This snapshot, taken on
03/03/2011
, shows web content acquired for preservation by The National Archives. External links, forms and search may not work in archived websites and contact details are likely to be out of date.
 
 
The UK Government Web Archive does not use cookies but some may be left in your browser from archived websites.

 

HOME  BACKGROUND  UK BIODIVERSITY PARTNERSHIP  UK PRIORITY LISTS REPORTING    OLD PLANSLIBRARY     SEARCH

Organisations | Countryside Council for Wales

Organisation

Countryside Council for Wales

Website details

Lead partner for the following species plans:

Lead partner for the following habitat plans:

Partner for the following LBAPs:

Funder for the following LBAPs:

List of current UK actions

Habitat Actions

Upland oakwood
Evaluate the success and appropriateness of the Woodland Grant Scheme and other funding mechanisms to achieve the desired management (or minimum intervention) in these woods and seek adjustments to policy or funding as appropriate. Consider the need to establish a new woodland initiative for management of native/semi-natural woodland to reflect the higher conservation and amenity values of such sites and their generally lower timber potential. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Evaluate implications of agricultural policies in the uplands for the management of these woods and seek changes as appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, FA, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Discourage re-stocking of conifer plantations adjacent to, or in extant upland oakwoods. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Where significant gaps in the SSSI/ASSI coverage of upland oakwoods are identified the appropriate SSSI/ASSI procedure should be implemented by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Examine the value of establishing new "woodland initiatives" such as Coed Cymru in upland oakwood areas not covered by existing schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Encourage groups of owners (particularly public sector and NGOs) to co-operate in the acquisition and management of woods so as to improve the opportunities to reduce oakwood fragmentation and isolation of the species, which they contain. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Promote "agreed management plans" for upland oakwoods that cover the various ways in which they may be treated (i.e. including minimum intervention where appropriate). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, FA, LAs, SNH)
Encourage groups of owners (particularly public sector and NGOs) to co-operate in the acquisition and management of woods so as to improve the opportunities to reduce oakwood fragmentation and isolation of the species that they contain. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Devise an indicative plan which targets areas for planting/natural regeneration and which identifies where planting/natural regeneration should not be encouraged because of important existing habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Provide advice on and promote the management of deer in areas where they are (or might become) major limitations on the regeneration and spread of upland oakwoods. (ACTION: ADAS, CCW, NE, FA, Red Deer Commission, SNH)
Continue to promote training courses on the conservation and management of semi-natural woodland including the special features and conditions that apply to upland oakwoods. Develop informal training and networking opportunities at a local level. (ACTION: CC, CCW, NE, FA, NPA, SNH)
Encourage the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to produce estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider expanding links with the European Forestry Institute and proposals to develop a network of near-natural (minimum intervention) forest research sites and include examples of upland oakwoods in such a network. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Seek to develop the current EC concerted action on grazing into a research programme to improve grazing management in these woods. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Expand the range of sites where long-term monitoring of this woodland system takes place including a range of both managed and minimum intervention sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH).
Develop rapid simple monitoring systems for relating the condition of these woods to the current and recent past management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH).
Research the best ways of restoring sites that have been replanted with non-native species or are heavily invaded by rhododendron. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Research the opportunities, conservation benefits and other implications for developing one or two new large areas of near natural upland woodland stretching from the floodplain to the tree-line. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH).
Lowland beech and yew woodland
Develop a national framework for management indicating an appropriate balance of minimum intervention, coppice and high forest across the range of variation within lowland beech and yew woodland by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FC)
Encourage the development of forestry/landscape strategies (e.g. Natural Areas, local Biodiversity Action Plans, AONBs etc) to provide a context for and to promote expansion and positive management of lowland beech and yew woodland. (Action: CC, CCW, DETR, NE, FA, MAFF, LA (including National Park Authorities), WOAD)
Examine by 2000 the success and appropriateness of the Woodland Grant Scheme and other funding mechanisms to encourage the desired management and expansion targets in these woods and amend as necessary. (Action: CC, CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Investigate ways of assisting woodland development as an alternative to current agricultural regimes through changes to CAP by 2000. (Action: CC, CCW, NE, FA, MAFF, WOAD)
By 2004 designate those lowland beech and yew woodlands approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive and ensure that SSSI coverage of important lowland beech and yew woodland sites is adequate through periodic review of the series. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, WO)
Develop methods for assessing the condition of lowland beech and yew woodlands suitable for use on both designated and non-designated sites and initiate sample surveys by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FA)
By 2000 devise and agree criteria for identifying priority areas in which to restore damaged or former beech and yew woodland, for example around small sites or to connect sites. Establish by 2005 a small number of demonstration sites to show good practice. (Action: CC, CCW, NE, FA, MAFF)
Develop and promote the use of long-term management plans (20 years +) by woodland owners aimed at integrating the appropriate diversity of species and structure to benefit nature conservation (including restoration of replanted areas) with other management objectives. (Action: CCW, NE, FC)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant priority species action plans, through the integration of management requirements and advice, in conjunction with relevant steering groups. (Action: CCW, NE, FA)
Promote training courses on the conservation and management of semi-natural woodland including the special features and conditions that apply to the habitats and species of beech and yew woodland (e.g. grey squirrel damage control). Develop training opportunities at a local level. (Action: CC, CCW, NE, FA)
Encourage the development of woodland initiatives that provide quality advice on woodland establishment, management and marketing opportunities where there are gaps in existing coverage. (Action: CC, CCW, NE, FC, LA)
Develop co-ordinate strategies for targeted control of damage caused by deer, grey squirrel and other damaging species (including non-native plants), in existing beech and yew woods and in areas targeted for expansion by 2002. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, LA)
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC)
Explore the possibilities for funding to support conservation work in these woods from the European Union. (Action: CCW, FA, NE)
Develop and implement systems for recording the occurrence, distribution, management and composition of lowland beech and yew woodland, based on the National Inventory of Woodland and Trees by 2000 and explore opportunities to make this widely available through the National Biodiversity Network initiative (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC).
Develop a small suite of lowland beech and yew sites (c10-20) where detailed structure, process and species monitoring is carried out to complement the simpler, condition assessments that will be adopted more widely by 2005. (Action: CCW, NE, FC)
Study effects (on tree and ground layer) of co-existence of beech with other canopy dominants (particularly where beech lies at the edge of its range) so we can judge the importance and predict outcomes of structural and species modifications and to help achieve better regeneration success. (Action: CCW, NE, FA)
Research the benefits in nature conservation terms of establishing a number (5-10) of substantial demonstration sites (50ha+) as areas of minimum intervention high forest sites where natural processes can be allowed to proceed with as little interference as possible by 2005. (Action: CCW, NE, FA)
Monitor restoration of damaged beech and yew woodland so that restoration efforts can be focused on sites most likely to show a positive response. (Action: CCW, NE, FA)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC)
Devise a strategy for distribution of existing advisory material (booklets, field demonstrations etc.) to woodland managers and if gaps are identified produce and disseminate additional material by 2004. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, LA)
Upland mixed ashwoods
Develop a national framework for management indicating an appropriate balance of minimum intervention, coppice and high forest across the range of variation within upland mixed ashwoods by 2000. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Encourage the development of forestry/landscape strategies to provide a context for and to promote expansion and positive management of upland mixed ash woodland. (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, FA, DETR, LAs (including NPAs), MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Examine by 2000 the success and appropriateness of the Woodland Grant Scheme and other funding mechanisms to encourage the desired management and expansion targets in these woods and amend as necessary. (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Investigate ways of assisting woodland development as an alternative to current agricultural regimes through changes to CAP. (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, NE, FA, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
By 2004 designate those upland mixed ashwoods approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive and ensure that SSSI/ASSI coverage of important upland mixed ash woodland sites is adequate through periodic review of the series. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH, DETR, WO, SO)
Develop methods for assessing the condition of upland mixed ashwoods suitable for use on both designated and non-designated sites and initiate sample surveys by 2000. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
By 2000 develop and agree criteria for identifying appropriate areas (i.e. avoiding other priority habitats) for restoration and expansion of upland mixed ashwood, for example around small sites, to connect sites, to restore altitudinal zonation of woodland. Establish by 2005 a small number of sites that can be used to demonstrate good practice (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Support existing woodland initiatives such as Coed Cymru and encourage the development of new ones in areas not covered by existing schemes by 2000. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Develop and promote the use of long-term management plans (20 years +) by woodland owners aimed at integrating the appropriate diversity of species and structure, in different regions, to benefit nature conservation (including restoration of replanted areas) with other management objectives. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant priority species action plans, through the integration of management requirements and advice, in conjunction with relevant steering groups. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Develop and promote training on the conservation and management of upland mixed ashwoods, including the provision of advice on the marketing and sustainable use of products. (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, NPA, SNH)
Review (and if necessary re-issue) the Management of Semi-Natural Woodlands Forestry Practice Guides, other relevant Guidelines and advisory material by 2001. (Action: CCW, DANI, NE, FC,SNH)
Provide advice to land managers on management regimes, including grazing regimes, appropriate to the geographical distribution and ecological variation found in this habitat, and promote the management of deer and rabbits in areas where they are (or might become) major limitations on the regeneration and spread of upland mixed ashwoods. (Action: CCW, DCS, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as the European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Explore the possibilities for funding to support conservation work in these woods from the European Union. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement systems for recording the occurrence, distribution, management and composition of upland mixed ashwoods, based on the National Inventory of Woodland and Trees by 2000, and explore opportunities to make this information widely available through the National Biodiversity Network initiative. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Develop a small suite of mixed upland ashwood sites (c10-20) where detailed structure, process and species monitoring is carried out to complement the simpler, condition assessments that will be adopted more widely by 2005. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Research the benefits in nature conservation terms of establishing a number (5-10) of substantial demonstration sites (50ha+) as areas of minimum intervention high forest sites where natural processes can be allowed to proceed with as little interference as possible. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Support research on the history and past management of upland mixed ashwoods, including an investigation of the dynamics and management of sycamore and beech in this habitat, to improve our understanding of their development, present condition, distribution and future management. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Investigate the relationships and dynamics of this habitat in relation to other priority habitats with which it commonly occurs (limestone pavement, <a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=1">Upland oakwood</a>, beechwood and wet wood types) and for a range of taxa for which little information currently exists. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Research the benefits in nature conservation terms of establishing a number (5-10) of substantial demonstration sites (50ha+) as areas of minimum intervention high forest sites where natural processes can be allowed to proceed with as little interference as possible. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Monitor restoration of damaged upland mixed ash woodland so that restoration efforts can be focused on sites most likely to show a positive response. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Devise a strategy for ensuring effective distribution of existing advisory material to woodland managers and if gaps are identified produce and disseminate appropriate material to fill these. (Action: CCW, DANI, NE, FA, LA, SNH)
Wet woodland
Develop a national framework for management indicating an appropriate balance of minimum intervention, coppice and high forest across the range of variation within wet woodland. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Encourage the development of forestry/landscape strategies to provide a context for and to promote expansion and positive management of wet woodland. (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, DETR, DOE(NI), EA, EHS, NE, FA, LAs, (including NPAs), MAFF, SEPA, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Evaluate the appropriateness of the Woodland Grant Scheme and other funding mechanisms to encourage the desired management and expansion targets in these woods by 2000 and amend as necessary by 2002. (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Investigate ways of assisting wet woodland development as an alternative to current regimes through changes to CAP. (Action: CCW, DANI, NE, EHS, FA, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Evaluate implications of water level management plans for the expansion, restoration and management of these woods and seek changes as appropriate. (Action: CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, FA, MAFF, SEPA SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
By 2004 designate those wet woodlands approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive and ensure that SSSI/ASSI coverage of important wet woodland sites is adequate through periodic review of the series. (Action: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Develop and promote the use of long-term management plans (20 years +) by woodland owners aimed at integrating the appropriate diversity of species and structure to benefit nature conservation (including restoration of replanted areas) with other management objectives. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Continue to support existing woodland initiatives such as Coed Cymru and encourage new ones in areas not covered by existing schemes. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Develop and agree criteria for identifying priority areas for woodland expansion, for example around small sites, to connect sites, to restore hydrological zonation of woodland; to create new large floodplain forests, whilst avoiding other priority habitats. Establish by 2005 a small number of demonstration sites to show good practice. (Action: CC, CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, FA, MAFF, SEPA, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop methods for assessing the condition of wet woods suitable for use on both designated and non-designated sites and initiate sample surveys by 2000. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant priority species action plans, through the integration of management requirements and advice, in conjunction with relevant steering groups. (Action: CCW, DANI, NE, EHS, FA, SNH)
Develop and promote training on the conservation and management of semi-natural woodland including the special features and conditions that apply to wet woods. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, NPA, SNH)
Review (and if necessary re-issue) the Management of Semi-Natural Woodlands Forestry Practice Guides, other relevant Guidelines and advisory material by 2001. (Action: CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, FC, SEPA, SNH)
Provide advice to woodland managers on appropriate management regimes for wet woodland, including grazing regimes within wet woods and promote the management of deer in areas where they are, or might become, major limitations on the regeneration and spread of wet woods. (Action: CCW, DANI, DCS, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable/related woodland, and exchange experience on research and management. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Explore the possibilities for funding to support conservation work in these woods from the European Union. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement systems for recording the occurrence, distribution, management and composition of wet woods, based on the National Inventory of Woodland and Trees by 2000, and explore opportunities to make this information widely available through the National Biodiversity Network initiative. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Develop a small suite of demonstration wet woodland sites (c10-20) where detailed structure, process and species monitoring is carried out to complement the simpler, condition assessments that will be adopted by the statutory agencies more widely by 2005. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Identify about four large-scale (>50 ha) sites for the re-creation of floodplain forests in the UK, including both hydrological, wildlife conservation, economic and amenity considerations by 2005. (Action: CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, FA, SEPA, SNH)
Investigate the relationships and dynamics of this habitat in relation to other priority habitats with which it commonly occurs, both other woodland types (e.g. upland mixed ash, upland oakwoods, native pinewoods) and open habitats (e.g. fens and mires), and for a range of taxa for which little information currently exists. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FFL, FA, SNH)
