas in the UK suitable for the re-creation of maritime grasslands and heathlands. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2003 implement a baseline study to determine the extent and quality of the maritime cliff and slope resource in the UK in order to enable the effective assessment of progress towards meeting the objectives of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Coastal sand dunes
Promote the exchange of information on sand dune ecology and management among European maritime states through organisations such as the European Union for Coastal Conservation and Eurosite. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure lessons from EU LIFE projects are widely disseminated and incorporated into good practice. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, NE, Sefton Coast LIFE Project)
Co-ordinate information on changes in the extent and quality of the sand dune resource in the UK in order to enable effective monitoring of the objectives of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Coastal vegetated shingle
Develop international links to promote the exchange of information and development of best practice in the management of coastal vegetated shingle. (ACTION: JNCC)
Collate and disseminate information on changes in the extent and quality of the vegetated shingle resource in the UK in order to enable effective monitoring of the objectives of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Machair
Designate those machair sites that qualify as Special Protection Areas or Special Areas for Conservation by 2004. (ACTION: JNCC, SE, SNH)
Encourage comparison of surveys in Scotland and the Republic of Ireland to determine the extent and status of machair so that the international status of the habitat may be fully determined. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Initiate a comprehensive review of machair habitat, management and conservation in Europe. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Support the networking of management techniques, conservation strategies and applied research relating to machair environments. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Support research into methods of monitoring the conservation quality of major machair habitats based on plant, bird and invertebrate attributes, applying results to sites used for best practice demonstrations, improved management and habitat restoration. (ACTION: JNCC, SE, SNH)
Support research into the sediment budget of machair systems, the likely changes in coastal erosion and accretion to result from sea level rise, and the implications of environmental change for machair habitats and their crofting communities to 2050. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage the making of a documentary and publication of populist articles on the wildlife and management of machair to foster public appreciation of the habitat. These should focus on the interdependence of landscape, wildlife and the crofting/farming communities managing the land. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Sabellaria alveolata reefs
Exchange information with experts in France, Ireland, Spain and Portugal on habitat distribution, role in coastal ecosystems and impacts of development. This would greatly help decision making in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Coastal saltmarsh
Develop international links to promote exchange of information on, and development of best practice in, coastal saltmarsh management. (ACTION: JNCC)
Collate and disseminate information on changes in the extent and quality of the saltmarsh resource in the UK in order to enable effective monitoring and review of the objectives of this plan. (ACTION: JNCC)
Mudflats
Develop holistic quality criteria for the management and monitoring of mudflats by 2002. (ACTION: JNCC)
Collect and collate information on the extent, quality, loss/change of mudflat resource to allow targets to be set and progress to be monitored by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Seagrass beds
When the Annexes of the Habitats Directive are reviewed by the EC, consider proposing inclusion of Zostera as appropriate. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Publish guidelines on the designation of intertidal SSSIs/ASSIs for their marine biological importance and assess whether, in light of these, seagrass beds are adequately covered by the network. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Standardise procedures for monitoring of seagrass beds. (ACTION: JNCC, Research institutes)
Liaise with research institutes and coastal managers in Europe and elsewhere to exchange data and information on the conservation of seagrass beds and the developing of techniques for transplanting and germination of the three species of Zostera found in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Compile and publish an up-to-date record of the extent, quality and distribution of seagrass around the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Complete a classification of the different types of seagrass communities around the UK as part of the EC BIOMAR project. (ACTION: JNCC)
Advise on the establishment of a programme to set up a network of seagrass monitoring stations across the full range of types of seagrass beds in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC, Marine Laboratories)
Carry out further research into the factors which adversely affect seagrass beds to understand how these may be avoided or minimised. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Carry out research and feasibility studies on the restoration of seagrass beds through transplanting and germination. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Sheltered muddy gravels
Determine the full extent of the sheltered muddy gravel resource that currently falls within designated areas. Explore alternative means of securing the conservation of representative examples of muddy gravel habitats through other mechanisms by 2003. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Gather, compile and publish a detailed account of the extent, quality, current status and geographical distribution of fully saline sheltered muddy gravel beds around the UK by the year 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake further structured survey work, especially within SAC boundaries. Further work should be undertaken in Plymouth Sound, the Fal Estuary and Helford River, Milford Haven and Dornoch Firth. This work should endeavour to further delineate community composition and also to provide detailed information on the other physical characteristics of the habitat. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and standardise monitoring methodology specific to the characteristics of sheltered muddy gravel beds by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Modiolus modiolus beds
By 2002, develop standardised techniques for survey and monitoring of M. modiolus beds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop advice to fishermen and recreational organisations on importance and sensitivity of M. modiolus beds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Sabellaria spinulosa reefs
Participate in initiatives to develop and strengthen measures for conservation of S. spinulosa reefs in Europe and elsewhere. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Refine the MNCR list of characteristic species associated with S. spinulosa reefs, including commercial species (eg pink shrimp Pandalus montagui) and identify indicators of habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF)
Investigate and assess the distribution, area and habitat quality of S. spinulosa reefs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2004, compile an inventory of areas which formerly supported S. spinulosa reefs, establish the necessary habitat conditions for re-establishment, and identify the highest priority sites for re-establishment. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Tidal rapids
Although a number of tidal rapids are included in possible or candidate SACs, many tidal rapids do not qualify for protection under existing Habitats Directive habitat types. Therefore consideration should be given to proposing the inclusion of tidal rapids under Annex 1 of the EC Habitats Directive when the opportunity for amendments arise. This could be both as a habitat in its own right and/or as a specific component of sea loch systems (other action plans also call for the inclusion of sea lochs as a habitat in their own right on Annex I of the Habitats Directive). (ACTION: DETR, JNCC, SE)
Implement the JNCC guidance that all highly rated examples of tide-swept algal habitats in the mid-eulittoral, lower eulittoral and sublittoral fringe of Scottish sea lochs (as communities of national or more than national importance) as assessed by the MNCR in an Area of Search should be included in SSSIs by 2005. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
List further sites for eventual notification to ensure the full range of tidal rapid sites and community types and ecological conditions is represented in the network of protected sites. Consideration should be given to the protection of the sub-littoral components of tidal rapids in the context of the proposed Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) working group on marine conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Maerl beds
Give consideration to proposing the inclusion of maerl beds under Annex 1 of the EC Habitats Directive when the opportunity arises. This could be in their own right or as a specific component of large shallow inlets and bays (other action plans also call for the inclusion of sea lochs as a specific Habitats Directive category). Protection can be afforded to a limited number of sites at present using the existing Habitats Directive categories (large shallow bays and inlets; estuaries; sandbanks slightly covered with water all the time; lagoons). (ACTION: JNCC)
Consider proposing the addition of Lithothamnion glaciale to Annex V of the Habitats Directive (species of community interest whose taking in the wild and exploitation may be subject to management measures). This will allow consistency with the present listing of the other two UK maerl bed-forming species. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Advise government on the best maerl beds for inclusion in the UK network of protected sites, thus ensuring that the full range of habitat and associated community types is represented. This includes co-operation with other EU countries to ensure an adequate EU-wide network of sites. (ACTION: JNCC)
Mud habitats in deep water
Review the EC Habitats Directive Annex I habitats to address the shortfalls of the original list and consider whether mud biotopes in deep water, specifically those found within sea lochs, should be proposed as an addition to the Annex. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC, SE)
Investigate the possibility of adding the three seapen species and the sea squirt S. gelatinosa to the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (schedule 5) and the Wildlife (NI) Order 1985. (ACTION: DoE(NI), JNCC)
Identify by 2002 nationally important mud habitats in deep water and the associated communities within the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Assess the current extent and quality (including extent of damage) of mud habitats in deep water in the UK (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Saline lagoons
Create a lagoons working group to define best management practices, lagoon creation and colonisation/re-introduction of characteristic species by 1996. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Develop liaison within Europe to ensure best practice in lagoonal conservation is exchanged and developed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Establish an inventory of all coastal lagoons currently of national and international importance by 1998. Where information is still inadequate, encourage surveys which assess the importance of lagoonal habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Serpulid reefs
Consider giving statutory protection to the reefs in Loch Creran by proposing the loch as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) under Annex 1 of the EC Habitats Directive. The whole of the upper and lower loch should be designated because the factors affecting the health of the reefs are unclear, and the reefs are widely distributed through the loch system. (ACTION: JNCC, SE, SNH)
Communicate with researchers in Ireland regarding exchange of information on the reefs in Ardbear Lough and Killary Harbour. (ACTION: JNCC)
Sublittoral sands and gravels
Seek to identify a series of representative sites of this habitat type by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage actions at a European level, which will help improve understanding of the conservation of undisturbed sublittoral sands and gravels. Promote measures that will strengthen the conservation of representative examples. (ACTION: JNCC)
Review the data on the extent of sublittoral sand and gravel habitats around the UK to aid selection and management of representative examples. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Assess the ecological importance and function and environmental requirements of long-lived species that are sensitive to disturbance in sand and gravel habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NERC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Investigate and refine techniques for surveying and monitoring subtidal sand and gravel habitats and biotopes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Lophelia pertusa reefs
Promote the provision of wider protection measures for the offshore habitats of Lophelia pertusa, in particular from fisheries and oil exploration. (ACTION: DTI, JNCC, MAFF, SE)
Advise that the UK Government adopts L. pertusa as a species for which biogenic reef SACs can be selected and designated within the UK territorial sea and promote the opportunities that may arise through the adoption of the OSPAR Annex V. (ACTION: JNCC)
Contribute to the consideration of key areas for L. pertusa aggregations for possible selection as marine protected areas (MPAs) under Annex V of OSPAR by 2005. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide advice and information to fisheries policy makers, managers, fisheries organisations and fishermen on the sensitivity, conservation importance and ecological requirements of L. pertusa colonies and reefs, to promote the protection of key sites by 2005. (ACTION: JNCC, MAFF, SE)
Build on the advice and information to oil exploration and production companies on the sensitivity, conservation importance and ecological requirements of L. pertusa pseudo-colonies and reefs, to raise awareness and promote the protection of key sites. (ACTION: DTI, JNCC)
Take account of the conservation requirements for L. pertusa pseudo-colonies and reefs in the development and implementation of international marine resource management mechanisms (in particular, demersal fisheries and oil and gas exploration and production) especially through the OSPAR Convention and the revised Common Fisheries Policy. (ACTION: DETR, DTI, JNCC, MAFF, SE)

Species Actions

Acaulon triquetrum (Triangular Pygmy-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of triangular pygmy-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, NE)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Acosmetia caliginosa (Reddish Buff)
Encourage research on the status, autecology, conservation and genetics of this species throughout its international range and share the results to further its conservation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Acrobolbus wilsonii (Wilson's Pouchwort)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Wilson's pouchwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Acrocephalus paludicola (Aquatic Warbler)
Support initiatives, where appropriate and identified in the international Action Plan, which safeguard and enhance populations in other countries. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC)
Consider this species for protection under international legislation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE. NE, JNCC)
Identify and implement a method for monitoring aquatic warbler numbers on passage through the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)
Ensure continued monitoring of marsh warblers in Britain through the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. (ACTION: JNCC)
Acquire information on marsh warbler ecology from researchers in Europe and east Africa, in order to learn more about the factors determining habitat requirements during the breeding season, and survival on migration and during winter. (ACTION: JNCC)
Adelanthus lindenbergianus (Lindenberg's Featherwort)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Lindenberg's featherwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with the statutory authorities in the Irish Republic to learn from population trends in the larger Irish populations in relation to the management of oceanic heath. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Agabus brunneus (a Diving Beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Alauda arvensis (Skylark)
Survey habitat use to determine the distribution of farmland skylarks in relation to crop types. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake a detailed ecological study on skylarks on lowland farmland, to determine the reasons for decline, including examination of crop preferences, breeding success, diet and food supply. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure annual monitoring of breeding skylarks through the BTO/ JNCC/ RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Assess the wintering population of skylarks to put the UK population into a European context. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Alchemilla minima (Alchemilla)
Establish a consensus on the taxonomy of this species through discussion with the relevant experts and, if necessary, genetic screening. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research into the ecological and grazing management requirements of this species and factors which may be limiting its population size. This is a high priority and should be undertaken with a view to preparing guidelines on good management practice for the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Alectoria ochroleuca (a Lichen)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level, especially in its outlying localities. (ACTION: JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Alectoria ochroleuca, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Alisma gramineum (Ribbon-leaved Water-plantain)
Identify water quality requirements which will maintain population levels at all known sites, and use these as a basis for setting standards. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, NRA)
Collect and deposit seed in the National Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place and give encouragement to keeping plants in cultivation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, RBG Kew)
Collect and deposit seed in the National Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, RBG Kew)
Continue to investigate the feasibility of re-introducing plants to suitable sites if natural regeneration fails, once they can be propagated. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage regeneration from the natural seed bank at former sites, if conditions still remain suitable. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Investigate the source of enrichment at the Worcestershire site and monitor water quality at all extant sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, NRA)
Investigate the source of enrichment at the Worcestershire site. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, NRA)
Survey former sites to see whether any suitable habitat remains and attempt natural regeneration or reintroduction where feasible. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Promote ecological research on this species to identify optimum conditions for growth and reproduction. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on a international level, including the reasons for its decline and distribution, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species, to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Alosa alosa (Allis Shad)
Consider establishment of a monitoring scheme to record incidental catches by anglers catch and commercial fisheries. (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, NRA, SOAEFD, WOAD).
Promote genetic research to examine the speciation between the two species of shad. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Support a pan-European study of the shad to determine the status, genetics, biology and conservation needs of the shad across Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Prepare and distribute guidance to all coastal fishermen and angling centres in appropriate areas explaining the threat to the shad in the UK, reminding them of the legal protection afforded to allis shad and, if a monitoring scheme is established, explaining the need to record all catches and notify the appropriate body. (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Alosa fallax (Twaite Shad)
Consider establishing a monitoring scheme to record catches by anglers and commercial fisheries. (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, NRA, RPBs, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Support a pan-European study of the shad to determine the status, genetics, biology and conservation needs of the shad across Europe. (ACTION: JNCC)
Prepare and distribute guidance to all coastal fishermen and angling centres in appropriate areas explaining the threat to shad in the UK encouraging them to release twaite shad and, if a monitoring scheme is established, explaining the need to record all catches and notify the appropriate body. (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Andreaea frigida (Icy Rock Moss)
Collate existing information on populations of icy rock-moss. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of icy rock-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Anergates atratulus (Dark Guest Ant)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Anisus vorticulus (Ramshorn snail)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Anotrichium barbatum (a Red Alga)
Use presentations to draw attention to the need of establishing the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Aphodius niger (Beaulieu dung beetle)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Apium repens (Creeping Marshwort)
Keep plants in cultivation and collect seed, where possible, for the national seed bank at Wakehurst Place. Plants (of both genotypes) have already been collected in the absence ofviable seed and are in cultivation at Kew and Oxford Botanic Gardens. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Carry out a thorough survey and regular monitoring of former sites to establish whether any suitable habitat remains for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Promote research into the ecological and habitat requirements of this species, relative to A. nodiflorum, to enable correct management procedures and re-introduction. This should include its reproductive biology and possible pollinators, tolerance of grazing and the effects of periodic submergence. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Promote further genetic research to clarify the taxonomy of this species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on this species on the ecology and conservation an international level at use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List.(ACTION: JNCC)
Arabis glabra (Tower Mustard)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing tower mustard at selected sites should regeneration from the seed-bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Complete a national survey of extant and historic sites, identify the main threats at each and assess the ecological requirements of the plant. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Argynnis adippe (High Brown Fritillary)
Promote research into the butterfly’s ecological requirements to identify the management and conservation needs of the butterfly, including research on habitat management techniques and their impact on this species (especially in bracken habitats). (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Survey all former and potential sites to identify precise breeding areas and suitable sites for re-introduction. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Continue current butterfly monitoring transects on existing sites, collating and analysing data annually to compare trends at individual sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Armillaria ectypa (Marsh Honey Fungus)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of A. ectypa, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Artemisia norvegica (Norwegian Mugwort)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Arthothelium dictyosporum (a Lichen)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species. (ACTION: JNCC, RBGE, SNH)
Use Arthothelium dictyosporum as an example of the importance for nature conservation of a continuity of trees with smooth bark, especially hazel, holly and rowan, in semi-natural woodland habitats, but without resorting to coppicing. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Arthothelium dictyosporum, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Arthothelium macounii (a Lichen)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species. (ACTION: JNCC, RBGE, SNH)
Use Arthothelium macounii as an example of the importance for nature conservation of ancient stands of hazel in western Scotland, and for caution to be applied to any proposals for extensive clearance or coppicing of hazel in such areas. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of A. macounii, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Arvicola terrestris (Water Vole)
Promote research to quantify the effects of mink predation on water voles, and assess the logistics and efficacy of mink control. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake research to identify the causes of decline and appropriate measures to arrest it, including interactions with mink, effects of habitat fragmentation, and the effect of rodenticides and herbicides in riparian habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, NRA, SEPA, SNH)
Seek to establish a National Water Vole Monitoring Scheme based on indices and regular survey of key sites in all counties. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Survey to determine the distribution of the water voles throughout Britain, identifying key populations in all counties and regions. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research to evaluate the use of translocation programmes in restoring populations where they have been lost. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ascophyllum nodosum mackaii (Knotted wrack)
When the Habitats Directive Annexes are reviewed by the EC, consider proposing the inclusion of A. nodosum ecad mackaii as appropriate. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Complete the surveying and recording of the current distribution, extent, quality and associated biota of A. nodosum ecad mackaii. (ACTION: JNCC)
Commission research on the potential for the recovery of A. nodosum ecad mackaii beds. (ACTION: EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Asilus crabroniformis (Hornet robberfly)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Asparagus officinalis ssp. prostratus (Wild Asparagus)
If wild asparagus is found to be threatened in Europe (see 5.5.4), reconsider it for protection under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Ensure successful completion of the SAC designation for the candidate sites which include sections of the Gower Coast in Wales and the Lizard NNR in Cornwall, both of which support populations of the plant. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC)
Expand the survey of all extant and historic sites in Wales already carried out for CCW, by undertaking field surveys to establish current population numbers, status and distribution at English sites. Collate this information with field survey work recently carried out and in progress in Wales. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Monitor all extant populations in England and Wales to record data on population health, growth, flowering and fruiting. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Monitor the progress of any newly established populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Incorporate relevant findings from the ongoing review of the European status of wild asparagus into revisions of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Establish a consensus on the taxonomy of wild asparagus through discussion with the relevant experts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Athyrium flexile (Newman's Lady Fern)
If taxonomic status is verified, consider adding this species to Schedule 8 of the WCA 1981. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Atrina fragilis (Fan Mussel)
When the Annexes of the Habitats Directive are reviewed by the EC, consider proposing inclusion of A. fragilis as appropriate. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Promote the protection of A. fragilis under the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES). (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide advice and information on A. fragilis in regard to CITES and the Habitats Directive. (ACTION: JNCC)
Collate all the UK distribution records of A. fragilis to provide an indication of historical and current distribution and status. (ACTION: JNCC)
Instigate a national reporting scheme to ensure that all new records from fishermen, divers and others are added to the distribution database, to allow key sites to be identified, particularly where any aggregations of A. fragilis occur. (ACTION: JNCC)
Austropotamobius pallipes (Freshwater White-clawed Crayfish)
Make inventories of SSSIs/ASSIs which contain native crayfish populations. Monitor populations in protected areas. Maintain the detailed databases on the distribution of the native and non-native crayfish held at Nottingham University and the Biological Records Centre. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, NRA)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Bacidia incompta (a Lichen)
Consider Bacidia incompta for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if its status is confirmed as Vulnerable, if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will address the causes of its decline. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites to assess population changes and to ensure prompt identification of any new threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Compile a list of sites that would be worth searching for this species and distribute to active lichenologists. Particular note should be taken of old records where the tree is not elm. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Bacidia incompta, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Barbastella barbastellus (Barbastelle Bat)
Continue to search for maternity roosts and hibernation sites. On locating such sites, undertake autecological research and monitoring into the roosting requirements and foraging habitats of this species, with a view to refining habitat protection and management practices. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC )
Research the food and feeding requirements of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Develop and maintain a national database for bat records. (ACTION: JNCC)
Bartramia stricta (Rigid Apple-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of rigid apple-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Battarrea phalloides (Sandy Stiltball)
Consider adding the species to Schedule 8 of the WCA. (ACTION: DoE, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research into the ecological requirements of this species to underpin management advice. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Belonia calcicola (a Lichen)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will address the causes of its decline. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Commission a review of the taxonomy of this species, focussing on its relationship with B. russula. (ACTION: JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of B. calcicola, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Pyropteron chrysidiformis (Fiery Clearwing)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Bembidion argenteolum (a Ground Beetle)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Biatoridium monasteriense (a Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of B. monasteriense, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Bidessus minutissimus (a Diving Beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Bidessus unistriatus (a Diving Beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Blera fallax (a Hoverfly)
Consider adding Blera fallax to Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 by 2010. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Boletus regius (Royal Bolete)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of royal bolete, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species and other boletes, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Boletus satanas (Devil's Bolete)
Consider adding this species to Schedule 8 of the WCA 1981. (ACTION: DoE, NE, JNCC)
Promote research into the ecological requirements of this species to underpin management advice. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Consider the species for inclusion in a UK Red Data Book for fungi. (ACTION: JNCC)
Boloria euphrosyne (Pearl-bordered Fritillary)
Collate all recent records and update national distribution map by 1998. (ACTION: BRC, JNCC)
Encourage regular monitoring of extant sites, collating transect data annually and using this information to compare trends on individual sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Bombus sylvarum (Shrill Carder Bee)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Botaurus stellaris (Bittern)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Brachythecium appleyardiae (Appleyard's Feather-moss)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will address the causes of its decline. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Identify other potential habitats for this species in the carboniferous limestone regions of England. Compile, and distribute to active bryologists, a list of the areas which would be worth searching for Appleyard's feather-moss. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Appleyard's feather-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Bromus interruptus (Interrupted Brome)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of restoring self sustaining wild populations of interrupted brome within its former range. Then, if appropriate, undertake experimental (re)introductions at three carefully selected sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, RBG Kew)
Undertake a literature search and collate information to refine understanding of the history and ecology of this species. (ACTION: JNCC, RBG Kew)
Consult botanists in The Netherlands in order to determine the status of interrupted brome there. Exchange information on its ecological requirements and obtain advice on management which might be appropriate for its conservation in Britain. (ACTION: JNCC, RBG Kew)
Monitor any re established populations for at least 10 years. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, RBG Kew)
Bryoerythrophyllum caledonicum (Scottish Beard-moss)
Collate existing information on populations of Scottish beard-moss. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Scottish beard-moss including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Bryoria smithii (a Lichen)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, if it meets relevant criteria and if legal protection will address the causes of its decline. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of B. smithii, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Bryum mamillatum (Dune Threadmoss)
Compile information from published literature and commission new research if necessary to investigate the problems of falling water tables on sand dune systems including the Sefton Coast. (ACTION: EA, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of dune threadmoss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Bryum neodamense (Long-leaved Threadmoss)