Review the impact of major invasive herbaceous species (e.g. Impatiens glandulifera) and devise appropriate guidance on their control (where appropriate) by 2001. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Monitor restoration of damaged wet woodland so that restoration efforts can be focused on sites most likely to show a positive response. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, EHS, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Devise a strategy for distribution of existing advisory material to woodland managers and, if appropriate, produce material to fill any significant gaps identified. (Action: CCW, EA, NE, FA, LA, SEPA, SNH)
Lowland wood-pasture and parkland
When reviewing existing incentive schemes (e.g. Countryside Stewardship, Woodland Grant Scheme/ Woodland Improvement Grants, ESAs, Coed Cymru) attempt to ensure they enable and encourage the most appropriate management of parklands and wood-pasture, with their ancient trees. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote modification of the Common Agricultural Policy to recognise and promote extensive pastoral systems, including wood-pasture. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD).
Ensure that SSSI coverage of important lowland wood-pasture and parkland sites is adequate through periodic review of the series. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
By 2004 designate those lowland wood-pasture sites approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Encourage applications to buy and manage appropriate sites from potential funding sources. (Action: CC, CCW, EH, NE, SNH)
Encourage the development and implementation by 2004 of long-term integrated management plans for conservation and use of parklands and wood-pastures through agreements with site owners and in partnership with statutory wildlife, landscape and heritage agencies. (Action: CC, CCW, NE, FA, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote re-establishment of grazing where appropriate in derelict wood-pasture and encourage the development of subsequent generations of veteran trees in all sites. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote the restoration of wood-pasture and parkland where old trees remain in former sites that are now arable fields or forestry plantations. (Action: CCW, FE, MAFF, WOAD)
By 2002 initiate programmes to expand parklands and wood-pasture sites in targeted areas. (Action: CC, CCW, EH, NE, FA, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant priority species action plans, through the integration of management requirements and advice, in conjunction with relevant steering groups. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Consider (re)establishment of key species dependent on veteran trees via translocation. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, FE, SNH)
Develop a handbook(s) on best practice in management of parklands and wood-pasture in relation to wildlife, heritage and landscape conservation. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, FA, SNH)
Encourage training in best practice in park and wood-pasture management for site owners, site managers, land-agents, foresters, arboriculturalists and also for advisors and incentive scheme managers. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, MAFF, SNH)
Develop links with European organisations and programmes, such as the European Forestry Institute, the European Environment Agency and the European Centre for Nature Conservation to obtain estimates of the extent and distribution of comparable and related habitats, and exchange experience on research and management, by 2000. (Action: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Produce a comprehensive list of all parkland and wood-pasture sites with pointers to other data sources and evaluations relating to both the natural and cultural heritage of each site, by 2002. Make this information available, through a data catalogue linked to the National Biodiversity Network. (Action: CC, CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement methods to assess the condition of wood-pastures and parkland by 2000 and encourage standardised recording and monitoring of tree population age structure, survivorship and condition at key sites across the country in order to identify site specific and general trends. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Ensure veteran tree recording is reflected in SSSI and Wildlife Site reporting and is input, as it becomes available, into local record centres as part of the National Biodiversity Network initiative. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research into parkland and wood-pasture flora, including trees, and fauna in relation to tree and pasture management, including interactions and with invertebrates, fungi, soils, ground water levels and grazing animals and population dynamic studies. Ensure such research is co-ordinated with cultural heritage research. (Action: CCW, EH, NE, FC, SNH)
Increase awareness of the national and international importance and vulnerability of wood-pasture and parklands by promotional literature and events and encourage celebration of parkland and wood-pastures via the arts and media. (Action: CCW, EH, NE, SNH)
Increase awareness of the value in protecting veteran trees where these may be threatened by felling, for safety reasons, and promote alternative solutions such as pollarding or tree surgery. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, LA, SNH)
Ancient and/or species-rich hedgerows
Promote the uptake of, and consider extending the scope of, ESA, Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen, etc., for the management and restoration of ancient and/or species-rich hedgerows, for the planting of new hedgerows and for the establishment of hedgerow trees. When promoting the management and restoration of hedgerows, emphasise the term important hedgerows (to be defined under the Environment Act 1995 Regulations). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage the retention and favourable management of ancient and/or species-rich hedgerows that form an integral part of, enhance, or link Natura 2000 sites. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Consider the practicality of establishing registers of ancient and of species-rich hedgerows. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DOE(NI), NE, LAs, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Liaise with relevant authorities in France and Eire to exchange information and ideas on hedge conservation, and in particular to form partnerships to gain EC funding. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, LAs, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Refine the definition of species-rich hedges, and identify priority areas for conservation action, through supporting further systematic UK-wide research into the types of hedges that occur, their biodiversity, and their regional distribution. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Research into the colonisation of wildlife from hedges into new woodlands established next to old hedges. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, FA)
Continue to promote an awareness among the public and land managers of the importance of hedgerows and their associated features for wildlife, of the continuing loss of hedgerows, and of the need for management to maintain biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, LAs, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Cereal field margins
Promote management favourable to cereal field margins through appropriate environmental schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop training courses on cereal field margin management and target these on land management advisers (e.g. ADAS, ELMS staff, Agricultural College and University Staff) groups of farmers, and major landowners (e.g. National Trust), and pesticide spray contractors. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Monitor how effectively the prescriptions in ELMS are contributing towards the conservation of key indicator species of this habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Coastal and floodplain grazing marsh
Continue to notify important sites as SSSI/ASSI by 1998. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Support projects which quantify the remaining extent and distribution of grazing marsh in the UK and evaluate the conservation status. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Identify and undertake conservation research on areas where rehabilitation and re-creation of grazing marsh could be targeted. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Lowland meadows
Ensure the conservation requirements of lowland meadows are taken into account in the development and adjustment of agri-environment schemes; design measures to suit local needs and in particular target local concentrations of remnant semi-natural <a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=51">neutral grasslands</a>. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop and implement strategies to restore and expand the cover of unimproved neutral grassland, taking into account the need to ameliorate the negative effects of small patch size, fragmentation and isolation. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Keep the extent of SSSI/ASSI coverage under review and notify further sites as necessary to fill significant gaps. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Secure, by 2004, the uptake of positive management with owners and occupiers of SSSIs/ASSIs, where necessary to achieve favourable conservation conditions, and promote the uptake of such agreements on other wildlife sites. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider the need to manage further key sites as National Nature Reserves and, where appropriate, support acquisition and management by conservation organisations. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage the development of new management techniques where required, e.g. for weed control, and the setting up of local farm networks, e.g. for livestock provision, that help to ensure sympathetic management. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant species action plans for rare and declining species associated with lowland meadows in conjunction with the relevant species steering group. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage, develop and disseminate best practice for unimproved neutral grassland management, in particular the integration of conservation management into agricultural practice. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Produce and disseminate guidelines for appropriate methods and approaches to establish new stands of lowland hay meadow of wildlife value. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage the use and establishment of private and public demonstration sites, with special linkage to agri-environment schemes. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network and if a review of community coverage of Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive is undertaken support adequate coverage of this habitat within the site network. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage actions at a European and international level which will help improve our understanding of the conservation of the resource at a UK level and promote measures which will strengthen the conservation of this habitat in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Contribute information to a World Wide Web based catalogue of survey information as a means of improving access to information on lowland meadows. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake vegetation survey and assessment of unimproved neutral grasslands in parts of UK with poor survey coverage, using standardised and repeatable methodology. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Formulate quantified and spatially referenced targets to expand the total cover of lowland meadows of wildlife value across the UK, with particular emphasis on amelioration of habitat fragmentation, by 2005. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Review and promote research into the best ways of integrating modern agricultural practices with the conservation of species-rich grasslands in lowland farmland. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Review current research and where appropriate promote applied research to inform the conservation and restoration of different forms of dry and floodplain neutral grasslands. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Review current research and where appropriate promote research on the establishment and expansion of species-rich neutral meadows and pastures, covering methodology and landscape ecological components. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage and support conservation studies on scarce animal and plant taxa associated with unimproved neutral grasslands with particular relevance to amelioration of damaging impacts from habitat depletion and fragmentation. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Evaluate the need for impact assessment of the effect of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on community composition, and commission research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards achieving action plan targets. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Seek opportunities to present neutral meadow and pasture conservation in the scientific press and popular media. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage appropriate public access for observation and enjoyment of lowland meadows. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider commissioning marketing studies into ways to promote agricultural products from unimproved neutral grassland. (Action: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Upland hay meadows
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider the need to commission marketing studies into ways to promote agricultural products from upland hay meadows. (Action: CoCo, CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Lowland calcareous grassland
Take account of the conservation requirements of calcareous grassland when developing and adjusting agri-environment schemes. Design measures to suit local needs and in particular target local concentrations of semi-natural calcareous grassland. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Develop and implement strategies to restore and expand the cover of unimproved calcareous grassland, taking into account the need to ameliorate the negative effects of isolation, fragmentation, small patch size and scrub encroachment. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Keep the extent of SSSI coverage under review and notify further sites as necessary to fill significant gaps in coverage. (Action: CCW, NE)
Complete the designation of lowland calcareous grassland SPAs and SACs and prepare and implement management plans by 2004. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC)
Secure the uptake of positive management with owners and occupiers of SSSIs where necessary to achieve favourable conservation conditions, and promote the uptake of such agreements on other wildlife sites. (Action: CCW, NE)
Consider the need to manage further key sites as National Nature Reserves and, where appropriate, support acquisition and management by conservation organisations. (Action: CCW, NE)
Encourage the development of new management techniques where required, e.g. for weed control, and the setting up of local farm networks, e.g. for livestock provision, that will ensure sympathetic management is possible. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, WOAD)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant species action plans for rare and declining species associated with lowland calcareous grasslands in conjunction with the relevant species steering group. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Encourage, develop and disseminate best practice for unimproved calcareous grassland management, in particular the integration of conservation management into agricultural practice. (Action: CCW, NE, LAs, MAFF, WOAD)
Produce and disseminate guidelines for appropriate methods and approaches to establish new stands of lowland calcareous grassland of wildlife value. (Action: CCW, NE).
Encourage the use and establishment of private and public demonstration sites, with special linkage to agri-environment schemes. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Review representation of lowland calcareous grasslands in other European countries to determine their extent and status so that the international status of the UK resource can be determined. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Participate in initiatives to develop and strengthen measures for conservation of the habitat in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, MAFF, WO, WOAD)
Disseminate information about the UK's experience in conservation of the resource in international literature and conferences and take opportunities to learn from colleagues in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, MAFF, WO, WOAD)
Contribute information to a World Wide Web based catalogue of survey information as a means of improving access to information on lowland calcareous grasslands. (Action: CCW, NE)
Undertake vegetation survey and assessment of unimproved calcareous grasslands in parts of UK with poor survey coverage, using standardised and repeatable methodology. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE)
Formulate quantified and spatially referenced targets to expand the total cover of lowland calcareous grassland of wildlife value across the UK, with particular emphasis on amelioration of habitat fragmentation, by 2005. (Action: CCW, NE)
Review research needs into the conservation and restoration management of the habitat and the integration of this with agriculture, to identify significant gaps in knowledge. Commission and undertake new research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, WOAD)
Commission and support research on establishment and expansion of species-rich calcareous grassland, covering methodology and landscape ecological components. (Action: CCW, NE, FC JNCC, MAFF, WOAD)
Encourage and support conservation studies on scarce animal and plant taxa associated with unimproved calcareous grasslands with particular relevance to amelioration of damaging impacts from habitat depletion and fragmentation. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Evaluate the need for impact assessment of the effect of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on community composition, and commission research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, EA, NE, JNCC)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Seek opportunities to present lowland grassland conservation in the scientific press and the popular media. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage appropriate public access for observation and enjoyment of lowland calcareous grassland. (Action: CCW, NE)
Upland calcareous grassland
Review and modify livestock support mechanisms in the Less Favoured Areas (LFAs) through further lobbying for reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to promote sustainable agricultural management of upland calcareous grassland. Promote a more integrated approach to environmental, agricultural and socio-economic policy through CAP reform. Continue to reduce overgrazing by implementing the environmental cross-compliance conditions. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Consider extending existing agri-environment schemes and/or develop new schemes to help achieve favourable conservation status for upland calcareous grassland across the UK. Review and modify where necessary existing agri-environment schemes to conserve upland calcareous grassland and to reduce fragmentation and inappropriate grazing. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop by 2002 a strategy identifying target areas, especially improved grassland and disused quarries, suitable for the re-creation and expansion of upland calcareous grassland with an emphasis on reducing fragmentation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review by 2005 the extent of SSSI/ASSI coverage, and if significant gaps are identified consider notifying further sites as necessary. Also notify additional sites, if required, to ensure that populations of scarce species associated with upland calcareous grassland are accommodated within conservation sites over their natural ranges in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
By 2004, prepare and implement management plans for all SSSI/ASSIs and Natura 2000 sites containing upland calcareous grassland. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote the uptake of positive management with owners and occupiers of SSSIs/ASSIs and other wildlife areas. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
By 2004 designate those areas of upland calcareous grasslands approved by the EC as SACs under the EC Habitats Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant action plans for rare and declining species associated with upland calcareous grassland in conjunction with the appropriate species steering groups. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage the use and establishment of public and private demonstration sites, with special linkage to agri-environment schemes, to develop and exhibit best-practice management techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SE, SNH)
Provide advice and information on land management through the production, promotion and dissemination of literature, including technical handbooks and leaflets, and the use of IT. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SE, SNH)