Compile, and distribute to active bryologists, a list of dune systems and other suitable habitats worthy of searching for long-leaved threadmoss. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Compile information from published literature, and commission new research if necessary, to investigate the problems of falling water tables on sand-dune systems where this species occurs, including the Sefton Coast. (ACTION: EA, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of long-leaved threadmoss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Establish links with European bryologists in order to encourage survey for long-leaved threadmoss on the continent. Improved understanding of the European populations of this species will allow the importance of the British populations to be reassessed. (ACTION: JNCC)
Bryum warneum (Sea bryum)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of sea bryum, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Buellia asterella (Starry Breck-lichen)
If suitable habitat remains, undertake research to identify the most appropriate methods and carry out re-introductions of the species to five suitable, unoccupied sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage research into the ecological requirements of this species at other European sites and use the information gained to enhance the opportunities for the survival of the species in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Bufo calamita (Natterjack Toad)
SSSI objectives and if necessary guidelines need to be reviewed with reference to natterjack toad colonies to see if the level of protection and range of protected sites is appropriate to the national need . (Action: NE, SNH, CCW, JNCC, and NGOs)
Provide an over-view of objectives for translocation / re-introduction of the species. Translocation sites need to be within the same biogeographic region of an extinct colony not necessarily restricted to the exact localities. Co-ordinate and promote a prioritised list of translocation projects. (Appendix 2). (Action: HCT, JNCC, NE, CCW, SNH)
Encourage regular monitoring of known populations. Maintain and develop a network of recorders and ensure the continued production of the natterjack site register. (ACTION: JNCC)
This action requires the development of an appropriate national Biodiversity monitoring /recording scheme. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop opportunities to raise public awareness, including a slide pack and a leaflet on toad conservation. Progress reports on achievements of the strategy will be needed every 2-3 years. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Buglossoporus pulvinus (Oak Polypore)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of oak polypore, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to oak polypore, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Burhinus oedicnemus (Stone Curlew)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Buxbaumia viridis (Green Shield-Moss)
Discourage illegal collecting of this species and seek to ensure offenders are prosecuted. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD, Police Force)
Promote research into this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards conserving the species in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Ensure that the relevant societies are aware of the ecological and legal implications of collecting this species. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Calicium corynellum (a Lichen)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981 if it meets relevant criteria. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Callicera spinolae (a Hoverfly)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species in Europe, particularly the reasons for its decline, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Caloplaca aractina (a Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of C. aractina, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Caloplaca luteoalba (Orange-Fruited Elm-lichen)
Once suitable methods have been determined and sites identified, seek to restore five populations to former sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Attempt to provide mechanisms to reduce the impact of agrochemicals on surviving populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote a survey of all known and potential sites to determine the current distribution of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research into the ecological requirements of this species, including the suitability of host trees other than elm as a substrate for this lichen, and determine the most suitable methods for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Investigate potentially harmful effects of sulphur dioxide pollution and agricultural chemical sprays on this species and its host. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the knowledge and expertise gained towards its conservation within the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Establish periodic monitoring of sites to assess population size and identify potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Nightjar)
Monitor changes to the numbers and range of nightjars through a national survey every 10 years (next survey due in 2002) as part of the statutory agencies/RSPB programme of scarce bird monitoring. (ACTION: JNCC)
Carabus intricatus (Blue Ground Beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species on a European level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Carduelis cannabina (Linnet)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider the setting up of an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Study the diet of the linnet in different breeding habitats and relate this to nesting success. Information is required on the diet of adults at different stages of the year, particularly during the summer, and on the food supplied by the adults to chicks and fledglings. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Investigate winter survival of linnet in relation to habitat and food availability and hence improve knowledge of the winter habitat requirements of the species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Carex muricata ssp. muricata (Prickly Sedge)
Consider the inclusion of this taxon on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 at the earliest possible opportunity. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Survey all extant, historic and potential sites for this species in order to determine its current status. An assessment of current threats should be made at each site. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Investigate aspects of the seed biology of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Carex vulpina (True Fox Sedge)
Resurvey all known extant and historic sites for this species in order to determine its current distribution and status, and assess possible threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake detailed monitoring and ecological research on selected viable sites for this species in order to determine more precisely its requirements and the management techniques which should be employed for its conservation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Investigate the impacts of nutrient enrichment and pollution on populations of true fox-sedge and the value of buffer strips for the species. (ACTION: EA, NE, JNCC)
Catapyrenium psoromoides (Tree Catapyrenium)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level and use expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of tree catapyrenium, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Catinella arenaria (Sandbowl Snail)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species with European partners and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Catocala sponsa (Dark Crimson Underwing)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Centaurea cyanus (Cornflower)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of cornflower. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Continue with monitoring and research work on the Suffolk site, and extend to other sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support cornflower and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Cephaloziella nicholsonii (Greater Copperwort)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of greater copperwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Use greater copperwort as an example of a threatened bryophyte associated with metal-rich mine spoil in order to publicise the important lower plant communities of this habitat. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Cetorhinus maximus (Basking Shark)
Consider the possible listing of this species on Appendix II of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES) to enable monitoring and management of fisheries and international trade. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Develop and implement a code of conduct to reduce levels of harassment, in collaboration with scientists engaged in research on this species. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DTI, EHS, NE, JNCC, LAs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SFCs, SNH)
Consider opportunities for the protection of the species within European waters through a listing on Appendix II of both the Bern Convention and the Bonn Convention. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Develop and publish a code of conduct regarding interactions with basking sharks to reduce levels of harassment (see 5.2.1). (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SFCs, SNH)
Quantify and monitor population size, structure, dynamics and movement patterns and range of individuals occurring in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Improve long-term studies to: assess scientifically the population trends; elucidate migration and over-wintering areas which may identify locations where basking sharks mate and the pregnant females reside; and minimise unnatural mortality in these areas. Genetic studies may help determine the degree of mixing between populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Chaenotheca phaeocephala (a Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Chaenotheca phaeocephala, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Chara connivens (Convergent Stonewort)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of convergent stonewort. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake a research project in order to improve understanding of the ecological requirements of convergent stonewort. Particular emphasis should be given to assessing the impact of vegetation competition, water quality and boat traffic on the performance of this species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Chara curta (Lesser Bearded Stonewort)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of lesser bearded stonewort. Priority areas for survey include the Shetland Isles, from which there are no recent records. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Devise and implement a monitoring programme for all extant populations. This would need to cover an assessment of population size, current management and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake a research project in order to improve understanding of the water quality and other ecological requirements of lesser bearded stonewort. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Investigate the problems of falling water tables on sand dune systems including the Sefton Coast. A report should be produced identifying measures which are needed to ensure that water levels are maintained at optimal levels for the conservation of sand-dune biodiversity. The findings of the study should also be used to refine the action outlined under 5.1.2. (ACTION: EA, JNCC)
Chara muscosa (Mossy Stonewort)
If re-discovered, consider species for addition to Schedule 8 of the WCA 1981 and Appendix I of the Bern Convention. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC, SNH)
If re-discovered, encourage ecological research to establish the requirements and appropriate methods of monitoring this species. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Chrysotoxum octomaculatum (a Hoverfly)
Encourage research on the ecology and status of this species in Europe and use the information gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Cicadetta montana (New Forest Cicada)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Cladonia botrytes (Stump Lichen)
In order to maximise possibilities of finding new localities, promote awareness among foresters and local conservation workers of the species through a 'wanted' poster with colour illustrations of the species. (ACTION: FC, JNCC, SNH)
Establish links with lichenologists and foresters in Scandinavia to ascertain its status there and any effects of stump treatment or forest pratice. (ACTION: JNCC, RBGE, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of stump lichen, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Cladonia mediterranea (Reindeer Lichen)
Undertake an investigation to clarify the distinction between C. mediterranea and C. portentosa, and use the findings to help revise earlier records attributed to C. mediterranea. (ACTION: JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Cladonia mediterranea including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Cladonia peziziformis (a Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Cladonia peziziformis, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Cochlearia micacea (Mountain Scurvy-grass)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Coenagrion mercuriale (Southern Damselfly)
Encourage research on the ecology and status of this species with European partners, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Coincya wrightii (Lundy Cabbage)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Collema dichotomum (River Jelly Lichen)
Following feasibility studies and identification of appropriate sites, seek to restore five populations to unoccupied sites when suitable conditions have been provided. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Establish a protocol for regular monitoring of this species and the water quality in the vicinity of known sites. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Use the river jelly lichen to highlight threats from eutrophication to the ecology of streams. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Coregonus albula (Vendace)
Prepare and distribute a poster or leaflet on vendace to interested groups in catchments of existing populations or lochs where it is proposed to re-introduce the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Coscinia cribraria bivittata (Speckled Footman)
Encourage research on the ecology and status of this species at an international level and seek to establish whether the subspecies C.c. bivittata is endemic to Britain. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Cosmia diffinis (White-spotted Pinion)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Cotoneaster integerrimus (Wild Cotoneaster)
Continue propagation of plants and maintain stocks in cultivation, but cease translocation into the wild pending the outcome of taxonomic and genetic studies. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, LA)
Discourage illegal collecting of this species and ensure that offenders are prosecuted. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, LAs, WO)
Undertake genetic research to clarify the taxonomy of the species. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Carry out ecological research to identify the optimum conditions for growth and management requirements of this species. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Seek to establish a formal monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW,JNCC)
If found to be an established introduction, monitor the effects of the existing 33 plants (and progeny) on the native flora. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Crepis foetida (Stinking Hawk's-Beard)
Assess the feasibility of reintroducing stinking hawk's-beard at the other sites where it was formerly recorded. If they prove unsuitable, introductions should be attempted at alternative sites within the original range of the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Make contact with European universities and herbaria and carry out literature searches to increase understanding of the European status of this species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Crex crex (Corncrake)
Review the factors affecting corncrake migration and wintering grounds. (ACTION: DoE(NI), JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Cryphaea lamyana (Multi-fruited River Moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of multi-fruited river moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Cryptocephalus coryli (Hazel pot beetle)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Shargacucullia lychnitis (Striped Lynchis)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Curimopsis nigrita (Mire Pill-Beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Cypripedium calceolus (Lady's Slipper Orchid)
Maintain the ex-situ conservation programme based on micro-propogation techniques. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, RBG Kew)
Maintain the stock of the three (possibly four) known genotypes of wild origin in several ‘safe’ holdings. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Research the most appropriate methods to store seed for its long-term viability. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, RBG Kew)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Damasonium alisma (Starfruit)
Work closely with other European countries to establish the status, ecology and conservation requirements of this species and use information and expertise towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Desmatodon cernuus (Flamingo Moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of flamingo moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC )
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford Pink)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing this species to selected historic sites should regeneration from the seed-bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Resurvey all native sites where Deptford pink has been recorded since 1970, and consider a more extensive survey of potential sites, in order to determine its current status, ensure that appropriate management is in place, and identify threats to remaining populations. At least 10 historic sites should also be investigated with a view to clarifying the reasons for the decline of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Undertake research into the autecology of Deptford pink with a view to refining management techniques for its conservation. (ACTION: JNCC)
Assess the current status of the species in Europe and if appropriate contact European colleagues with a view to exchanging information on the conservation of this species. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Dicycla oo (Heart Moth)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Didymodon mamillosus (Perthshire Beard-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Perthshire beard-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Didymodon tomaculosus (Sausage Beard-moss)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Continue with monitoring and research work extend to sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for these species. (Action: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support these species and other threatened arable species (Action: NE, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of sausage beard-moss including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats (Action: JNCC)
Ditrichum cornubicum (Cornish Path Moss)
Promote research into the ecological requirements of this species to assess the potential for introduction or translocation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Ditrichum plumbicola (Lead-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of lead-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, CCW, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage surveys for this species in other parts of Europe. (ACTION: JNCC)
Use lead-moss as an example of a threatened bryophyte associated with metal-rich mine spoil in order to publicise the importance of lower plant communities of this habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Dolomedes plantarius (Fen Raft Spider)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Edwardsia ivelli (Ivell's sea anemone)
Continue to search for this species through surveys of brackish lagoon habitat. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of the breeding population through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider setting up an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Analyse information on breeding habitats on farmland which was gathered during the BTO corn bunting survey. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider the need for a detailed study into the ecology of the reed bunting. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
As appropriate, use the reed bunting as an example when highlighting the issue of declining farmland birds. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote a change in perception of wild plants on farmland as essential food sources for seed-eating farmland birds, rather than as 'weeds'. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Enterographa elaborata (New Forest beech-lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Enterographa elaborata, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, EHS, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: EHS, NE, JNCC)
Enterographa sorediata (a Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of E. sorediata, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Ephemerum stellatum (Starry Earth-moss)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Continue with monitoring and research work extend to sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for these species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support these species and other threatened arable species (Action: NE, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of starry earth-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats (Action: JNCC)
Epione vespertaria (Dark-Bordered Beauty)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Epipactis youngiana (Young's Helleborine)
Promote investigation of the status of the populations at the known sites, and the possible fourth site in south Wales. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Establish long-term monitoring programmes for each population. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote investigation of the ecological requirements of this species and the relationship with canopy density. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Eurodryas aurinia (Marsh Fritillary)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Eustroma reticulata (Netted Carpet)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Filago lutescens (Red-tipped Cudweed)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of undertaking reintroductions at selected sites should attempts to regenerate red tipped cudweed from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Devise and implement a monitoring programme for this species at all sites with extant and restored populations. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support red tipped cudweed and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Filago pyramidata (Broad-leaved Cudweed)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of undertaking reintroductions at selected sites, should attempts to regenerate broad leaved cudweed from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Ensure continued monitoring on all sites with extant or restored populations for at least a further five years. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Fissidens exiguus (Tiny Fern-moss)
Encourage international research on the distribution, status and ecology of this species, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of tiny fern-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Formica candida (Black bog ant)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of the species at an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Formica exsecta (Narrow-headed Ant)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this ant at an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation both in the UK and internationally. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Formica pratensis (Black-Backed Meadow Ant)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level and use the information and experience gained towards its conservation both in the UK and internationally. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Formica rufibarbis (Red Barbed Ant)
Encourage research into the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Fumaria occidentalis (Western Ramping-fumitory)
Promote research the ecology of this species, including establishing seed viability and investigating the extent of the seed-bank to underpin appropriate management advice (Action: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Fumaria purpurea (Purple Ramping-fumitory)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of purple ramping fumitory, and to assess current site management and threats to remaining populations in arable and non arable habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake monitoring on a representative number of extant sites in different parts of the range, with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support purple ramping fumitory and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Galeopsis angustifolia (Red Hemp-nettle)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing red hemp nettle at selected sites, should attempts to regenerate it from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing these species at selected sites should regeneration from the seed bank prove unsuccessful (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate information and survey extant, historic and potential sites in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of red hemp nettle; to assess current site management and threats to remaining populations; and to determine more precisely the reasons for its decline. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Continue with monitoring and research work extend to sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for these species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake detailed monitoring on extant and restored sites with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Galium tricornutum (Corn Cleavers)
Undertake trial management at eight carefully selected historic sites with the aim of regenerating corn cleavers from the seed bank. Where regeneration is successful, beneficial management should be implemented immediately. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing this species at selected historic sites, should regeneration from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Survey extant, historic and selected potential sites in order to determine the current status of corn cleavers. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake monitoring on all extant and restored sites with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support these species and other threatened arable species (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support this species and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Gentianella anglica (Early Gentian)
Carry out studies on the population ecology and genetics of the early gentian to assess its suitability for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Gentianella uliginosa (Dune Gentian)
Following further survey and assessment, review the need for protection of this species under Annex II of the EU Habitats and Species Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD)
Collate information and undertake surveys where necessary in order to establish an accurate population size and distribution baseline. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake surveys of sites in Devon and Derbyshire from which dune gentian has been reported in the past. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Commission research into the threats posed to dune gentian by afforestation and overstabilisation of dune systems, and how to mitigate them. (ACTION: CCW, FA, JNCC, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Undertake research, in collaboration with European botanists, to examine the taxonomy, seed-bank and germination ecology, and European status of dune gentian. (ACTION: JNCC)
Encourage exchange of information on the ecology of dune gentian and management techniques for its conservation between conservation managers in Wales and Scotland, and the relevant botanical experts. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Use the conservation of dune gentian and other rare sand dune species covered by published action plans to illustrate the consequences of dune system overstabilisation for biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Graphina pauciloculata (a Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Graphinia pauciloculata, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Grouped plan for commercial marine fish
UK statutory and voluntary environmental groups, and international NGOs, (eg WWF, FoE, BirdLife International, Greenpeace) should endeavour to persuade environmental organisations in other EU countries to put pressure on their own ministers to modify the CFP. (ACTION: JNCC)
Determine the risk that modern fishing techniques could result in shoaling (ie pelagic) species being fished to extinction by removal of the last shoal. (ACTION: Fisheries Departments, JNCC, NERC, SFIA)
Grouped plan for deep-water fish
UK statutory and voluntary environmental groups should encourage their international partners to persuade their national governments to apply similar pressure to the EU Commission. (ACTION: JNCC)
Carry out research into the possible impacts of deep-water fishing on the total fish assemblage using datasets which pre-date the fisheries. (ACTION: JNCC, MAFF, NERC, SE)
Educate the public and the fishing industry on the special features of the deep-water fisheries and the fragility of the resource. (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, SE, SFIA)
Grouped plan for eyebrights
Encourage research to compare the taxonomy and ecology of these species with related species outside the UK and use the information and expertise towards the conservation of species within the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Grouped plan for marine turtles
Review the value of the Bonn Convention in providing further protective measures for marine turtles by 2004. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Introduce a code of practice for the ‘repatriation’, where necessary, of cheloniid turtle species which are occasionally stranded live on UK shores by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Set up a central UK database for marine turtle records by 2002. (ACTION: JNCC)
Pass on all records to the central UK database and ensure marine survey projects (eg by-catch surveys, seabirds at sea surveys) record and submit any marine turtle information. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage projects involved with the study of by-catch to include assessments of impacts on marine turtle populations. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SE, SNH, NAW)
Establish and support by 2004 a system for undertaking autopsies on dead turtle specimens and distributing biological material to specialists, including those working abroad, in order to determine causes of death, to improve knowledge of marine turtle biology and the threats to turtles in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Further promote a system for undertaking surveillance of marine turtles in UK waters and reporting results. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, NE, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Further promote a system for monitoring and reporting incidental capture and killing of marine turtles. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, NE, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage and support projects which add to knowledge and understanding of the biology of turtles and the threats they face, when in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Encourage the submission of old and new records of living, entangled or dead stranded turtles through appropriate publications and the media. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NHM, SNH)
Promote the need of global conservation through local action using these truly transglobal species as champions. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, EHS, NE, FCO, JNCC, SNH)
Grouped plan for river shingle beetles
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of these species on an international level and use the experience gained towards their conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Grouped plan for small dolphins