Encourage applications from potential partners to obtain funding to bring areas of upland calcareous grassland into favourable management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Continue to influence the EU to review livestock support mechanisms and to make greater use of European funding (see 5.1.1). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Participate in initiatives, such as EU Biodiversity and Forestry strategies, to develop and strengthen measures for the conservation of upland calcareous grassland in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2001 review vegetation survey coverage of upland calcareous grassland and initiate a programme of work to fill major gaps. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Develop guidance on defining favourable condition for upland calcareous grassland by 2000. By 2002 undertake a sampled condition assessment of the habitat throughout the UK (covering up to 25% of the total extent), using standardised and repeatable methodologies. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Continue to commission applied research to help develop beneficial and practical management techniques (including appropriate stocking levels) for the conservation of different forms of upland calcareous grassland. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Continue to support applied research to develop techniques for the re-creation of upland calcareous grasslands, and the restoration of degraded stands. Identify by 2002 former sites that are suitable for re-creation of upland calcareous grassland, and draw up a strategy to meet the target for re-creation. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Commission and encourage conservation studies on scarce animals and plants associated with upland calcareous grassland and develop appropriate management techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote research into the best ways of integrating agriculture and conservation of upland calcareous grassland in upland farm systems. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review research requirements on the effects of air pollution and climate change on upland calcareous grassland and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote the conservation of upland calcareous grassland through the scientific press and popular media. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage appropriate public access for observation and enjoyment of upland calcareous grasslands. (ACTION: CCW,NE DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Lowland dry acid grassland
Take account of the conservation requirements of lowland acid grassland when developing and reviewing agri-environment schemes. Design measures to suit local needs and consider targeting local concentrations of this habitat. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop and implement strategies to restore and expand the cover of unimproved acid grassland, taking into account the need to ameliorate the negative effects of small patch size, fragmentation, isolation and scrub encroachment. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Keep the extent of the SSSI series under review and notify further sites as necessary to fill significant gaps. (Action: CCW, NE, SNH)
Secure the uptake of positive management with owners and occupiers of SSSIs where necessary to achieve favourable conservation conditions, and promote the uptake of such agreements on other wildlife sites. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Consider the need to manage further key sites as National Nature Reserves and, where appropriate, support acquisition and management by conservation organisations. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Encourage the development of new management techniques where required, e.g. for weed control, and the setting up of networks, e.g. for livestock provision, that facilitate sympathetic management. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant species action plans for rare and declining species associated with lowland acid grassland in conjunction with the relevant species steering group. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage, develop and disseminate best practice for lowland acid grassland management, in particular the integration of conservation management into agricultural practice. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, LAs, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Produce and disseminate guidelines for appropriate methods and approaches to establish new stands of lowland dry acid grassland of wildlife value. (Action: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage the use and establishment of private and public demonstration sites, with special linkage to agri-environment schemes. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote conservation and management of Special Areas of Conservation as part of a European network and if a review of Community coverage of Annex I of the Directive is undertaken support adequate representation of this habitat in the site network. (Action: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Review representation of lowland <a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=53">acid grasslands</a> in other European countries, to determine their international extent and status, to help inform the conservation of the resource at a UK level. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Participate in initiatives to develop and strengthen measures for conservation of the habitat in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, NE, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SO, SOAEFD, WO, WOAD)
Disseminate information about the UKs experience in conservation of the resource in international literature and at conferences and take opportunities to learn from organisations in Europe and elsewhere. (Action: CCW, NE, DETR, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SO, SOAEFD, WO, WOAD)
Contribute information to a World Wide Web based catalogue of survey information as a means of improving access to information on lowland dry acid grasslands. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake vegetation survey and assessment of lowland acid grasslands in parts of UK with poor survey coverage, using standardised and repeatable methodology. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Formulate quantified and spatially referenced targets to expand the total cover of lowland dry acid grassland of wildlife value across the UK, with particular emphasis on amelioration of habitat fragmentation, by 2005. (Action: CCW, NE, SNH)
Review research needs into the conservation management of the habitat and the integration of this with agriculture, to identify significant gaps in knowledge. Commission and undertake new research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Consider commissioning and promoting appropriate applied research to inform the conservation and restoration of different forms of lowland dry acid grasslands. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Review current research and where appropriate support research on establishment and expansion of lowland acid grassland, covering methodology and landscape ecological components. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage and support conservation studies on scarce animal and plant taxa associated with lowland acid grasslands with particular relevance to amelioration of damaging impacts from habitat depletion and fragmentation. (Action: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Evaluate the need for impact assessment of the effect of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on community composition, and commission research as appropriate. (Action: CCW, EA, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, NE,, FC MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Seek opportunities to present lowland acid grassland conservation in the scientific press and the popular media. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Commission marketing studies into ways to promote agricultural products from lowland acid grassland. (Action: CoCo, CCW, SNH)
Encourage appropriate public access for observation and enjoyment of lowland acid grassland. (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF SNH)
Lowland heathland
Where significant gaps in the SSSI/ASSI coverage of lowland heathland are identified the appropriate SSSI/ASSI procedure should be implemented by 1998. (Action: CCW, DoE(NI) NE, SNH)
Consider expanding Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen (now Tir Gofal), ESA and WES to meet the targets for heathland and management and re-creation. Determine the applicability of a new scheme similar to Countryside Stewardship for Scotland. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, MAFF, SNH, SO, WOAD)
Consider expanding Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen, Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) and Wildlife Enhancement Schemes (WES) to meet the targets for heathland management and re-creation. Determine the applicability of a new scheme similar to Countryside Stewardship for Scotland. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, MAFF, SNH, SO, WOAD)
The long term funding of county heathland management projects, most of which have full time project officers and which play a key role in delivering heathland management needs to be addressed. Consideration should be given to establishing county heathland projects in Wales. (ACTION: NE, CCW).
Organisations with experience of heathland management should continue to provide advice on how to manage and restore lowland heathland. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH).
Produce county lowland heathland re-creation plans identifying areas with a high potential for heathland re-establishment by 2000 for all lowland heathland counties. (ACTION: NE, CCW, SNH)
Seek to disseminate lowland heathland inventories to key organisations involved in heathland management for all counties in England by 1997. Seek to complete the Welsh national survey of lowland heathland so that inventories can be published to guide the targeting of countryside management schemes. Consider the need for a survey and subsequent inventory project in Scotland. Inventories will need periodic updating (see the requirements of the information sub group). (ACTION: CCW, NE, RSPB, SNH)
Continue to develop contacts between international experts in heathland conservation, through mechanisms such as the European Heathland Workshop. This is essential to exchange experience and avoid duplication of effort. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Develop a rapid monitoring method to be used at a sample of sites to ensure that heathland management schemes are meeting their objectives. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Seek to ensure that appropriate studies to evaluate new labour saving technologies for heathland restoration especially for techniques such as turf cutting and rotovation are implemented. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, NE, SNH, SO, WO)
Undertake a publicity campaign to raise awareness of the importance of lowland heathland by 1998. (ACTION: CCW, NE).
Upland heathland
Review and modify livestock support mechanisms in the Less Favourable Areas (LFAs) through further lobbying for reform of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), to promote sustainable agricultural management of upland heathland. Promote a more integrated approach to environmental, agricultural and socio-economic policy through CAP reform. Continue to reduce overgrazing by implementing the environmental cross-compliance conditions. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
By 2004, review, and modify where necessary, muirburn legislation to ensure appropriate management of upland heathland. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
When reviewing management prescriptions in agri-environment schemes and woodland initiatives, consider whether additional measures are needed to maintain and/or improve the condition of upland heathland. Consider extending existing schemes and/or develop new schemes to help achieve the targets outlined in Section 4 of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Consider the adequacy of existing planning guidance on the impacts of certain developments on upland heathlands, for example wind farms, and revise if required. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, LAs, NAW, NPAs, SE, SNH)
Review by 2005 the extent of SSSI/ASSI coverage and notify further sites as necessary to fill significant gaps. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Prepare and implement management plans for all SSSI's/ASSIs and Natura 2000 areas by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Review the effectiveness of the SSSI/ASSI network in delivering favourable management for this habitat by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote the uptake of positive management with owners and occupiers of SSSIs/ASSIs and of other land of nature conservation interest, particularly those areas in public ownership or management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
By 2004 designate the upland heath areas approved by the EC as SACs under the Habitats Directive, and classify appropriate areas as SPAs under the EC Birds Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop by 2002 proposals for enhancing biodiversity by encouraging and managing moorland mosaics, incorporating upland heathland, marginal hillground, woodland and scrub and other farmed land. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant action plans for rare and declining species associated with upland heathland in conjunction with the appropriate species steering groups. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Consider encouraging the use and establishment of public and private demonstration sites, with special linkage to agri-environment schemes, to develop and exhibit best-practice management techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SE, SNH)
Provide advice and information on land management through the production, promotion and dissemination of literature, including technical handbooks and leaflets, and use of IT. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SE, SNH)
Provide training, where appropriate, for those organisations/individuals involved in the delivery of advice to farmers and land managers on the environmental land management objectives and opportunities offered through agri-environmental and integrated rural schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SAC, SE, SNH)
Encourage applications from potential partners to obtain funding to bring areas of upland heathland into favourable management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, SNH)
Continue to influence the EU to review livestock support mechanisms and to make greater use of European funding (see 5.1.1). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Participate in initiatives, such as EU Biodiversity and Forestry strategies, to develop and strengthen measures for the conservation of upland heathland in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote the international significance of the UK’s upland heathland resource. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop national inventories, with agreed definitions, to determine the extent, distribution and composition of upland heathland by the year 2004. Make this information available through a World Wide Web based catalogue of survey information. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop agreed definitions and methods by 2000 for describing and assessing the condition of upland heathland, and complete condition assessments for all SSSIs/ASSIs by the year 2006. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
By 2004 undertake a sample survey (covering 5-10% of the resource) using standardised and repeatable methodology of vegetation condition of upland heath throughout the UK and consider the need for repeat surveys as part of a monitoring programme. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Continue to support applied research to develop methods for the enhancement, restoration and re-creation of upland heath and populations of associated characteristic species through practical management. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, SE, SNH)
Compile by 2002 an inventory of priority sites for upland heathland restoration and expansion, including grasslands containing suppressed dwarf shrubs and potential areas of heathland within forests (particularly areas known to have lost heather cover in the last 50 years). (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Commission and undertake research on the environmental impacts of reducing or removing burning (especially wet heath) and grazing management from upland heath to allow vegetation succession. (ACTION: CCW,NE EHS, NE, HS, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Review research requirements on the effects of air pollution and climate change on upland heathland and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SNH)
Continue to promote research to explore the most effective ways of integrating agriculture, other rural economies and social needs, and recreation with nature conservation objectives. (ACTION:NE CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), DETR, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote conservation of upland heathland through the scientific press and popular media, particularly targeted at landowners and managers, rural communities, and visitors to upland heathland areas. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage appropriate public access for observation and enjoyment of upland heathland. (ACTION: CCW,NE DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Purple moor grass and rush pastures
Review the extent of SSSI/ASSI coverage and consider notifying further sites as necessary to fill significant gaps. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Promote the uptake of management agreements with owners and occupiers of SSSIs/ASSIs and other wildlife sites. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Support and encourage local initiatives to provide advisory booklets, information and other services to owners and managers of purple moor grass and rush pasture. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DOE(NI), NE, LAs, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage the establishment of strategically located nature reserves for management demonstration purposes. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Encourage surveys in the Republic of Ireland, Portugal and the Low Countries to determine the extent and status of purple moor grass and rush pasture in these countries, so that the international status of the habitat may be fully determined. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Clarify the extent, distribution, composition and status of purple moor grass and rush pasture in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland through analysis of existing data and further systematic survey work as necessary. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), SNH)
Promote the production of site inventories or full coverage habitat surveys, on a county or district basis. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), LAs, SNH)
Support research into optimal methods of purple moor grass and rush pasture re-creation, especially into nutrient stripping techniques, seed banks and seeding techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Identify former sites adjacent to, or close to, existing sites that are suitable for re-creation, and draw up a strategy to enable the target for re-creation to be met. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Encourage further surveys of the invertebrates of purple moor grass and rush pasture, and research into the management requirements of key species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider the need for research into the best ways of integrating agriculture and nature conservation on purple moor grass and rush pasture. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DOE(NI), NE, MAFF, SNH, WOAD)
Encourage the making of a documentary on the wildlife of purple moor grass and rush pasture, to foster public appreciation of the habitat. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Fens
Consider modifying or expand existing habitat schemes and countryside schemes such as the Wildlife Enhancement Scheme (WES), Tir Cymen, ESA's, Countryside Stewardship and Nitrate Sensitive Areas to encourage the protection of fens from agricultural contaminants (ACTION: CCW, DoE, NRA, NE, MAFF, SNH)
Continue to notify important sites as SSSI/ASSIs by 1998. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI) NE, SNH)
Agree a list of fens requiring remedial treatment by 1998. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, DoE(NI) EA, NE, SNH, SO, WO, RPBs).
Ensure that favourable management is in place for priority fen sites by 2005, by NNR establishment and SSSI/ASSI management agreement or equivalent (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH).
Agree conservation strategies with relevant statutory and non statutory agencies. (ACTION: CCW, NRA, NE, SNH).
Initiate or participate in training courses appropriate to the management of fens. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH).
Promote the interchange of management techniques conservation strategies and co-operation on research affecting fens. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH).
Undertake necessary research to inform and monitor attempts to restore and re-create rich fen and related habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote research into the ecology of fen species, particularly in relation to water quality, water quantity and management requirements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Reedbeds
Continue to notify nationally important sites as SSSI/ASSI by 1998. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Develop a clear national strategy for reedbed creation and management by 1997, cross-relating to coastal management plans, ESAs, set-aside and mineral extraction plans, and ensuring that an effective level of monitoring and inventory is maintained. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH, SO, WO)
Consider modifying or expanding existing habitat schemes such as Wildlife Enhancement Schemes (WES), Tir Cymen, ESAs, Countryside Stewardship, Nitrate Sensitive Areas and Habitat Scheme to encourage and allow for the creation of 1,200 ha of reedbed. Priority should be given also to reedbed creation as a preferred condition of after-use for mineral extraction sites. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, DoE(NI), NE, LAs, MAFF, SOAEFD, SNH, WOAD)
Acquire, in appropriate circumstances, or grant-aid acquisition of, land of low nature conservation interest for the creation of new reedbeds. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure favourable management of key reedbeds by 2010, offering, where appropriate, long-term, targeted management agreements for reedbed management on important sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure the favourable management of key reedbeds by providing advice based on the most recently available prescriptions. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Ensure that authorities creating new reedbeds for effluent treatment and other primary purposes receive up-to-date advice on reedbed creation for wildlife. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Initiate training courses for land managers and countryside land management advisors on techniques of reedbed creation and management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Promote pan-European co-operation on research, conservation and management of reedbeds and reedbed species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research into the ecology of key GB reedbed species, particularly in relation to management such as cutting regimes, burning and mere and dyke management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure the continued surveillance of population distribution, size and productivity for key GB reedbed species and of water levels, water quality and current reedbed management for all significant reedbeds. (ACTION: CCW, NRA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Encourage necessary research to inform and monitor attempts to restore and re-establish Phragmites swamp. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Provide material which promotes the importance of reedbeds and their conservation by end of 1997. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Lowland raised bog
Review and modify livestock support mechanisms in the Less Favourable Areas (LFAs) through further lobbying for reform of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to promote sustainable agricultural management of lowland raised bog. Promote a more integrated approach to environmental, agricultural and socio-economic policy through CAP reform. Continue to reduce overgrazing by implementing the environmental cross-compliance conditions. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
By 2002 review and consider common land legislation to ensure appropriate management of lowland raised bog in England and Wales. (ACTION:NE CCW, DETR, NE, MAFF, NAW)
Assess existing peat extraction operations affecting SSSIs/ASSIs by 2001 to: identify the effects of extraction on each bog; identify priority cases for action; determine the key obstacles to achieving nature conservation management; and, taking account of the financial implications, to bring forward proposals to secure the long-term nature conservation value. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, FC, LAs, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review by 2003 the effectiveness of existing countryside and agri-environment measures and site management agreements and, where necessary, take opportunities to modify these by 2005 to improve, and create the conditions necessary for, the appropriate management of lowland raised bogs. In many instances this will require sympathetic management of adjacent land. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Implement the policies in the (1993) DANI environmental policy statement and the FC Guideline Note (para 3.2.9) on bogs. Develop further guidance on restoration on a regional basis, where this is necessary to support policy delivery and help target fiscal incentives. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, FC, SE, SNH)
Ensure the importance of lowland raised bogs is recognised and site protection policies are included in Local Plans, Structure Plans, Mineral Strategies, Indicative Forest Strategies, and other strategic land-use plans. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, FC, LAs, LECs, NAW, SE, SNH)
Produce regional guidelines on the requirements for lowland raised bog conservation, including issues of regional land use and drainage, in a wider landscape context. Prepare and agree these through a cross-sectoral steering group by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review and where necessary amend or develop policies on the consumption of peat by 2002, with the aim of achieving a reduction in peat consumption in all sectors and for all purposes. A minimum of 40% of total market requirements to be based on non-peat materials by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, FC, LAs, LECs, NAW, SE, SNH)
Where suitable alternatives exist, consumptive use of peat by central and local government and statutory agencies, including contracted work, should cease by 2003. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, FC, LAs, LECs, NAW, SE, SNH)
By 2000 determine the specific condition classes relating to each of these targets and, using these, establish the areas of lowland raised bog which will be targeted for restoration work; then clarify and begin measures to secure favourable management. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, LAs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH).
Seek to ensure all lowland raised bogs in the UK meeting the JNCC guidelines for selection as SSSIs/ASSIs are notified by 2004. Through periodic reviews ensure that the full natural and geographic range is maintained. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Complete the current programmes for designation of SPA, Ramsar and SACs for lowland raised bog by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review the coverage of the existing programme of Water Level Management Plans to ensure that all SSSIs are covered and to determine whether it should be extended to non-SSSIs and to other parts of the UK. Ensure that condition objectives for lowland raised peat bogs are integrated into Water Level Management Plans by 2006. (ACTION: ADA, CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, FC, LAs, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Complete conservation management plans, and where appropriate rehabilitation plans, to develop and promote the use of long-term management with the owners of lowland raised bog and adjoining land, aimed at creating or maintaining favourable condition (appropriate water levels and cover of bog species, especially Sphagnum spp.) on all SSSIs/ASSIs by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, LAs, NAW, SE, SNH)
Establish by 2005 management plans for all existing and future extraction consents to encourage appropriate conservation after-use options. Ideally, this would lead to the re-establishment of lowland raised peat bog vegetation (as first priority), or other wetland ecosystems. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE (NI), EA, NE, EHS, LAs, SE, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant action plans for rare and declining species associated with lowland raised bogs in conjunction with the appropriate species steering groups. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH).
Develop and promote training on the conservation, management and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs, targeting these at representatives from all key agencies, landowners and voluntary bodies. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage applications from potential partners to obtain funding to bring areas of lowland raised bog into favourable management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Develop methods for defining and assessing the condition of lowland raised bogs and the effectiveness of conservation management. Seek to incorporate these into site management plans by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Undertake NVC and related survey work to ensure that any remaining gaps in knowledge about the character of the remaining primary near-natural resource are filled. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage the dissemination and use of ongoing and past research results, and commission further research where necessary, to improve understanding of the ecology of lowland raised mires. Key research topics will include vegetation dynamics and long-term vegetation change, hydrology (particularly inter-relations with regional water tables), palaeoecology and the ecology and management requirements of invertebrate communities and species. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Contribute information to the National Biodiversity Network WWW-based catalogue of survey information as a means of improving access to current information on UK lowland raised bogs. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review research requirements on the effects of atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change on lowland raised bog and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards achieving action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Produce simple, attractive information packages particularly aimed at capturing the interest and co-operation of site owners and managers towards favourable management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Develop and promote a suite of demonstration sites across the UK to reflect the range of ecological variation and applied management techniques. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Encourage the establishment of a network of improved visitor facilities at significant lowland raised bog sites in UK by 2010 as a means of achieving increased public awareness and appreciation of lowland raised bogs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Produce a simple and attractive booklet for the public and schools which explains the intricacies and conservation importance of lowland raised bogs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Generate ongoing information and publicity to encourage amateur and professional peat users to adopt alternatives, highlighting the threat to peatland conservation of continued peat use. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE)
Blanket bog
Review and modify livestock support mechanisms in the Less Favoured Areas (LFAs) through further lobbying for reform of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to promote sustainable agricultural management of blanket mire. Promote a more integrated approach to environmental, agricultural and socio-economic policy through CAP reform. Continue to reduce overgrazing by implementing the environmental cross-compliance conditions. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
When reviewing management prescriptions in agri-environment schemes and woodland initiatives consider whether additional measures are needed to maintain and/or improve the condition of blanket bog. Consider extending existing schemes and/or developing new schemes to help achieve the targets outlined in Section 4 of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
By 2004 review, and modify where necessary, muirburn legislation to ensure appropriate management of blanket bog. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review by 2005 the coverage of blanket mires within the SSSI/ASSI series, and consider notifying any additional areas of blanket bog required to safeguard the full range of variation. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
By 2004 designate as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) those areas of blanket mire approved by the EC under the EC Habitats Directive and classify, as appropriate, as Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under the EC Birds Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Prepare and implement management plans for all SSSIs/ASSIs and Natura 2000 areas by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote the uptake of positive management with owners and occupiers of SSSIs/ASSIs and of other land of nature conservation interest, particularly those areas in public ownership or management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure the protection and, as appropriate, restoration of blanket mire under management by FE/DANI Forest Service through the further development of FE’s Endangered Habitat Action Plans and Design Plans for individual forests. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant action plans for rare and declining species associated with blanket mire in conjunction with the appropriate species steering groups. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
By 2000, develop guidelines which identify those circumstances under which blanket mire restoration should be actively encouraged, to improve the prioritisation of sites for future restoration/enhancement. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, FC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and promote training in the conservation, management and restoration of blanket mire, targeting this at representatives from all key agencies and at appropriate land managers. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, NPAs, NAW, SAC, SE, SNH)
Develop and promote appropriately targeted guidance and advisory material. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Establish a suite of sites across the UK, reflecting the range of variation of the habitat, to demonstrate best management practice. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, LAs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SE, SNH)
Encourage applications from potential partners to obtain funding to bring areas of blanket bog into favourable management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote exchange of restoration and other management expertise and practices in relation to common issues (eg peat cutting and overgrazing) with other European partners. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Continue to influence the EU to review livestock support mechanisms and to make greater use of European funding (see 5.1.1). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Participate in initiatives, such as EU Biodiversity and Forestry strategies, to develop and strengthen measures for the conservation of blanket mire in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Establish a national inventory of blanket mire habitats by 2004 using agreed methodologies and with agreed definitions for determining the extent and condition of the habitat. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Improve access to, and exchange of information on, UK blanket mires, including the use of the World Wide Web, by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage research to determine and subsequently monitor the nature and extent of diversity within the habitat throughout its range, especially studies of vegetation, hydrology, vertebrate and invertebrate populations and the peat archive, and take any necessary action to arrest, and if possible reverse, any negative trends. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Commission and undertake cross-disciplinary research into the impact of the major land and freshwater uses on the condition of the blanket bog resource. Determine management practices which are either sustainable or do not compromise the sustainability of adjacent areas of bog. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EA, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Commission and undertake research on the conservation management of blanket bog, the causes of degradation and appropriate restoration techniques. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), EA, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA)
Review research requirements on the effects of pollution and climate change on blanket bog and promote research needs accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), EA, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Produce information packages aimed particularly at capturing the interest and co-operation of site owners towards favourable management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage appropriate public access for observation and enjoyment of blanket mire. (ACTION: CCW,NE DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage the establishment of a network of interpretive facilities throughout the UK by 2010 as a means of achieving increased public awareness, understanding and appreciation of blanket mires. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, LAs, LECs, MAFF, NAW, NPAs, SE, SNH)
Mesotrophic lakes
Review appropriate fisheries management policy for those SSSI and ASSI mesotrophic lakes affected by fisheries related impacts by 1998 and implement site management plans for restoration by 2005. (ACTION: NRA, DoE(NI), NE, CCW, SNH)
Complete programmes for notification of mesotrophic lake SSSI/ASSIs by 2001. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Agree by 1998 a priority list of lakes requiring remedial treatment. (ACTION: DoE, NE, CCW, SNH, NRA, RPBs, SEPA, DoE(NI), LAs)
Ensure that all SSSI/ASSI mesotrophic lakes have a site management plan implemented by 2005, taking full account of all impacts including inappropriate levels of recreation. (ACTION: NE, CCW, DoE(NI), SNH)
Continue to offer long-term management agreements to protect mesotrophic SSSI/ASSIs. (ACTION: NE, CCW, DoE(NI), SNH)
Agree conservation strategies and consenting protocols for mesotrophic lake SSSI/ASSIs with relevant statutory and non-statutory agencies. (ACTION: NE, CCW, DoE(NI), NRA, SNH, RPBs, SEPA)
Promote the use of best practice management techniques and, for polluted lakes, restoration measures. (ACTION: NE, CCW, DoE(NI), SNH, NRA, RPBs, SEPA)
Investigate the effectiveness of remedial action against nutrient enrichment in mesotrophic lakes. (ACTION: NRA, Broads Authority, Water plcs, NE, CCW, DoE(NI), SNH)
Eutrophic standing waters
By 1999 establish agreed criteria to identify Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 eutrophic standing waters. By 2002 produce a list of sites comprising Tiers 1 and 2. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
By 2005 establish site-specific plans to achieve appropriate water quality, water resource use, fishery management and biological status for all important (Tiers 1 and 2) eutrophic standing water bodies. Within these tiers, assign priorities to the sites according to threat, vulnerability, potential for restoration and nature conservation interest. Issues raised in England and Wales to be addressed principally through LEAPs. (Action: CCW, DETR, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Develop an integrated national approach to measuring environmental change in eutrophic waters and to solving problems affecting these habitats and resources. (Action: CCW, DETR, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH, JNCC)
Consider modifying and expanding agri-environment measures further to protect eutrophic standing waters from agricultural contaminants. Produce any proposals by 2000. (Action: CoCo, CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD).
Make full use of the provisions of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981 and the Wildlife (Northern Ireland ) Order, 1985 to ensure effective control of the release to the wild of alien aquatic species. Review and where appropriate amend Schedule 9 of these Acts by 2000. (Action: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
By 2004 complete the programme of notifying important eutrophic standing waters as SSSIs/ ASSIs. Prepare and where possible implement site management plans, taking special account of threats posed by pollution, water abstraction and recreational use (Action: Broads Authority, CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SNH).
Maintain or introduce appropriate fishery management. Where appropriate, institute restorative measures such as phosphorus control, biomanipulation and species reintroduction. (Action: Broads Authority, CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SNH)
By 2004 designate the eutrophic standing waters approved by the EC as Special Areas of Conservation under the Habitats Directive and classify, as appropriate, as Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under the EC Birds Directive. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Complete the programme for designation of eutrophic standing waters as Ramsar sites by 2004. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH,SOAEFD, WO)