By 2001 encourage commercial dolphin-watching and other vessels to follow a code of conduct when operating in the vicinity of dolphins, which minimises the disturbance to these animals and the chance of injury. (ACTION: CCW, DCMS, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Before offshore oil and gas exploration licences are awarded by DTI, include in Environmental Impact Assessments a detailed evaluation of seasonal use to determine dolphin distribution within any proposed licence block. (ACTION: DTI, JNCC)
Give consideration to the feasibility of marine protected areas for dolphins in the context of the proposed DETR working group on marine protected areas. These should include consideration of the importance of the area for calving, as a nursery ground and for feeding. (ACTION: DoE(NI), DETR, JNCC, NAW, SE)
Review advice on the best measures to avoid disturbance of dolphins. Ensure that this advice, and other on avoiding by-catches and injury, is readily available to all organisations: commercial, military and recreational. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote among oil, gas and geophysical exploration industries a better understanding of cetaceans and the effects of underwater sounds upon their lives. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Improve as necessary seismic guidelines for use by the oil and gas exploration companies. (ACTION: DETR, DTI, JNCC)
Establish independent observer schemes for monitoring by catches from all fisheries (including drift-net, pelagic trawl, fixed bottom set gill-net) thought to pose a threat to dolphin populations in UK waters. (ACTION: DANI, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE)
Commission autecological studies of all UK dolphin species to identify appropriate habitat management needs. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, NERC, SE, SNH)
Support research into predicting the effects of climate change on small dolphins. (ACTION: DETR, DoE(NI), JNCC, MAFF, NAW, NERC, SE)
By 2002, produce illustrative information material for specific coastal regions emphasising the value of habitats they contain for promoting dolphin biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI) NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider promoting the use of baffles over propeller blades of whale and dolphin watching boats to safeguard against physical damage. Provide instruction and regulation for the maintenance of propeller blades to reduce high frequency sound generated from cavitation. (ACTION: DETR, DTI, JNCC, SE)
Grouped plan for tooth fungi
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of tooth fungi, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002 (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to tooth fungi, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Grouped plan for toothed whales
Support and continue to improve agreed codes of conduct to reduce disturbance from acoustic sources (see 3.2). (ACTION: DTI, DETR, JNCC)
By 2001 encourage commercial dolphin-watching and other vessels to follow a code of conduct when operating in the vicinity of toothed whales, which minimises the disturbance to these animals and the chance of injury. A definition of harassment, which did not require proof of intent to disturb, should be considered.(ACTION: CCW, DCMS, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Identify important sites used by toothed whales for breeding and feeding. Area protection measures should then be sought for these locations. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Continue to promote among oil and gas and geophysical exploration industries a better understanding of cetaceans and the effects of underwater sounds upon their lives. (ACTION: DTI, JNCC)
Provide advice, as appropriate, to international fora involved in the conservation of north Atlantic toothed whales (eg IWC, CITES, ICES). (ACTION: DANI, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE)
Support long-term monitoring of population abundance and distribution via dedicated surveys and platforms of opportunity. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Support research into population structure and habitat use to identify waters which may be particularly suitable for toothed whales and which may qualify for further protection. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, DETR, JNCC, SE)
Support work into the effects of contaminants on toothed whale populations, including the development of indicators such as biomarkers. (ACTION: EHS, DETR, EA, JNCC, MAFF, NERC, SE, SEPA)
Support research into predicting the effects of climate change on toothed whales. (ACTION: DETR, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, NERC, SE)
Investigate access to and consider the use of previously unused data on cetacean distributions, eg Hydrographic Office surveys. (ACTION: DETR, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, NERC, SE, SNH)
Continue to support research into the effects of acoustic disturbance. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC, NERC)
Support research into identifying marine living resources utilised by toothed whales and the environmental changes related to fishing. (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, SE)
By 2004, produce illustrative information material emphasising the value of particular offshore habitats for a diversity of toothed whale species. This should be directed at the fishing industry, oil and gas industry, merchant shipping and ferry operators. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote wider dissemination of Codes of Conduct for recreational users to minimise human disturbance in coastal waters through production of material at strategic coastal sites. Recomendations in the Codes of Conduct should be consistent between regions although adaptations to local circumstances and species may be required. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, LAs, SE, SNH)
Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (Mole Cricket)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level and use the information and experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Gryllus campestris (Field Cricket)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Gyalecta ulmi (Elm Gyalecta)
Encourage studies on the ecology of this species to identify best methods, and the suitability of introduced elms, for translocation or re-introduction. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species at an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Gyalideopsis scotica (a Lichen)
Consider Gyalideopsis scotica for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, if it fulfils the relevant criteria and should this species be considered under serious threat from botanical collection. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Gyalideopsis scotica, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Halecania rhypodiza (a Lichen)
Consider Halecania rhypodiza for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, if it meets relevant criteria and if legal protection will help safeguard extant populations. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Halecania rhypodiza, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Hamatocaulis vernicosus (Slender Green Feather-moss)
Herbarium specimens from all sites at which D. vernicosus has been recorded should be examined to determine the true status and distribution of the species (and S. cossonii). (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
If following herbarium work, D. vernicosus is found to be genuinely rare, known sites should be surveyed to determine its current status. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
If species is found to be genuinely threatened, encourage research to determine the ecological requirements of the species to underpin appropriate advice on habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
No publicity necessary at present. Statutory agency staff should be made aware of the necessity to clarify the status of the plant. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Hammerschmidtia ferruginea (a Hoverfly)
Consider adding Hammerschmidtia ferruginea to Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Herbertus borealis (Northern Prongwort)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of northern prongwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Hericium erinaceum (Bearded Tooth)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of H. erinaceum, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Hesperia comma (Silver-Spotted Skipper)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Heterodermia leucomelos (Ciliate Strap-lichen)
Undertake a research project to improve understanding of the ecological requirements of this species, with the aim of producing guidelines on management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of ciliate strap-lichen, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Hieracium Sect Alpestria
Consider the rarest species (H. hethlandiae, H. difficile and H. breve) for protection under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it appears likely that deliberate action threatens their survival. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Hirudo medicinalis (Medicinal Leech)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Hydroporus rufifrons (a Diving Beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience to inform habitat management in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Hygrocybe calyptriformis (Pink Waxcap)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of pink meadow cap including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Hygrocybe spadicea (Date Waxcap)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of date-coloured waxcap, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Hypena rostralis (Buttoned Snout)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Hypocreopsis rhododendri (Hazel Gloves)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will address the threats to it. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Idaea dilutaria (Silky Wave)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Idaea ochrata (Bright Wave)
Encourage research on the status and distribution of this species on an international level and use the information gained towards its conservation in the UK (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Jamesoniella undulifolia (Marsh Earwort)
Ensure land managers are aware of the presence, legal protection and importance of conserving this species, and provide information on appropriate management. (ACTION: NE, SNH, JNCC)
Survey potential sites in Cornwall and Argyll (and if possible, sites on the west coast of Scotland) to identify if the earwort is present elsewhere. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage ecological research on this species, including the dispersal and population dynamics, to help understand its limited distribution and identify threats to the survival of theplant. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Use the decline in species to highlight the importance of mosses and liverworts and the importance of appropriate management of mire habitats for their survival. (ACTION: NE, SNH, JNCC)
Juncus pygmaeus (Pygmy Rush)
Undertake research in order to increase understanding of the biology and ecological requirements of this species and to refine management techniques for its conservation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Lacerta agilis (Sand Lizard)
Review Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981and Habitats Regulations 1994 to ensure they provide adequate protection for and means of conserving sand lizards and provision for enforcement to allow these to be effective (Action: DETR, police/PAW, JNCC)
Investigate and refine methods for permanently controlling and redressing habitat degradation by bracken and Gaultheria shallon. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF and HCT: link to Heathland HAP project)
Investigate and refine methods for permanently controlling and redressing habitat degradation by bracken and Gaultheria. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF)
Evaluate the genetic difference between the Merseyside, Weald and Dorset populations (Action: NE, JNCC, Sussex University and HCT)
Evaluate the genetic differences between the Merseyside, Weald and Dorset populations. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage the regular monitoring of known populations, devise monitoring objectives and devise a meaningful and repeatable method for assessing the status of these populations (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, ARGs: co-ordinated by HCT)
Encourage the regular monitoring of known populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Develop, and populate with data, rare reptile database(s) and develop protocols and agreements for exchange and use of data. Link this action to 5.2.1 and 5.2.2. (Action: JNCC, HCT, ARGs, Sefton MBC, LRCs)
Develop and populate with data, rare reptile database(s) and develop protocols and agreements for exchange and use of data. Link this action to 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 (Action: JNCC, HCT, ARGs, Sefton MBC, LRCs)
Lanius collurio (Red-Backed Shrike)
Monitor breeding attempts through the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. (ACTION: JNCC)
Encourage research into the ecology and management needs of this species throughout the year in order to improve the chances of re-colonisation and the success of any breeding attempts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Lecanactis hemisphaerica (Churchyard Lecanactis)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of churchyard lecanactis, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Leersia oryzoides (Cut-grass)
Assess the possibility of regenerating cut-grass at suitable historic sites and, if appropriate, undertake experimental management to achieve this. If this fails, the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing cut-grass at selected sites should be considered. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake ecological research with a view to identifying, more precisely, the requirements of cut-grass and refining management techniques for its conservation. Attention should be given to the influence of water pollution on the performance of this species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European botanists, particularly those in areas where cut-grass grows abundantly, so as to improve understanding of the biology and ecological requirements of this plant. (ACTION: JNCC)
Lejeunea mandonii (Atlantic lejeunea)
Consider addition of species to Schedule 8 of the WCA 1981. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC)
Survey all former and potential sites to determine the distribution of this species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage ecological research on this species, including population dynamics, to help identify the reasons for its disappearance from former sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, particularly with others on the Atlantic fringe, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Leptodontium gemmascens (Thatch Moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of thatch moss including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Lepus europaeus (Brown Hare)
Review the use of legislation pertaining to shooting and selling of hares in the light of research findings on the seasonality of reproduction. (ACTION: CCW, DOE, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Seek to develop a strategy for the conservation and monitoring of the brown hare (possibly as part of a wider mammals strategy). (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH, JNCC)
Review legislation pertaining to the shooting and selling of the hare in the light of new research findings on the seasonality of hare productivity. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC)
Prepare and distribute a management advisory booklet for hares. (ACTION: JNCC)
Repeat the National Hare Survey at appropriate intervals. (ACTION: JNCC)
Use the popularity of brown hares to highlight the impact on biodiversity of modern agricultural practices and loss of mixed farms. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Limoniscus violaceus (Violet Click Beetle)
Encourage further research on the distribution and ecology of this species with European partners. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Limonium binervosum agg.