Ensure that local planning mechanisms (e.g. Local Authority Structure Plans) take account of the wildlife interest of all (Tiers 1, 2 and 3) eutrophic standing waters. (Action: CCW, DETR, EA, EHS, NE, LAs, SEPA, SNH, SOAEFD, Planning Service (NI))
Contribute to the implementation of relevant priority species action plans for rare and declining species associated with eutrophic standing waters, in conjunction with the relevant species steering group. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Provide advice for managers and users of eutrophic standing waters, to promote the conservation of biodiversity in this habitat. (Action: EA, SEPA, CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote the interchange of information between the UK and other countries on management techniques, conservation and research relevant to eutrophic waters. (Action: DETR, EA, SEPA, CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH, IFE, IH, ITE)
By 1999 develop a rapid screening system to assess the biological quality of eutrophic standing waters, in order to classify them (see 5.1.1) as Tier 1, Tier 2 or Tier 3 and to determine priorities within these categories. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA, SNH)
Continue experimental work on remedial action for nutrient-enriched standing waters and monitor the results of procedures already taken. (Action: Broads Authority, CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Contribute information to a World Wide Web based catalogue of survey information as a means of improving access to information on eutrophic standing waters. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that information on well-studied eutrophic standing waters is made readily available and publish advice on good management practice, targeting site managers and policy makers. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA SNH)
Continue to contribute to symposia on the conservation of fresh waters and to encourage the publication of papers on issues relating to eutrophic standing waters in peer-reviewed scientific literature. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC, SEPA SNH)
Aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies
Establish water quality objectives and associated nutrient standards for turloughs and Breckland meres by 2002 and aim to meet these targets by 2010. (Action: CCW, DETR, EA, EHS, NE)
Designate as SSSI/ASSI all good examples of aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies which are newly discovered and which lack such protection. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure that all SSSI/ASSI water bodies in this category have site management plans implemented by 2004, bearing in mind that activities well outside the SSSI/ASSI boundaries may affect the water bodies. Where necessary, offer long-term management agreements to protect these sites. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, EA, FC, MAFF, MoD)
Consider proposing the presently recognised UK turloughs as SACs. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, JNCC, WO)
Consider designating by 2002 as Ramsar sites all good examples of aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, WO)
In order to achieve favourable condition, ensure that the special requirements of aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies are recognised in management statements for SACs which contain them. (Action: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, SNH)
Contribute to the implementation of relevant species action plans for rare and declining species associated with aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies in conjunction with the relevant species steering group. (Action: CCW, EA, NE, DANI, EHS)
Continue to advise Government and landowners on measures to safeguard this fragile habitat. (Action: CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE)
Contribute to knowledge of the status and importance of naturally fluctuating water bodies and of their effective management, by exchanging information gained in the UK with colleagues in other countries which contain similar sites. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, JNCC)
By 2002 determine the likely impacts of any changes in hydrological regime and water quality on the biodiversity of these water bodies. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE)
Devise and initiate methods of biological and hydrological monitoring for all known aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies by 2000. By 2015 consider whether, in the face of climate change, these sites are viable in the long term. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE)
Undertake a systematic programme of hydrological and biological survey of seasonal water bodies throughout the UK, in order to identify those which are aquifer fed. By 2005 carry out conservation evaluations of any sites which are found to meet the criteria for aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Develop and implement appropriate surveillance and monitoring programmes to assess progress towards action plan targets. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC SNH)
Contribute information to a World Wide Web based catalogue of survey information as a means of improving access to information on aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies. (Action: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SNH)
By 2000 formulate and implement a publicity strategy to promote at local and national levels an appreciation of the importance for biodiversity of aquifer fed naturally fluctuating water bodies. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE)
By 2002, produce a guide to the identification of this habitat and publish advice on protection of its hydrological characteristics and conservation of its animals and plants. (Action: CCW, EHS, NE)
Limestone pavements
Continue existing programmes to notify nationally important sites as SSSI/ASSI by 1998. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Seek to ensure that any threatened limestone pavements notified by the CCW, NE and SNH under section 34 of the 1981 Act receive the protection of Limestone Pavement Order designations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage the management of grazing activities on overgrazed limestone pavements such that the visibility of features of geological importance is in balance with the maintenance of a characteristic assemblage of native plant species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH).
Encourage the production of a booklet which highlights the environmental damage caused by the removal of limestone pavement for rockery stone. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Maritime cliff and slopes
In the light of research findings, give consideration to how planning policy might discourage new built development within appropriate buffer zones in the vicinity of retreating cliff-tops. (ACTION: CCE, DETR, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, LAs, NAW, SE, SNH)
Where appropriate promote agri-environment schemes which encourage management and restoration of maritime grassland, heathland and other cliff-top habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
By 2004 apply conservation designations to all remaining areas of maritime cliff and slopes which meet national or international criteria and ensure appropriate management of all designated sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Where stabilisation of a cliff face is necessary (as defined in 5.2.2), ensure adequate mitigation and/or compensation to maintain the overall quantity and quality of maritime cliff and slopes habitat. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote the management of maritime grassland and heath habitats by scrub control and grazing where appropriate, through relevant agri-environment schemes and management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Conduct operations to remove rats, cats or other introduced predators affecting breeding seabirds on maritime cliff and slope sites, identified by ‘Seabird 2000' and other surveys. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage by 2002 appropriate habitat management of maritime cliff and slope habitats by preparing and disseminating ‘best practice’ guidance material. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote the exchange of information on maritime cliff ecology and management among European maritime states through the European Union for Coastal Conservation and Eurosite. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2003 commission a literature review and full survey of the maritime cliff and slope resource in the UK to assess its relative conservation value, how much can be improved by alternative management, and to what extend it is affected by coastal defence and engineering works. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2003 commission a study to identify areas in the UK suitable for the re-creation of maritime grasslands and heathlands. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2003 implement a baseline study to determine the extent and quality of the maritime cliff and slope resource in the UK in order to enable the effective assessment of progress towards meeting the objectives of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2003 complete an assessment of the maritime cliff sites in the UK where the native flora and fauna is being affected by introduced species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Carry out an assessment of how the conservation interest of maritime cliffs may be affected by climate change. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH)
By 2003, in order to meet objective 4.3, develop an inventory of coastal defences that impact on maritime cliff and slope habitats and identify the most appropriate defences for removal. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SNH)
Raise public awareness of the mobile nature of soft cliffs and the value of maintaining unrestricted coastal processes. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote awareness of the implications of the policies outlined in this plan among coastal Local Authorities, and ensure that the relevant details are incorporated into coastal zone management plans including Shoreline Management Plans. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Raise public awareness of the potential damage that can be inflicted on the native flora and fauna of maritime cliffs by introduced species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Coastal sand dunes
Develop and promote agri-environment schemes which will encourage restoration and sustainable management of dune habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, NAW, SE)
Notify by 2004 any remaining areas of sand dune habitat which meet national criteria as SSSI and ASSI and ensure appropriate management of designated sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Use positive management agreements where appropriate to encourage sustainable grazing of sand dune SSSIs and ASSIs, and other dunes where possible. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage golf course management policies and practices which are sympathetic to the flora and fauna of sand dune systems. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote and encourage the restoration of open dune vegetation on afforested dune systems. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, SNH)
Promote and encourage the restoration of dune vegetation on dune systems used for arable farming or agriculturally improved grassland. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Discourage unnecessary stabilisation of all dunes, and where appropriate promote managed destabilisation measures on over-stabilised dunes. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Support beach management strategies which encourage the protection of the seaward fronts of dune systems from unsustainable pressure by pedestrian or vehicular traffic, and discourage the use of mechanical beach cleaning close to dune fronts. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, LAs, SNH)
Where appropriate, promote and develop demonstration sites for the restoration of dune vegetation on dune systems which have been converted to forestry or agriculture. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FA, FE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage the appropriate management of sand dunes by preparing and disseminating updated guidance material. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Make use of the potential provided by existing estuary management partnerships in taking forward the actions of this plan (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EA, NE, LAs, MAFF, SNH)
Promote the exchange of information on sand dune ecology and management among European maritime states through organisations such as the European Union for Coastal Conservation and Eurosite. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure lessons from EU LIFE projects are widely disseminated and incorporated into good practice. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, NE, Sefton Coast LIFE Project)
Compile by 2002 an inventory of the desirability, feasibility and priority of sites for sand dune restoration from forestry and agriculture, and for the development of Atlantic woodland. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Identify suitable locations and methods for dune activation (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Co-ordinate information on changes in the extent and quality of the sand dune resource in the UK in order to enable effective monitoring of the objectives of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research on the effects on sand dunes of indirect influences such as nitrogen deposition, climate change and sea level rise. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Raise public awareness of the essential mobility of soft coasts and the value of maintaining unrestricted coastal processes. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Coastal vegetated shingle
Permit as far as possible the natural movement of coastal sediments through coastal processes which maintain shingle structures in favourable condition, including the natural landward movement of shingle banks. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Apply conservation designations (including NNR status where appropriate) to remaining areas of shingle which meet national or international criteria for site selection, and ensure appropriate management of designated sites by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Negotiate positive management agreements on vegetated shingle SSSIs and ASSIs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
If pilot projects (see 5.5.4) are successful, promote the application of techniques, where appropriate, in a wider programme of rehabilitation on major shingle sites suffering from gross and extensive damage. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MoD, SNH)
Promote and develop demonstration sites for the management and rehabilitation of shingle structures and disseminate best practice. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure all relevant agri-environment project officers and members of regional agri-environment groups are advised of the location of existing examples of this habitat, its importance and the management requirements for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Allowing natural landward movement of shingle features (see 5.1) will, in some cases, affect other habitats such as saline lagoons, grazing marsh, fens and reedbeds, some of which will be designated sites. The implementation groups for the relevant HAPs should be advised on how to make appropriate provision for habitat creation. In some cases, breaches in shingle banks may lead to the development of saltmarsh habitats and this needs to be taken account of in the respective HAPs. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SNH)
Assess the current extent of damage to shingle vegetation and geomorphology in order to inform the setting of restoration targets within the first three years of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Collate and disseminate information on changes in the extent and quality of the vegetated shingle resource in the UK in order to enable effective monitoring of the objectives of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Increase public awareness of the value and fragility of vegetated shingle through on-site interpretation. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Sabellaria alveolata reefs
Ensure that when considering the need for, and scope of, Environmental Impact Assessments, the needs of S. alveolata, (including sediment supply), are fully taken into account. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, LAs, SE)
In candidate and proposed SACs with S. alveolata reefs, develop site specific management and protection, including designated monitoring and research areas, which ensure conditions for survival and persistence. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider the designation of further SSSIs and ASSIs or the establishment of voluntary refuge areas for S. alveolata reefs outside designated sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Raise awareness of the scarcity and fragility of S. alveolata reefs with conservation officers and the public by targeted publicity (posters and leaflets to be produced by 2003). Ensure that this habitat is included in 'Beach/Shore' codes of practice. Effort should be made to involve officers of country agencies, wardens of voluntary reserves and heritage coast officers in survey work. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Establish by 2003 the extent and quality of significant areas of S. alveolata reef habitat in the UK. The study should compare the present extent of reefs with the last extensive intertidal survey in the early 1980s. There is a need especially to include shallow subtidal areas as these have previously been little studied. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, NERC, SNH)
Commission research on growth rates, longevity, and persistence of both individual worms and associated reef dynamics, under a variety of environmental conditions including the edges of geographic ranges. Establish by 2003 the necessary habitat conditions for the re establishment of S. alveolata reefs within former areas. Research on subtidal reefs should be carried out as a priority since almost nothing is known about these. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, NERC, SNH)
Undertake surveys of damage to reefs in areas with different levels of recreational activity. Quantify recreational damage in field experiments (at non sensitive sites) to measure recovery potential. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NERC, SNH)
Investigate the role of S. alveolata reefs in habitat modification including stabilisation of cobble boulder bottoms. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, NERC, SNH)
Compile a simple leaflet with an attached record sheet to be returned to a lead agency in order to both heighten awareness and provide valuable distributional data.  (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Many sites in south-west England and Wales are in areas of high tourist activity. Display material strategically placed in car parks and foreshore access points could be used to highlight the natural history of this interesting habitat to casual beach users. Advice should also be given to discourage trampling. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Coastal saltmarsh
Promote awareness and uptake of agri-environment schemes which involve the management and creation of saltmarsh. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EA, NE, MAFF, SNH)
Apply conservation designations to remaining areas of saltmarsh which meet national or international criteria for site selection and ensure appropriate management of notified/designated sites by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote and develop demonstration sites for the management and creation of saltmarsh and disseminate results. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage the appropriate management of saltmarsh through the production and dissemination of guidance material by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SNH)
Make use of the potential provided by existing estuary management partnerships in taking forward the actions of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EA, NE, LAs, MAFF, SNH)
Ensure all relevant agri-environment project officers and members of regional agri-environment conservation groups are advised of the location of existing examples of this habitat, its importance and the management requirements for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
The often intimate relationship between saltmarsh vegetation and other coastal habitats such as shingle structures, sand dunes, machair and intertidal <a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=34">mudflats</a> means that the management of saltmarshes can rarely be considered in isolation. Managed realignment of flood defences and saltmarsh habitat creation where existing defences are not sustainable in the long term will, in some places, involve loss of freshwater habitats (eg grazing marsh and reed beds) behind sea walls. Some of these habitats may be within designated sites. Implementation groups for the relevant HAPs should be advised on how to make appropriate provision for compensatory habitat creation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SNH)
Put measures in place to clarify the current and future rates of saltmarsh loss enabling a review of the targets of this plan by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, MAFF, SNH)
Investigate the beneficial use of fine dredged materials for promotion of saltmarsh accretion and disseminate the results. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, MAFF, SNH)
Continue research into the factors influencing the establishment of saltmarsh vegetation, and use this to develop ‘best practice’ methods for management. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, MAFF, SNH)
Initiate an assessment of saltmarsh grazing practice, including agronomic aspects, by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH)
Raise public awareness of the essential mobility of saltmarsh and its value for a variety of interests including coastal processes, flood defence, fisheries, nature conservation, amenity and recreation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SNH)
Mudflats
Continue to support the establishment of EMPs and related projects on all estuaries with significant intertidal flats (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Apply appropriate conservation designations to all intertidal areas that meet national and international criteria for site section and ensure appropriate management of designated sites by 2003. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Run field trials to refine and demonstrate techniques for habitat restoration and creation by 2002. Particular attention should be given to the use of dredged material for this purpose. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, MAFF, Port authorities, SE, SNH)
Initiate research into sediment exchange processes between mudflats and other coastal habitats and on the dynamics of cohesive sediments in estuaries. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, MAFF, SE, SEPA SNH)
Collect and collate information on the extent, quality, loss/change of mudflat resource to allow targets to be set and progress to be monitored by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Educate planning authorities and developers on the important functions of mudflats in estuarine and coastal systems by the preparation and dissemination of a pamphlet by 2001. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, MAFF, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Raise public awareness of the ecological and socio-economic value of mudflats by 2001. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Seagrass beds
Explore options for using statutory measures, aside from those specifically designed for nature conservation, to protect seagrass beds. Particular consideration should be given to fisheries legislation and port and harbour regulations. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Determine the extent and quality of the seagrass resource which falls within protected areas and notify further sites, if required, to fill significant gaps. In particular, ensure that there is adequate representation of the full range of variation in seagrass communities found around the UK in the network of protected areas. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Identify seagrass beds of particular significance as nursery grounds for fish and ensure these are covered by the protected areas network. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SE, SFCs, SNH)
Identify suitable sites for reintroduction or restoration of seagrass and draw up a strategy to enable the target to be met. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Publish guidelines on the designation of intertidal SSSIs/ASSIs for their marine biological importance and assess whether, in light of these, seagrass beds are adequately covered by the network. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide advice to local authorities and others on minimising impacts of plans and operations on seagrass beds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Liaise with research institutes and coastal managers in Europe and elsewhere to exchange data and information on the conservation of seagrass beds and the developing of techniques for transplanting and germination of the three species of Zostera found in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Compile and publish an up-to-date record of the extent, quality and distribution of seagrass around the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Carry out further research into the factors which adversely affect seagrass beds to understand how these may be avoided or minimised. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Carry out research and feasibility studies on the restoration of seagrass beds through transplanting and germination. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote awareness among coastal users of the conservation importance of seagrass beds and how to avoid impact on these habitats. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Sheltered muddy gravels
Determine the full extent of the sheltered muddy gravel resource that currently falls within designated areas. Explore alternative means of securing the conservation of representative examples of muddy gravel habitats through other mechanisms by 2003. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Inform local authorities, port and harbour authorities of the reasons for protection of this scarce marine habitat where they have a statutory obligation for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Identify nutrient Water Quality (WQ) standards for nutrients that will protect this habitat, and examine the ability of existing regulatory mechanisms to ensure compliance with such standards. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Gather, compile and publish a detailed account of the extent, quality, current status and geographical distribution of fully saline sheltered muddy gravel beds around the UK by the year 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake further structured survey work, especially within SAC boundaries. Further work should be undertaken in Plymouth Sound, the Fal Estuary and Helford River, Milford Haven and Dornoch Firth. This work should endeavour to further delineate community composition and also to provide detailed information on the other physical characteristics of the habitat. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop and standardise monitoring methodology specific to the characteristics of sheltered muddy gravel beds by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Produce appropriate information for coastal zone management groups and the general public about the conservation needs of this habitat and related biotopes. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Modiolus modiolus beds
Determine the extent of the resource within protected areas making sure to distinguish between different M. modiolus bed types. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Identify those areas of M. modiolus at risk from fishing activities and draw up a strategy to prevent damage. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SFCs, SNH)
By 2002, develop standardised techniques for survey and monitoring of M. modiolus beds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Develop advice to fishermen and recreational organisations on importance and sensitivity of M. modiolus beds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
By 2004, assess the distribution, extent and quality of beds of different types. This needs to include investigation of the associated flora and fauna in different conditions. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Investigate the natural dynamics of M. modiolus beds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, NERC, SNH)
Assess the potential for recovery of beds after cessation of damaging activities. This should incorporate investigation of the habitat requirements and the length of time taken for recovery, and should cover associated flora and fauna as well as M. modiolus itself. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, NERC, SE, SNH)
Assess the feasibility of restoring beds by relaying M. modiolus. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, NERC, SNH)
Provide advice to relevant authorities, fishermen and recreational bodies. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Sabellaria spinulosa reefs
Exclude important examples of S. spinulosa reef from aggregate extraction licence areas. Attach detailed monitoring and research conditions to other licences. (ACTION: CCW, CEC, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE)
Establish voluntary mechanisms outside SACs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, SFC, SNH)
By 2002 develop a code of practice to protect against damage from dredging and trawling. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MAFF, SE, SFCs, SNH)
Refine the MNCR list of characteristic species associated with S. spinulosa reefs, including commercial species (eg pink shrimp Pandalus montagui) and identify indicators of habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF)
Investigate and assess the distribution, area and habitat quality of S. spinulosa reefs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Investigate life cycles, recruitment and longevity of reefs and their associated fauna. Commission research on the interaction and competition between S. spinulosa and other filter feeders (eg Ophiothrix fragilis and Mytilus edulis). (ACTION: CCW, CEC, NE, MAFF, NERC, SNH)
Study the effect of towed fishing gear on S. spinulosa reefs, their potential for recovery and rates of recovery. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, NERC, SE, SNH)
By 2004, compile an inventory of areas which formerly supported S. spinulosa reefs, establish the necessary habitat conditions for re-establishment, and identify the highest priority sites for re-establishment. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Raise awareness of the importance of S. spinulosa reef habitats to marine biodiversity within the dredging and fishing industry. (ACTION: CCW, CEC, EHS, NE, MAFF, SE)
Publish an appropriate code of practice for commercial and recreational marine users. (ACTION: CCW, CEC, EHS, NE, MAFF, SE, SNH)
Tidal rapids
Ensure that road, bridge, causeway, energy and other construction schemes which might obstruct the water flow in tidal rapids avoid or minimise, as far as possible, damage to the conservation interest of the rapids. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), DTI, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
List further sites for eventual notification to ensure the full range of tidal rapid sites and community types and ecological conditions is represented in the network of protected sites. Consideration should be given to the protection of the sub-littoral components of tidal rapids in the context of the proposed Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) working group on marine conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Draw up management schemes for all SACs that contain tidal rapids by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Provide advice to local authorities and planners on minimising impacts of plans and operations on tidal rapids communities. Emphasis should be given to the value of considering their importance from the early stages of planning, as there may often be a simple engineering solution to preserving the features of interest. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, NAW, SE, SNH)
Complete survey and recording of the extent, quality and composition of the habitats and communities of tidal rapids by 2005, and establish a monitoring programme that will enable progress towards the objective of this plan to be properly assessed. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Monitor the recovery of sites after construction works to establish the impacts and effectiveness of mitigation measures. For new projects post-construction monitoring should be costed in from the start. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, NAW, SE, SNH)
Implement the communication of information on tidal rapids and their importance to planners, coastal users and the general public. This should include their international importance, their variety, diversity and abundance of marine life and communities. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, LAs, SNH)
Write popular articles for relevant publications on the importance of tidal rapids. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider the role of Coastal Fora and particularly the Minch Project in promoting the awareness of, and disseminating information about, tidal rapids. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Maerl beds
Ensure that road, bridge, energy and other construction schemes which might affect maerl beds do not risk damage to their conservation interest. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, EHS, NE, LAs, SE, SNH)
Ensure that fishing operations do not adversely affect the conservation interests of maerl beds within designated sites. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, NE, MAFF, LAs, SE, SFCs, SNH)
Provide advice to local authorities and planners on minimising impacts of plans and operations on maerl bed communities by 2000. Consideration should be given to their importance from the early stages of planning, as there may often be a simple engineering or siting solution to preserving the features of interest. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, NAW, SE, SNH)
Complete survey and recording of the extent, quality and composition of maerl bed habitats by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Establish a monitoring programme by 2005 that will enable progress towards the objective of this plan to be properly assessed. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Implement the communication of information on maerl beds and their importance to planners, coastal users and the general public. This should include their importance as a Scottish sea loch feature and their international importance in the context of the European distribution of this habitat. Attention should also be given to the variety and diversity of maerl and the abundance of associated marine life and communities. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, LAs, SNH)
Write popular articles for relevant publications on the importance of maerl beds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Mud habitats in deep water
Identify by 2002 nationally important mud habitats in deep water and the associated communities within the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information to yachting and mooring associations on best practice to avoid damage to sensitive mud biotopes in deep water, such as seapen beds and especially S. gelatinosa in Loch Goil. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Provide general advice and information to fisheries managers and policy-makers on the sensitivity, conservation importance and ecological requirements of mud biotopes in deep water. Particular attention should be drawn to the seapen beds and S. gelatinosa, in order to raise awareness and promote the protection of key sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Assess the current extent and quality (including extent of damage) of mud habitats in deep water in the UK (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Raise awareness of the importance and diversity of deep mud habitats among marine users. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Gain public support in promoting the biological importance of this habitat - ‘mud in deep water is deeply interesting!’ (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Saline lagoons
Continue notification of sites which meet the SSSI/ASSI guidelines ensuring that representation of the full range of lagoonal types is covered. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Maintain and monitor the stable exchange of waters to and from lagoonal habitats as part of site management plans. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Encourage the production of management plans for lagoonal sites especially SSSIs/ASSIs, NNRs, LNRs and NGO-owned nature reserves by 1998. These should include objectives for BAP priority species and may include objectives for all relevant Red Data Book species. Management objectives and actions for saline lagoons should be incorporated into broader management initiatives such as Local Environment Agency Plans and Estuary Management Plans. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage the production of management plans for lagoonal sites especially SSSIs/ASSIs, NNRs, LNRs and NGO-owned nature reserves by 1998. These should include objectives for BAP priority species and may include objectives for all relevant Red Data Book species. Management objectives and actions for saline lagoons should be incorporated into broader management initiatives such as Local Environment Agency Plans and Estuary Management Plans. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH).
Contribute to the different stages of producing shoreline management plans (including guidance on their preparation) to ensure that processes relevant to coastal lagoons are taken into account (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, Local Authorities, MAFF, WO).
Contribute to the different stages of producing Shoreline Management Plans (including guidance on their preparation) to ensure that processes relevant to coastal lagoons are taken into account. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, LAs, MAFF, NAW)
Create a lagoons working group to define best management practices, lagoon creation and colonisation/re-introduction of characteristic species by 1996. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Develop liaison within Europe to ensure best practice in lagoonal conservation is exchanged and developed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Establish an inventory of all coastal lagoons currently of national and international importance by 1998. Where information is still inadequate, encourage surveys which assess the importance of lagoonal habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Assess the feasibility of using some derelict docks as sites for the creation of lagoons including for possible ex-situ conservation of threatened lagoonal species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Use saline lagoon habitat creation schemes to test methods and the approach for creating new habitat. Such opportunities may arise, for example, through coastal defence set-back and perhaps also land use by industry. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Support research into the environmental requirements and other elements of the ecology and genetic viability of populations of certain key characterising lagoonal species. This would provide a sound basis for management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Sublittoral sands and gravels
Ensure that the best examples of sublittoral sand and gravel habitats are protected from the adverse effects of fishing, dredging, aggregate extraction and other activities. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, MoD, Port and Harbour Authorities NAW, SE, SNH)
Seek to identify a series of representative sites of this habitat type by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Provide information and advice to local authorities and others involved in the management of the coastal zone on how to minimise the adverse impacts of coastal activities on sublittoral sands and gravels. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, Home Office, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Review the data on the extent of sublittoral sand and gravel habitats around the UK to aid selection and management of representative examples. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Identify criteria for assessing future significant changes (if any) in the level of biodiversity within sand and gravel habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Assess the ecological importance and function and environmental requirements of long-lived species that are sensitive to disturbance in sand and gravel habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NERC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Investigate and refine techniques for surveying and monitoring subtidal sand and gravel habitats and biotopes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Prepare guidelines on the importance of this habitat. In particular, liaise with fishing organisations and the aggregates industry to promote environmental awareness across these industries. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, SNH)
Educate coastal zone managers with respect to the importance of sublittoral sand and gravel habitats in terms of biodiversity and their importance to commercial fisheries. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Lophelia pertusa reefs
Continue studies to determine current distribution and status of L. pertusa pseudo-colonies and reefs in UK waters by 2010 and establish a monitoring programme that will enable progress towards the objective of this plan to be properly assessed. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)