Following further taxonomic clarification reconsider this group of species for addition to Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Consider proposing the British endemic rock sea lavenders for inclusion on Annex II of the EU Habitats and Species Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC)
Promote continued research into the genetics and taxonomy of L. binervosum agg and use the findings to inform future reviews of this action plan. (ACTION: JNCC)
Collate information from relevant experts and re-survey sites where necessary in order to assess the status of populations of L. binervosum agg. The species L. parvum and L. loganicum should both be treated as priorities for further survey with the aim of finding additional sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Investigate current threats to populations including an assessment of the effects of adjacent land uses, eg herbicide drift. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Investigate the approach that has been adopted towards the conservation of L. binervosum agg elsewhere in Europe and where appropriate apply the knowledge so gained to the conservation of the group in Britain. (ACTION: JNCC)
Establish good baselines for the monitoring of rock sea-lavenders. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liparis loeselii (Fen Orchid)
Research further seed-bank viability and dormancy, and habitat requirements to help conserve the species in situ. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Investigate the feasibility of translocation to dune systems within forests, including the potential of rotational tree felling to provide appropriate successional stages. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards it conservation both in the UK and at a European level. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Lophozia rutheana (Norfolk Flapwort)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Loxia scotica (Scottish Crossbill)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Lucanus cervus (Stag Beetle)
Consider adding this species to Schedule 5 of the WCA 1981. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)
Monitor the UK breeding population of woodlarks every 10 years through the statutory agencies'/RSPB programme of scarce bird monitoring (next survey due in 2007). (ACTION: JNCC)
Luronium natans (Floating Water Plantain)
Encourage ecological studies of this species to support site management and translocationprogrammes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research into the effects of acidification of water bodies on the survival of this species in acid-sensitive areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species on a European level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Lutra lutra (Otter)
Seek to secure agreement on the UK Framework for Otter Conservation. (ACTION: JNCC)
Review the protection afforded to otters by current legislation and investigate the usefulness and appropriateness of licensing to control release of otters. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Identify and resolve problems with existing legislation. Seek to clarify the definition of "trap" in the WCA 1981 and resolve inconsistencies over the use of otter guards on fishtraps. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Seek to establish an "Otter Forum" to co-ordinate conservation, information exchange, publicity and research. (ACTION: JNCC)
Ensure otter releases are carried out only under the guidelines set out in the Framework for Otter Conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Collate information on prey productivity, biomass and pollution in occupied and likely re-colonisation areas. (ACTION: DANI, DoE(NI), ITE, JNCC, NRA, SEPA, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop a standard methodology to analyse the level of pollution accumulation in otters. (ACTION: DANI, DoE(NI), JNCC, NRA, SEPA, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Investigate the effects of disturbance on otter populations. (ACTION: DoE(NI), JNCC, NRA, SEPA)
Develop and implement methods to estimate otter numbers and permit population modelling. (ACTION: DoE(NI), JNCC, NRA, SEPA)
Monitor populations and distribution of otters throughout the UK, including local survey to monitor the expansion of fringe populations. (ACTION: JNCC)
Use this popular species to publicise the importance of water quality and riparian habitats to biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, JNCC, SNH, NRA, SEPA)
Lycaena dispar (Large Copper Butterfly)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Lycopodiella inundata (Marsh Clubmoss)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of establishing an ex-situ conservation programme, and implement promptly if appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate all known information on extant and former British sites, re-surveying sites where necessary to determine the current distribution and status of this species, assess management regimes and identify current threats. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake research into the ecological requirements of this species and the reasons for its decline. Research should include a comparison of survival and performance on sites selected for a range of management conditions in order to inform positive management agreements to maintain and enhance existing populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake further surveys for the plant, particularly in Scotland and north Wales where new sites may await discovery. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research into the European status of this species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Lysandra bellargus (Adonis Blue)
Collate population monitoring data and management data from all monitored sites annually, and calculate an annual index to compare trends on individual sites. Review and extend the network if necessary. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Maculinea arion (Large Blue Butterfly)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Margaritifera margaritifera (Freshwater Pearl Mussel)
Review the protection given to the species under the WCA 1981. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list . (ACTION: JNCC)
Consider convening a conference on the conservation of freshwater mussels in the UK, to promote co-ordination of effort. (ACTION: JNCC)
Marsupella profunda (Western Rustwort)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Melanitta nigra (Common Scoter)
Consider the adoption of improved pollution prevention and control measures, including MEHRAs, and shipping management measures. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, EA, EHS, NE, Harbour authorities, JNCC, LAs, MCA, SEPA, SNH)
Take forward enforcement of MARPOL limits on deliberate discharges, port waste management plans and oil spill contingency planning. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, EA, EHS, NE, Harbour authorities, JNCC, LAs, MCA, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that licensing of offshore oil and gas blocks does not detrimentally affect important wintering or moulting sites of common scoters. (ACTION: CCW, DTI, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Revise methods of survey and monitoring of wintering common scoters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research into the wintering grounds of UK breeding birds and the origins of birds wintering in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Raise the profile of common scoter as a species that has recently become extinct as a breeder in Northern Ireland and is under threat from land-use changes in the Flow Country. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Mellicta athalia (Heath Fritillary)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Mentha pulegium (Pennyroyal)
Collate information on the status of pennyroyal throughout Europe. (ACTION: JNCC)
Microglossum olivaceum (Olive Earthtongue)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Miliaria calandra (Corn Bunting)
Carry out further studies to gain an adequate understanding of the ecological requirements of the corn bunting, including the role of different factors in the decline of the species in different parts of the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of the breeding population through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider setting up an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
As appropriate, use the corn bunting as an example when highlighting the issue of declining farmland birds. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote the importance of traditional crofting with cattle and mixed cultivation for the conservation of corn buntings in western Scotland, and of traditional ley farming elsewhere in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote a change in perception of wild plants on farmland as essential food sources for seed-eating farmland birds, rather than as 'weeds'. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Muscardinus avellanarius (Dormouse)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species in an international context. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)
Analyse BTO Nest Record Cards from the 1960s to look for changes in productivity which might explain the recent population decline. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake a study into the summer ecology and habitat use of spotted flycatchers, including an investigation of the relationship between diet/insect availability, the growth/survival of chicks and fledging success. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH, WOAD)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of spotted flycatcher numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH, WOAD)
Myotis bechsteinii (Bechstein's Bat)
Continue to search for maternity and cave roosting sites. On locating such sites, undertake autecological research and monitoring into the roosting requirements and foraging habitats of this species, with a view to refining habitat protection and management practices and producing guidelines on the construction and installation of artificial roosts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, FC)
Research the food and feeding requirements of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Develop and maintain a national database for bat records. (ACTION: JNCC)
Myxas glutinosa (Glutinous Snail)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species with European partners and use the information and experience gained towards its conservation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list . (ACTION: JNCC)
Najas flexilis (Slender Naiad)
Maintain a flow of information between statutory conservation agencies and agencies responsible for water quality over the location of Najas flexilis and its requirements. (ACTION: SEPA, JNCC, SNH)
Survey former and potential sites to ascertain the precise distribution of this species in Britain, including the use of underwater survey techniques where necessary. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the distribution and ecology of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Najas marina (Holly-leaved Naiad)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species with other countries experiencing the same threats to the species, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Nematostella vectensis (Starlet Sea Anemone)
Continue programme to conserve lagoon habitats under the EC Habitats Directive, to benefit this species. (ACTION: DoE, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Nitella gracilis (Slender Stonewort)
Commission a review of all British records of slender stonewort. The review is needed because it is now thought that many of the early records of this species were erroneous. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Following the review of slender stonewort records outlined under 5.5.1, collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Commission a research project in order to improve understanding of the ecological requirements of this species. Following the research, management guidelines should be produced and used to refine conservation action for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Nitella tenuissima (Dwarf Stonewort)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of dwarf stonewort. The survey should include a search of pools close to extant colonies, that have not been adequately surveyed in recent years. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Nitellopsis obtusa (Starry Stonewort)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of starry stonewort. Survey work should include a survey of gravel pits surrounding the known Gloucestershire site, and a check of the reported site for this species in Perthshire. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake a research project to investigate further the habitat requirements and reproductive ecology of starry stonewort. The research should include an assessment of the effects of boat traffic on the performance of this species, the significance of competition from other aquatic vegetation and the effects of phosphate pollution. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Oberea oculata (Eyed longhorn beetle)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Opegrapha paraxanthodes (a Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Opegrapha paraxanthodes, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Oria musculosa (Brighton Wainscot)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Orthodontium gracile (Slender Thread-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of slender thread-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Orthotrichum obtusifolium (Blunt-leaved Bristle-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of blunt-leaved bristle-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Orthotrichum pallens (Pale Bristle-moss)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will address the causes of its decline. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of pale bristle-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Pallavicinia lyellii (Veilwort)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of veilwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Panagaeus cruxmajor (Crucifix ground beetle)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Paracymus aeneus (Bembridge beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Pareulype berberata (Barberry Carpet)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Passer montanus (Tree Sparrow)
Carry out an historical review of the species, including analysis of existing BTO Nest Record Cards, in order to investigate the possible reasons for decline. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider the setting up of an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Peltigera lepidophora (Ear-lobed Dog-lichen)
Encourage research on the ecology and status of this species at an international level, especially in Europe outside of Scandinavia. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of ear-lobed dog-lichen, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Perdix perdix (Grey Partridge)
Continue to investigate the ecological requirements of the grey partridge to help develop management advice. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Encourage regular monitoring of the UK population through census work and bag returns. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote further research into the indirect effects of agrochemical use on the grey partridge. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Petalophyllum ralfsii (Petalwort)
Discourage illegal collecting of this species and seek to ensure offenders are prosecuted. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure that relevant societies are aware of the legal and ecological implications of collecting this species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake a survey of all former and potential sites to determine the current distribution of this species in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species on an international level, particularly the reasons for its decline throughout the current range, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Seek to monitor extant populations and identify further threats to this species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Use this species to highlight the importance of dune systems and the threats facing them. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Phocoena phocoena (Harbour Porpoise)
Continue to introduce agreed codes of conduct to reduce disturbance from acoustic sources and physical pressures. (ACTION: CCW, NE, DoE(NI), JNCC, SNH)