Species Actions

Acrocephalus paludicola (Aquatic Warbler)
Seek to designate any sites regularly supporting qualifying numbers of warbler as SPAs. (ACTION: CCW, WO)
Seek to oppose any development proposal which would adversely affect key sites for this migrant species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Following further research to identify the ecological requirements of this species, ensure that the needs of this species are taken into account in management plans for any SSSI used regularly by this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider this species for protection under international legislation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE. NE, JNCC)
Ensure land owners and managers with regularly occurring migratory populations are aware of the importance of their land to the species, and appropriate methods of habitat management, when known. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Identify and implement a method for monitoring aquatic warbler numbers on passage through the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Alauda arvensis (Skylark)
Encourage sympathetic management of rotational set aside. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Survey habitat use to determine the distribution of farmland skylarks in relation to crop types. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake a detailed ecological study on skylarks on lowland farmland, to determine the reasons for decline, including examination of crop preferences, breeding success, diet and food supply. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure annual monitoring of breeding skylarks through the BTO/ JNCC/ RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Ensure that the problem of the decline of farmland birds has a high profile, using the skylark as an illustration. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Alosa alosa (Allis Shad)
Seek the protection of shad habitat and access routes to spawning grounds (if confirmed) by the notification as SSSIs/ASSIs of areas if this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Seek to secure favourable actions in management plans covering any confirmed spawning sites within one year of discovery. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Promote genetic research to examine the speciation between the two species of shad. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Support a pan-European study of the shad to determine the status, genetics, biology and conservation needs of the shad across Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, MAFF, SNH)
Alosa fallax (Twaite Shad)
Consider the protection of shad habitat and access to spawning grounds (particularly where barriers impede access) by designating appropriate parts of the Rivers Usk, Wye, Severn and Tywi catchments as SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Seek to secure and implement favourable management plans for these rivers by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Seek to secure favourable actions in catchment management plans covering any new spawning sites within one year of discovery. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Encourage anglers and commercial fishermen to record and release the twaite shad they catch. (ACTION: NE, CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), MAFF, NRA, SNH, SOAEFD)
Survey former sites to establish the current status of the species in the UK and identify suitable rivers for re-establishing breeding populations. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Identify all spawning rivers and migration routes and provide them with protection, where appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Promote genetic research to examine the speciation between the two species of shad. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE,MAFF, SNH)
Anostirus castaneus (Chestnut coloured click beetle)
Consider the need for reintroductions/ reinforcements to ensure the establishment and maintenance of six viable populations. Undertake through translocations of native stock, if considered appropriate and feasible. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Anotrichium barbatum (a Red Alga)
Advise local authorities and users of the sea near Pwllheli (eg sailing clubs) of the presence of this species. (ACTION: CCW, LAs)
Establish and monitor the size of the A. barbatum population for a few years to determine whether it is stable or fluctuates between years. (ACTION: CCW)
Use presentations to draw attention to the need of establishing the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Argynnis adippe (High Brown Fritillary)
Following further survey and research to identify the ecological requirements of this species, encourage the uptake of incentives for favourable land management on existing and potential sites within the Morecambe Bay area, Dartmoor, Exmoor and Herefordshire, especially through existing ESA and Countryside Stewardship schemes. (ACTION: CC, CCW, NE, MAFF)
Ensure that at least 20 colonies lie within SSSIs across the current geographical range of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage favourable management for the species on existing sites and seek to restore favourable management to former sites where opportunities for colonisation or re-introduction exist. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Following restoration of the habitat, encourage the spread of the butterfly to 10 additional sites by 2005, using re-introduction techniques if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Produce a guide for landowners and managers in target areas advising on how to manage land for the butterfly. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote research into the butterfly’s ecological requirements to identify the management and conservation needs of the butterfly, including research on habitat management techniques and their impact on this species (especially in bracken habitats). (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Survey all former and potential sites to identify precise breeding areas and suitable sites for re-introduction. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Continue current butterfly monitoring transects on existing sites, collating and analysing data annually to compare trends at individual sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation and conservation of the high brown fritillary and its habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Armillaria ectypa (Marsh Honey Fungus)
Undertake surveys of suitable Sphagnum <a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=57">bogs</a> in northern Britain with the aim of discovering new A. ectypa sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Compile a list of sites that would be worth searching for A. ectypa and distribute to active mycologists encouraging further surveys of Sphagnum bogs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Arvicola terrestris (Water Vole)
Seek to include the needs of water voles in management of SSSIs or Wildlife Sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure the provision of advice to relevant authorities and riparian owners on the conservation problems of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA, SEPA, SNH)
Promote research to quantify the effects of mink predation on water voles, and assess the logistics and efficacy of mink control. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake research to identify the causes of decline and appropriate measures to arrest it, including interactions with mink, effects of habitat fragmentation, and the effect of rodenticides and herbicides in riparian habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, NRA, SEPA, SNH)
Seek to establish a National Water Vole Monitoring Scheme based on indices and regular survey of key sites in all counties. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Survey to determine the distribution of the water voles throughout Britain, identifying key populations in all counties and regions. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research to evaluate the use of translocation programmes in restoring populations where they have been lost. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Raise awareness and improve understanding of the water vole as an indicator species of the quality of riparian habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA, SNH)
Asilus crabroniformis (Hornet robberfly)
Produce a policy statement on the use of ivermectins in SSSIs and nature reserves. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider trial land management schemes in about five areas where the robberfly occurs, to test the effects of alternative methods of grassland and stock management on this species. (ACTION: CCW, MAFF, WOAD)
Promote favourable management in all SSSIs and nature reserves where the species occurs or formerly occurred. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Produce a leaflet on appropriate management for circulation to land owners and managers of sites where the robberfly occurs, or was once present. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Survey sites or districts where the species has been reported since 1960, to determine the current distribution. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote research into the fly’s ecology, especially its habitat requirements, population dynamics, dispersal abilities, larval hosts and adult prey and the importance of metapopulation structure to their survival. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage monitoring of known sites for this species, seeking to include, where possible, information provided by local naturalists and site managers on the history of site management and the effects of ivermectin treatments on local robberfly populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Use this large and attractive fly to highlight the conservation issues facing insects associated with dung. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Asparagus officinalis ssp. prostratus (Wild Asparagus)
Provide mechanisms to ensure that a beneficial management regime is implemented on all extant sites (eg through considering sites for notification as SSSIs, and management agreements on existing SSSIs). On Welsh sites, management should follow proposals set out in the CCW report. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that all sites are protected as far as possible from excessive trampling and the activities of rock-climbers. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure successful completion of the SAC designation for the candidate sites which include sections of the Gower Coast in Wales and the Lizard NNR in Cornwall, both of which support populations of the plant. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC)
Conserve the current level of genetic variation by developing a seed-bank for the species at Wakehurst Place (Kew) and perhaps the new Welsh botanic garden. Material collected from the Welsh and English sites should be kept separately and cultivated plants introduced only in the region from which they originated. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew).
Continue the ongoing pollination work in Wales and consider a similar project in England if monitoring programmes (see 5.5.2) indicate poor pollination rates are occurring at particular sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
If suitable locations can be found, (re)introduce cultivated material at selected Welsh and English sites with the aim of establishing two new viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Provide land managers with appropriate advice on the conservation of wild asparagus. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Expand the survey of all extant and historic sites in Wales already carried out for CCW, by undertaking field surveys to establish current population numbers, status and distribution at English sites. Collate this information with field survey work recently carried out and in progress in Wales. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Monitor all extant populations in England and Wales to record data on population health, growth, flowering and fruiting. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Monitor the progress of any newly established populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Incorporate relevant findings from the ongoing review of the European status of wild asparagus into revisions of this plan. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Establish a consensus on the taxonomy of wild asparagus through discussion with the relevant experts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Raise awareness of the importance of this rare taxon. Articles should be written for magazines of relevant local and national conservation groups. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Atrina fragilis (Fan Mussel)
Encourage divers to ‘look but not touch’ these large, rare bivalves and to report all occurrences to ensure that they are recorded. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
In the future, when any sites are discovered where significant aggregations of A. fragilis occur, take action to maintain and enhance the population by excluding demersal fishing and dive collection. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SE)
Establish the biological and ecological requirements of both the larval and adult stages of A. fragilis. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, NERC, SNH)
Instigate a national programme to raise awareness of A. fragilis by providing general information to fisheries organisations, fishermen and divers, on the sensitivity, conservation importance and ecological requirements of A. fragilis. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Austropotamobius pallipes (Freshwater White-clawed Crayfish)
Consider designating further sites vital for the white-clawed crayfish as SSSI/ASSIs. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI))
Ensure appropriate habitat management is undertaken. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Establish the feasibility of eradicating non-native crayfish populations from the wild where they threaten sensitive sites or important populations of native crayfish. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
If feasible, instigate and support re-introduction programmes to selected sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Provide advice for those involved in the conservation of this species and the management of non-native crayfish populations. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, MAFF, NRA, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Provide advice on disinfection procedures to prevent the transmission of crayfish plague. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Make inventories of SSSIs/ASSIs which contain native crayfish populations. Monitor populations in protected areas. Maintain the detailed databases on the distribution of the native and non-native crayfish held at Nottingham University and the Biological Records Centre. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, NRA)
Investigate the potential for recovery of native crayfish in areas affected by crayfish plague, and the feasibility of re-introducing the species to these areas. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NRA,)
Assess the morphological and genetic variability across the range before decisions are made on stocks for re-introduction programmes. (ACTION: CCW, NE,)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Increase public awareness of the presence of this species in local rivers and the threats to its existence. Publicise the need for conservation and how the public can help by contributing records to the databases on distribution. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, NRA)
Ensure that anglers (and others using the aquatic environment), and visitors to nature reserves and SSSI/ASSIs containing the crayfish, are made aware of the risks of spreading crayfish plague on equipment and of the legislative controls on release of non-native species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, NRA)
Bacidia incompta (a Lichen)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of Bacidia incompta where this is consistent with selection guidelines, and where it is necessary to ensure their long term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Wherever possible, establish sympathetic management at sites with populations of this species. Particular emphasis should be given to the protection of host trees and potential host trees, and also to preventing felling of other trees which may influence the micro-habitat of this species. Measures should be adequate to ensure the protection of host trees during road-widening schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, Highways Agency, LAs, SNH)
Where appropriate, undertake planting of replacement host trees, including disease resistant strains of elm, in the vicinity of extant sites for this species. Assess the need for this work at the Powys site if the population there is confirmed as extant. Suitable mechanisms may include the Countryside Stewardship Scheme and the Woodland Improvement Grant Scheme. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, LAs, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Assess the threat to extant populations from the drift of agricultural chemicals. Where such a threat exists, consider providing mechanisms (eg management agreements on SSSIs or relevant agri-environment schemes on land outside these areas) to address these problems. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Consider creating artificial wounds on trees so as to provide further suitable habitat for this species and allow for the spread of existing colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of Bacidia incompta, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Compile information and resurvey sites where necessary in order to determine the current status of this species at all sites from which it has been recorded, and to assess current threats to all extant colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites to assess population changes and to ensure prompt identification of any new threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Compile a list of sites that would be worth searching for this species and distribute to active lichenologists. Particular note should be taken of old records where the tree is not elm. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Raise awareness of the importance of managed parkland as a lichen habitat amongst relevant park authorities and managers. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Bacidia incompta, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Barbastella barbastellus (Barbastelle Bat)
Pursue the principles and requirements of the Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EA, NE, FA, FE, LAs, MAFF, WOAD)
When next reviewed, consider targeting the Woodland Grant Scheme (Project 3), Forest Design Plans, Countryside Stewardship Schemes, ESAs, and other relevant agri-environment and forestry schemes to land in the vicinity of important roost sites, with the aim of enhancing terrestrial and aquatic habitats used by barbastelle bats. Consideration should be given to the retention of hollow, veteran, dying and dead trees in hedgerows and woodlands. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, FA, FE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that consideration is given to habitat surrounding key bat sites when developing structure plans and assessing planning applications. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure the long-term protection of maternity roosts, key hibernation roosts and, where appropriate, the habitat surrounding these sites. Consider notifying such areas as SSSIs where it is necessary to achieve this. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE)
When appropriate, advise relevant project officers for Countryside Stewardship, the Woodland Grant Scheme and other forestry and agri-environment schemes of the location of key roost sites, their importance and appropriate habitat management for the surrounding areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, MAFF)
Establish links with organisations associated with the care and restoration of old buildings in the vicinity of barbastelle bat sites, in order to encourage provision for the requirements of the species within old buildings. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Advise tree surgeons, tree wardens and foresters operating in the vicinity of barbastelle bat sites on tree management practices which will assist the conservation of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, LAs)
Continue to support the current network providing bat conservation advice including the use of licensed bat workers/wardens for roost visits. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue to search for maternity roosts and hibernation sites. On locating such sites, undertake autecological research and monitoring into the roosting requirements and foraging habitats of this species, with a view to refining habitat protection and management practices. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, JNCC )