Review existing UK marine site protection to determine how it might be improved. If appropriate, introduce additional protection and emergency designation to benefit the species. (ACTION: DoE, DoE(NI), JNCC, SOAEFD)
Introduce codes of practice to reduce disturbance from whale-watching.(ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH,)
Expand research on the areas frequented by harbour porpoise to identify waters which may qualify for further protection as SACs or Marine Nature Reserves. (ACTION: DoE(NI), JNCC)
Establish long-term research on population and conservation needs of all small cetaceans in UK waters, co-ordinated through ASCOBANS. (ACTION: DoE, DOE(NI), JNCC)
Subject to the results of the research at 3.2, consider monitoring of UK population and reporting of by-catches of small cetaceans (including observers on vessels, where feasible). (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, SOAEFD)
Promote research into the causes of death of the harbour porpoise within UK waters to determine the context and need for future conservation action. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage international exchange of information to assess and, if appropriate, reduce by-catches. (ACTION: DANI, DoE, JNCC, MAFF)
Pilularia globulifera (Pillwort)
Consider proposing that this species be added to Appendix I of the Bern Convention and Annex IIb of the EU Habitats and Species Directive. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC, SOAEFD)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of (re)introducing the species to suitable new and former sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate all known information on extant and lost UK sites. (ACTION: JNCC)
Continue with research into techniques for ex-situ conservation (eg cryopreservation). (ACTION: JNCC, RBG Edinburgh, RBG Kew)
Investigate the effects of competitive non-native marginal plants, eg Australian swamp stonecrop, on pillwort populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Pipistrelle Bat)
Undertake research to clarify the taxonomic status of pipistrelle bats in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Continue to research the habitat requirements and ecology of the species to help develop appropriate management advice. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Develop and implement a systematic survey technique to clarify the conservation status of the species in the UK. This should include monitoring of summer maternity roosts and the extent and effect of reproductive isolation of summer colonies used for monitoring. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of pipistrelles on an international level. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pisidium tenuilineatum (Freshwater pea mussel)
Research ecological requirements of the species, including habitat requirements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Pohlia scotica (Scottish Pohlia)
Assess the status of Scottish pohlia against revised Red Data Book criteria. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Scottish pohlia, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Polia bombycina (Pale Shining Brown)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Poronia punctata (Nail Fungus)
Promote research on the effects of veterinary products used for horses on the ecology of this species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Potamogeton compressus (Grass-wrack Pondweed)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of re-establishing grass-wrack pondweed at suitable sites from which it has been lost. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate information, and resurvey sites where necessary to determine the current distribution and status of grass-wrack pondweed in Britain. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake detailed ecological recording at selected viable sites with a view to improving understanding of the requirements of grass-wrack pondweed and refining techniques for its conservation. (ACTION: JNCC)
Where possible, undertake monitoring to determine the effectiveness of the relevant agri-environment schemes in improving water quality and in assisting with the conservation of threatened aquatic plants such as grass-wrack pondweed. Use the results to aid the review process of various schemes. (ACTION: EA, JNCC, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Potamogeton rutilus (Shetland Pondweed)
If after survey, the species is found to be endangered, consider for addition to Schedule 8 of the WCA 1981. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species with partners in France, Germany, Scandinavia, Poland and western Russia to determine the global status of the species and use the information obtained towards conservation of the species in the UK. (ACTION: SNH, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Procas granulicollis (a Weevil)
Collaborate with European specialists to investigate the endemicity of P. granulicollis. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, NHM, SNH)
Pseudanodonta complanata (Depressed River Mussel)
Undertake further research to assess the impact of collecting on the population of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species to determine its status in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage regular monitoring of known populations and seek to identify any further threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Pseudocyphellaria aurata (a Lichen)
If re-discovered, consider research to understand the lichen’s ecological requirements and identify any potential threats. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Consider publicity needs of the species if it is re-discovered. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Pseudocyphellaria norvegica (a Lichen)
Consider adding to Schedule 8 of the WCA 1981. (ACTION: DoE, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD)
If found to be threatened in Europe, review the need for international protection. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC, SOAEFD)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Pterostichus aterrimus (a Ground Beetle)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: EHS, NE, JNCC)
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Bullfinch)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider the setting up of an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake an autecological study of the bullfinch to identify appropriate habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure completion of analyses of long-term data sets on ringing recoveries and nest record cards to help determine the causes of the bullfinch decline. (ACTION: JNCC)
Promote the bullfinch as a species in need of conservation assistance. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Raja batis (Common Skate)
Investigate alterations required in European legislation which would enable commercial fish species to be listed under Appendix II and III of the Bern Convention. (ACTION: JNCC)
Investigate opportunities for the management or protection of the species within European waters by listing on the appropriate Annex of the Bern Convention. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Develop and publicise a code of conduct for the live release of immature common skate by all fishermen, both commercial and recreational. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and publicise a code of conduct for the careful handling (including tag reporting) and live release of all common skate by sports anglers. (ACTION: CCW,DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Initiate research programmes to monitor life-cycles, growth, reproductive capacity and population dynamics (including immigration and emigration); identify centres of distribution of relict populations as locus for refugia; improve fisheries-independent research and data collection. (ACTION: DANI, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, NERC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote research into the survival of common skate released after capture by commercial fishing gear (eg trawls). (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, NERC, SE)
Publicise the vulnerability and threatened status of the common skate to commercial and sports fishermen, to minimise mortality in fisheries. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Rana lessonae (Pool Frog)
If the native status of this species is confirmed, and if extant populations are found or reintroductions undertaken, then add the species to Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Review legislative mechanisms for restricting release to, and movement in, the wild of pool frogs of non-native origin (eg through Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 Section 9 or 14, and Schedule 9 review). (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Determine the most suitable approach to reintroduction of the species in the light of studies on its native status. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
If non-native populations of the pool frog are discovered, assess the threat that they may pose to the genetic identity of any reintroduced pool frog colonies. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Ranunculus tripartitus (Three-lobed Water-crowfoot)
Following further survey and assessment, review the need for international protection. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC)
Survey to assess seed banks at former sites to determine the extent and feasibility of regeneration programmes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote research into the ecology and habitat requirements of this species to underpin management advice and identify its suitability for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
If found to be necessary, survey to determine whether suitable sites exist for regeneration or re-introduction of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, seeking to determine the reasons for its decline in northern Europe and using the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Greater Horseshoe Bat)
Consider the obligations of the Habitats Directive and Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe, and seek to develop appropriate policies on wider habitat conservation for bats. (ACTION: CCW, DOE, NE, FA, JNCC, WO)
Develop and implement a systematic recording scheme to standardise population estimates between sites and between years. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Rhinolophus hipposideros (Lesser Horseshoe Bat)
Establish mechanisms to ensure routine survey of mines or other underground sites due for closure or change of use, or otherwise considered vulnerable, with a view to protecting any bat colonies identified. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, JNCC)
Undertake research to identify the habitat requirements of this species and the appropriate management of feeding areas needed to maintain populations at a favourable conservation status. The findings should be used to inform development of guidelines and policies for habitat protection, creation and management around roost sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC)
Develop and maintain a national database for bat records. (ACTION: JNCC)
Rhynchostegium rotundifolium (Round-leaved Feather-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of round-leaved feather-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Riccia huebeneriana (Violet Crystalwort)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of violet crystalwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Rumex rupestris (Shore Dock)
Continue the species recovery project, and re-survey previously occupied sites to assess the feasibility of restoring at least two populations by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Survey potential locations in SW England, and encourage further survey in Ireland, to locate any undiscovered populations. (ACTION: NE, DoE(NI), JNCC)
Encourage ecological research on this species to underpin conservation management and to assess the suitability of the species for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this declining species with French and Spanish counterparts and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Saxifraga hirculus (Yellow Marsh Saxifrage)
Survey all former, current and potential sites to confirm the current status of the species in the UK. (ACTION: DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote ecological research to understand the habitat requirements of this species, particularly the impact of grazing, to underpin management advice and to assess the suitability of this species for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, including the reasons for its decline, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Monitor extant populations regularly and seek to identify further threats to the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Scandix pecten-veneris (Shepherd’s Needle)
Assess the feasibility of regenerating this species from the seed bank, or if this fails carrying out reintroductions, on selected historic sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing these species at selected sites should regeneration from the seed bank prove unsuccessful (Action: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of shepherd's needle. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Continue with monitoring and research work extend to sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for these species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake monitoring of a representative number of extant populations, with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support these species and other threatened arable species (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Schismatomma graphidioides (a Lichen)
Continue development of a strategy for the protection of ancient woodland and parkland supporting this species throughout the UK, including the ameliorating the effects of agricultural spray drift and the importance of this habitat in an international context. (ACTION: DoE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Consider the species for addition to Schedule 8 of the WCA 1981. (ACTION: DoE, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD)
If, after further survey and assessment, the species is found to be threatened in Europe, review the need for international protection. (ACTION: DoE, JNCC, SOAEFD)
Encourage research into the ecological and habitat requirements of this species and its community, to underpin management advice, and assess its suitability for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage further research to assess the impact of acid deposition and agrochemicals on the species and its host plants, to help understand its limited distribution, and identify other potential threats to its survival. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, including the reasons for its decline, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Schoenoplectus triqueter (Triangular Club-rush)
Carry out a full autecological assessment of this species with a view to refining conservation action. The assessment should include an investigation of the reasons for its decline, and should identify any threats including boat traffic, water pollution, successional changes, adjacent land-use practices, and climate change. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Investigate seed production in triangular club-rush. Seed production in remaining plants is known to be poor, but it would be helpful to find out if this has always been the case. A survey of herbarium specimens may give useful information, as would observations on the performance of plants being held in cultivation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Develop links with botanists in Ireland and elsewhere within the European range of this species, in order to understand, more precisely, its biology and preferred conditions. (ACTION: JNCC)
Sciurus vulgaris (Red Squirrel)
Achieve agreement on the UK Red Squirrel Strategy and develop regional guidelines for management of red and grey squirrel populations within the national framework. (ACTION: FA, JNCC, LAs)
Develop strategies, within the national framework, to guide and co-ordinate work. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Continue research on feeding ecology, bait hoppers,supplementary feeding,red/grey interactions, methods of control and eradication (e.g. immunosterilants), translocation, population reinforcement, habitat manipulation (including nestbox provision), and phylogenetic studies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, DoE(NI), JNCC, SNH,)
Establish a survey method and Squirrel Monitoring Scheme to ascertain population levels, identify key sites and monitor range and population of greys. (ACTION: FC, JNCC).
Scleranthus perennis ssp. prostratus (Prostrate Perennial Knawel)
Investigate the autecology of this subspecies with a view to informing restoration management. Priorities should include seed-bank dynamics and the optimal timing for, and methods of, ground disturbance. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Segmentina nitida (Shining ram's-horn snail)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species to ascertain its status in Europe. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Seligeria carniolica (Water Rock-bristle)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will address the causes of its decline. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of water rock-bristle, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Sematophyllum demissum (Prostrate Feather-moss)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will address the causes of its decline. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of prostrate feather-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Macaria carbonaria (Netted Mountain Moth)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level, and use the experience gained to inform its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Silene gallica (Small-flowered Catchfly)
Undertake trial management at eight carefully selected historic sites with the aim of regenerating small flowered catchfly from the seed bank. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing small flowered catchfly to selected sites should attempts to regenerate it from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of small flowered catchfly, and to assess current site management and threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Continue with monitoring and research work extend to sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for these species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake monitoring on a representative number of extant sites and all restored sites, with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Siona lineata (Black-veined Moth)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Sium latifolium (Greater Water Parsnip)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing this species to suitable historic sites should regeneration from the seed-bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and re-survey sites where necessary in order to determine the current distribution and status of greater water-parsnip in Britain, and assess threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake autecological research and detailed monitoring on three viable sites in order to increase knowledge of the ecological requirements of greater water-parsnip and refine management techniques for its conservation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Use the conservation of greater water-parsnip to help illustrate the need to develop natural river and flood dynamics for biodiversity. A short statement on the requirements of this species should be prepared and circulated amongst relevant groups, including river managers. (ACTION: EA, IDBs, JNCC)
Sorbus leyana (Ley's whitebeam)
Consider the inclusion of this taxon on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, at the earliest possible opportunity. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Sphagnum balticum (Baltic Bog-Moss)
Commission research into the habitat requirements of Baltic bog-moss. The findings should be used to inform conservation management of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Baltic bog-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Spiranthes romanzoffiana (Irish Lady's-tresses)
Collate information and undertake further research if necessary in order to determine the reasons for, and implications of, the possible sterility of the UK population. A comparison should be made with the North American population. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Monitor a representative sample of sites in sufficient detail to relate survival and performance of the species to environmental factors, including site management and vegetation structure in order to inform management advice. (ACTION: EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Squamarina lentigera (Scaly Breck-Lichen)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of scaly breck-lichen including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Stenus palposus (a Rove Beetle)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Sterna dougallii (Roseate Tern)
Continue to monitor the UK population through the Seabird Monitoring Programme. (ACTION: JNCC)
Ensure continued international cooperation on research, monitoring and management of the north-east Atlantic roseate tern population. (ACTION: EHS, JNCC)
Use the roseate tern as an example of a bird under pressure from factors operating outside the UK in order to reduce persecution in the wintering grounds in west Africa. (ACTION: JNCC)
Streptopelia turtur (Turtle Dove)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of turtle dove breeding numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Use the turtle dove as an example of a bird under pressure from factors operating outside the UK in order to promote increased protection and beneficial habitat management throughout its range. (ACTION: JNCC)
Tachys edmondsi (Edmond's Ground Beetle)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red lists. (ACTION: JNCC)
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus (a Lichen)
If a viable colony is discovered, and if it meets relevant criteria, consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and Schedule 8 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985. (ACTION: DETR, EHS, JNCC)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Teloschistes chrysopthalmus, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, EHS, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: EHS, NE, JNCC)
Tetrao urogallus (Capercaillie)
Provide information annually to Birdlife International on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Consider publishing a Code of Practice for birdwatching, to highlight the problems of human activity in the vicinity of capercaille and other sensitive species and advise on appropriate techniques. (ACTION: SNH, JNCC)
Thamnobryum angustifolium (Derbyshire Feather-moss)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Thamnobryum cataractarum (Yorkshire Feather-moss)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 if it meets relevant criteria, and if legal protection will contribute to its conservation. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Yorkshire feather-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Thelenella modesta (Warty Wax-lichen)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level, and use the expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of warty wax-lichen, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Thyasira gouldi (Northern Hatchett Shell)
Review existing UK legislation relating to marine site protection and conservation designations to facilitate the inclusion of the northern hatchett shell in order to protect sites where this species occurs. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
When the Annexes of the Habitats Directive are reviewed by the EC, consider proposing inclusion of A. fragilis as appropriate. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Review the schedule status of T. gouldi under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Develop a non-destructive sampling and survey methodology for assessing the distribution and status of the species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Review the validity of records of T. flexuosa and other Thyasira spp in UK collections. (ACTION: JNCC)
Thyridanthrax fenestratus (Mottled Bee-Fly)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Tolypella intricata (Tassel Stonewort)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites in Somerset and Cambridgeshire to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of tassel stonewort. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake a research project to elucidate whether nutrient enrichment and/or competition with filamentous algae is significantly affecting populations of tassel stonewort. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and undertake research if necessary to identify measures needed to address the problem of falling water-table levels on extant tassel stonewort sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Tolypella prolifera (Great Tassel Stonewort)
Collate information and resurvey sites where necessary in order to determine the current distribution and status of this species in Britain, and to assess the threats to populations at extant sites. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake a research project to investigate further the habitat requirements and reproductive ecology of great tassel stonewort. Restoration management should form an element of the study, and the findings should be used to refine management action for its conservation. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Torilis arvensis (Spreading Hedge Parsley)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing populations of spreading hedge parsley should regeneration from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate information and resurvey extant sites where necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of spreading hedge parsley. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC).
Continue with monitoring and research work extend to sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for these species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake monitoring on a representative number of extant sites with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Tortula freibergii (Freiberg's Screw-moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Freiberg's screw-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Trichomanes speciosum (Killarney Fern)
Consider re-introduction to four localities, in Merioneth, Cumbria, Arran and Argyll, where the precise site of previous occurrence is known, and the fern was lost either by collecting or through exceptional conditions. Use only cultivated material of known provenance to the four localities. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider research needs to clarify the taxonomy of the species, including the relationship between the gametophyte and sporophyte forms, and the suitability of the species for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Compile an inventory of all sporophyte populations in cultivation, in botanic gardens and private collections, and establish provenances if possible. Consider the feasability of using material of known provenance in re-introduction experiments. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Monitor all sporophyte colonies regularly to assess status of the species in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Triturus cristatus (Great Crested Newt)
Publish guidance for LAs, developers, land managers and others on legal obligations for the species, local management and, where appropriate, translocation techniques for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Develop further survey methods, recording, updating and data retrieval systems and surveillance systems to monitor the changes in status and the means of disseminating information. (ACTION: BRC, JNCC)
Encourage further surveys to identify important breeding sites. (ACTION: BRC, CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Support research on habitat requirements, habitat use, population dynamics and species genetics to determine the favourable conservation status and underpin management advice. (ACTION: JNCC)
Expand the National Recording Scheme to ensure regular monitoring of known and potential sites. (ACTION: BRC, JNCC)
Tulostoma niveum (White Stalkball)
If found to be threatened in Europe, review the need for international protection. (ACTION: JNCC, SOAEFD)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Consider species for addition to a Red Data Book on fungi. (ACTION: JNCC)
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)
Investigate the relationship between agricultural changes and the use of agrochemicals with the decline of this species, using information collected by the BTO and other sources. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Encourage adequate monitoring annually of national breeding song thrush populations through the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecological requirements of this species to help identify the causes of the population decline. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Produce publicity material and information for the general public to raise awareness of the song thrush and the possible links between population changes and human activities. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Valerianella rimosa (Broad-Fruited Corn Salad)
Consider this species for inclusion on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. (ACTION: DETR, JNCC)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing broad fruited corn salad at selected sites should regeneration from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of broad fruited corn salad. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC).
Continue with monitoring and research work extend to sites with extant and restored populations with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for these species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake regular monitoring at the main extant sites, and extend to any successfully restored sites, with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support these species and other threatened arable species (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Undertake research to determine the selectivity of all graminicides currently in use so as to identify which, if any, are suitable for use in field margins that support this and other threatened arable weed species. (ACTION: JNCC)
Develop links with European ecologists working to conserve threatened plants of arable habitats. (ACTION: JNCC)
Vertigo angustior (Narrow-mouthed whorl snail)
Promote research into the ecology of this species to improve management advice, having regard to the very fragile nature of the colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species with European partners. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Vertigo genesii (Round-mouthed whorl snail)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Vertigo geyeri (Whorl snail)
Encourage further research on the ecological requirements of this species to underpin management advice. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level and use the information and experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Vertigo moulinsiana (Desmoulin's whorl snail)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global red list. (ACTION: JNCC)
Weissia multicapsularis (Moss)
Collate available information on occurrence at former and current sites to establish the status of this moss, and attempt to assess the most favourable localities for long-term survival in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote research into the ecological and habitat requirements of this species to underpin appropriate management advice and assess the suitability of the species for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species in northern France, to establish the current conservation status, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Weissia rostellata (Beaked Beardless-moss)
Encourage international research on the distribution, status and ecology of this species, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of beaked beardless-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. They should be encouraged in particular to search exposed lake and reservoir margins. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-Grass)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Zygaena viciae argyllensis (New Forest Burnet)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: SNH, JNCC)
Zygodon forsteri (Knothole Moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of knothole moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Zygodon gracilis (Nowell's Limestone Moss)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Nowell's limestone moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Didymodon glaucus (Glaucous Beard-moss)
Discourage illegal collecting of the species and ensure offenders are prosecuted. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, DoE)
Encourage research on the population ecology and habitat requirements of this species to establish the optimum conditions for growth, and the feasibility of re-introduction. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, including the reasons for its decline, particularly in Scandinavia, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: NE, JNCC, SNH)
Grouped plan for baleen whales
Continue to improve agreed codes of conduct to reduce disturbance from physical and acoustic sources. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Determine sites and times which may be critical to the life history of baleen whales and implement specific protective measures as appropriate. (ACTION: DANI, DETR, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE)
Support attempts to identify and protect the breeding sites of any remnant eastern Atlantic right whale or humpback whale population. (ACTION: DANI, DETR, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE)
Review DETR guidelines for minimising disturbance to cetaceans from whale watching operations and from recreation at sea by 2001. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Provide advice, as appropriate, to international fora involved in the conservation of North Atlantic baleen whales (eg IWC, CITES, ICES). (ACTION: DANI, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, NERC, SE)
Promote among oil and gas and geophysical exploration industries a better understanding of cetaceans and the effects of underwater sounds upon their lives. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Support long-term monitoring of population abundance and distribution to assess recovery from whaling. Consideration is needed of previously unused data on cetacean distributions such as Hydrographic Office surveys. (ACTION: DETR, EHS, JNCC, MAFF)
Support appropriate research into population structure and habitat use to identify, by 2009, waters which may be particularly suitable for baleen whales and which may qualify for further protection. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, JNCC, SE)
Support appropriate work into the effects of contaminants on baleen whale populations, including the development of indicators such as biomarkers. (ACTION: EHS, DETR, EA, JNCC, NERC, SE, SEPA)
Continue to support appropriate research into the effects of acoustic disturbance. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NERC, JNCC)
Support appropriate research into identifying marine living resources utilised by baleen whales and the environmental changes caused by fishing. (ACTION: DANI, JNCC, MAFF, SE)
Support appropriate research into predicting the effects on baleen whales of climate change. (ACTION: EHS, DETR, JNCC, NERC, SE)
Encourage international exchange of information to facilitate assessment of recovery from whaling. (ACTION: EHS, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, SE)
Generate support to phase out the use of PCBs worldwide. (ACTION: EHS, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, SE)
© Joint Nature Conservation Committee 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010