Research the food and feeding requirements of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Raise awareness of bat conservation issues amongst owners of large country houses and farm buildings through relevant organisations and appropriate property and farming magazines. (ACTION: CADW, CCW, EH, NE)
Maintain discussions on the conservation of the species on a pan-European scale through the IUCN Coordinating Panel for the Conservation of Bats in Europe and the European Bat Agreement. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE)
Raise awareness of the importance of old trees as roost and hibernation sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA)
Bartramia stricta (Rigid Apple-moss)
Prevent scrub encroachment at the known extant site. Periodic ground disturbance to maintain open soils may also be considered in the light of information gathered from the monitoring outlined under 5.5.2, but should only be done with caution. (ACTION: CCW)
Ensure that appropriate levels of grazing are maintained at the extant site and assess the possibility of extending grazing to include other parts of the site. (ACTION: CCW)
Assess the desirability of re-establishing this species at one of its former sites. If appropriate, and subject to successful ex situ techniques and the development and availability of material, undertake a translocation attempt using material derived from the single known extant population. (ACTION: CCW, RBG Kew)
Depending on the results of 5.5.4, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: CCW, RBG Kew)
Advise landowners and managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of rigid apple-moss, specific management for its conservation, its legal protection, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW)
Inform all rock-climbing clubs that are active in the vicinity of the extant rigid apple-moss site, of places where it grows, and the need to avoid climbing in these areas. (ACTION: CCW)
Identify and re-survey the possible site in Scotland and the old site in Powys - if it is safe to do so, as the latter site has been extensively quarried and parts are apparently dangerous. An assessment of current threats at each site should be made and used to inform action proposed under 5.2. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring of this species at the extant site. The findings should be used to refine the action proposed under 5.2. (ACTION: CCW)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes. Attempts should be made to grow rigid apple-moss material from spores held in herbarium packets from the now lost Powys locality with a view to re-establishing it in the wild. (ACTION: CCW, National Museum of Wales, RBG Kew)
Promote research into the ecology and population biology of rigid apple-moss. (ACTION: CCW)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of rigid apple-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Biatoridium monasteriense (a Lichen)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of Biatoridium monasteriense where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Provide mechanisms to encourage the planting of replacement host trees, including disease resistant strains of elm, for future colonisation. Mechanisms may include management agreements on SSSIs, relevant agri-environment schemes and the Woodland Improvement Grant Scheme. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where colonies of B. monasteriense are vulnerable because of the continuing loss of elm trees, assess the feasibility of translocating this species to other trees with base-rich bark, such as ash. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of Biatoridium monasteriense, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Identify all sites with records of B. monasteriense and undertake a thorough survey of each, in order to establish the current distribution and status of this species in Britain. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites to assess population changes and to ensure the prompt identification of any new threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Investigate the feasibility of ex situ cultivation as an adjunct to translocation attempts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of B. monasteriense, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Bidessus minutissimus (a Diving Beetle)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes and for river restoration schemes. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2010. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of this species are taken into account in relevant development policies, plans and proposals, particularly in relation to river engineering. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, IDBs, LAs, SEPA, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSI's sites holding key populations of the species where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
If necessary, consider reintroductions/ reinforcements to establish viable populations in two catchments in Scotland and four catchments in Wales. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
If re-introductions are considered necessary, undertake genetic studies to inform such a programme. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved via articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Boloria euphrosyne (Pearl-bordered Fritillary)
Encourage extensive grazing regimes in acid grassland/bracken mosaics where the butterfly survives, promoting the uptake of ESA and Countryside Stewardship and other agreements as appropriate. (ACTION: CC, CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Seek to ensure that three large or medium-sized colonies are notified in each Biogeographic Zone or equivalent where the species occurs. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Encourage sympathetic habitat management at all sites containing large or medium-sized colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Where feasible, encourage restoration of suitable habitats throughout the butterfly’s former range to aid restoration programmes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure site managers are aware of the presence, legal protection and importance of conserving this species, and appropriate methods of management and restoration for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote surveys to identify the locations of large and medium-sized colonies and to identify potential sites for re-introduction. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage further research on habitat requirements and habitat management techniques, especially in un<a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=50">improved grassland/bracken</a> habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Bombus distinguendus (Great Yellow Bumblebee)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of the great yellow bumblebee are taken into account in any relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, SNH, LAs)
Ensure that this species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs/ASSIs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSIs/ASSIs sites supporting viable populations of the great yellow bumblebee, where this is necessary to secure long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, Crofters Commission, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the range and status of this bee by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Continue autecological research targeted to identify key habitat features, such as sources of nectar and pollen, nesting sites, and areas used for mating and over-wintering, in order to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered through survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated into national databases. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the bee and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals as well as by publicity leaflets. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Bombus humilis (Carder Bumblebee)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of the species are taken into account in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that this species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the current status of the bee by the year 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote ecological research to establish the habitat requirements of this species, the factors limiting breeding success at existing sites, and dispersal ability. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage further research to identify the extent to which the introduction of non-native forms of Bombus used for pollination in greenhouses may be a threat to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered through survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated into national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Where appropriate use this species to promote appreciation and conservation of threatened species of bee and wasp and their habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Bombus ruderatus (Large Garden Bumblebee)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of the species are taken into account in relevant development policies, plans and proposals (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that this species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider notifying sites supporting viable populations of the large garden bumblebee as SSSIs, where this is necessary to secure long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider establishing a captive breeding population with a view to undertaking re-introductions. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
If necessary to maintain 20 viable populations, undertake habitat restoration and/or re-introductions at suitable former or potential sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of any sites with extant or restored populations of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the current status of the bee by the year 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote ecological research to establish the habitat requirements of this species, the factors limiting breeding success at existing sites, dispersal ability and appropriate re-introduction methods. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage further research to identify the extent to which the introduction of non-native forms of Bombus used for pollination in greenhouses may be a threat to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered through survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated into national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Where appropriate, use this species to promote appreciation and conservation of threatened species of bee and wasp and their habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Bombus sylvarum (Shrill Carder Bee)
Consider notifying sites supporting viable populations of the shrill carder bee as SSSIs, where this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW)
If less than 20 populations exist, use habitat restoration and re-introductions as necessary to secure the survival of the bee in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Provide advice on suitable management for relevant land managers. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote ecological research, to establish the habitat requirements of this species, the factors limiting breeding success at existing sites, dispersal ability and appropriate re-introduction methods. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote surveys to determine the current status of the bee by the year 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Use this species to promote appreciation and conservation of threatened species of bumblebee and their habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Bombylius discolor (Dotted Bee-Fly)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the dotted bee-fly when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2005, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of the dotted bee-fly are taken into account in any relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that the dotted bee-fly is listed in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider notifying sites supporting viable populations of the dotted bee-fly as SSSIs, where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider reintroducing populations to sites where this species has become extinct, if this is necessary to maintain 20 viable populations across the geographic range. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the dotted bee-fly and its hosts at key sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the dotted bee-fly and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Botaurus stellaris (Bittern)
Consider developing environmental land management schemes to include prescriptions and incentives for reedbed restoration and management. (ACTION: CC, CCW, NE, MAFF)
Facilitate reedbed restoration through collaborative projects and appropriate wetland strategies, to maintain wet conditions and prevent scrub encroachment in existing reedbeds. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Seek to ensure appropriate management for this species, of reedbeds currently within designated areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider supplementary feeding in severe winters. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Determine current food supply on key sites and manage accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Monitor reedbed habitats and food availability at key bittern sites, in conjunction with NGOs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that any bittern corpses or addled eggs are analysed for heavy metals and pesticides. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
In conjunction with NGOs, produce assessments of the suitability and management of key reedbeds for bitterns, to identify the main features of each site and the principal actions required to improve or maintain them. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote further research into habitat use, suitability and the requirements of this species in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Use this species to promote the importance of reedbeds and their conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Brachyptera putata (a Stonefly)
Where appropriate, take into account the requirements of this species when preparing or revising plans for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NAW, SE, SNH)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the current status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved by articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Bryoria smithii (a Lichen)
In the light of the research outlined under 5.5.3, assess the possibility of re-establishing this species at two suitable historic sites through translocation or spread of soredia. Attempt such re-establishments if appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Compile information and resurvey sites where necessary, in order to determine the current status of this species at all sites from which it has previously been recorded, and to assess current threats to all extant colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake regular monitoring of its extant site(s) so as to assess changes in population size and habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake research to investigate the reasons for the decline of B. smithii, its habitat requirements, and techniques for enlarging its extant population and for re-establishing this species on sites from which it has been lost. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Invstigate the feasibility of ex situ cultivation as an adjunct to translocation attempts. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of B. smithii, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Bryum mamillatum (Dune Threadmoss)
Compile, and distribute to active bryologists, a list of dune systems worthy of searching (at the right time of year) for dune threadmoss. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Bryum neodamense (Long-leaved Threadmoss)
Following a period of monitoring (as outlined under 5.5.2) assess the possibility of undertaking habitat restoration work for long-leaved threadmoss at historic and extant sites. Work should include turf-stripping, scrub removal and scrape excavation. This action should include the only known long-leaved threadmoss site in Wales. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure that further dehydration of sites (eg through afforestation) does not occur. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, SNH)
Compile information and resurvey sites where necessary in order to update information on the current distribution and status of this species in the UK. A detailed assessment of threats to each colony should be made and the findings used to inform the action proposed under 5.2. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Compile, and distribute to active bryologists, a list of dune systems and other suitable habitats worthy of searching for long-leaved threadmoss. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research into the ecology and population biology of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of long-leaved threadmoss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Bryum warneum (Sea bryum)
Ensure that the needs of threatened dune slack species such as sea bryum are considered when assessing applications for water abstraction, or other developments, or land uses which may contribute to a lowering of the water table in dune-slack habitat. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure regular assessment of threats posed by visitors to important sand-dune sites, and implement measures (such as fencing) where necessary to ensure that these threats are minimised. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Following a period of monitoring (as outlined under 5.5.2) assess the need to undertake habitat creation/restoration including turf-stripping, scrub removal and scrape excavation, and implement if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of sea bryum where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure that extreme caution is exercised when undertaking re-profiling of dune slacks for the creation of natterjack toad habitat in the vicinity of known sea bryum sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure that further dehydration of sites (eg through afforestation) does not occur. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, SNH)
Depending on the results of 5.5.4, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: NE, CCW, RBG Kew, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of sea bryum, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Compile information and resurvey sites where necessary, in order to establish an understanding of the current distribution and status of sea bryum in the UK. Surveys should also focus on sites in the vicinity of old records where dune slack restoration has taken place, so as to discover whether this species has recolonised. An assessment of threats to each extant colony should also be made. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Compile a list of dune systems which would be worth searching for sea bryum and distribute to active bryologists, encouraging surveys of these areas. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring of all extant sea bryum sites and any rediscovered sites. The findings should be used to inform the action outlined under 5.2.1. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of sea bryum, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Bufo calamita (Natterjack Toad)
SSSI objectives and if necessary guidelines need to be reviewed with reference to natterjack toad colonies to see if the level of protection and range of protected sites is appropriate to the national need . (Action: NE, SNH, CCW, JNCC, and NGOs)
All natterjack sites need to be identified in local plans so they can benefit from species protection policies (Action: Local Authorities, SNH, NE, CCW, Wildlife Trusts)
BHS, HCT and other NGOs to provide details to statutory bodies. Owners to be notified of obligations and constraints. (Action: CCW,NE, SNH, Las)
Notify owners of all sites of the presence of natterjack toads and their protected status. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Review opportunities for purchasing sites to consolidate NNRs important for natterjack toads. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Continue to state objectives for each site, define them as measurable targets, and then monitor progress against these targets. Generic management plan objectives can be taken from the NE Natterjack Toad Conservation Handbook. (ACTION: NE, SNH, CCW and HCT)
Provide an over-view of objectives for translocation / re-introduction of the species. Translocation sites need to be within the same biogeographic region of an extinct colony not necessarily restricted to the exact localities. Co-ordinate and promote a prioritised list of translocation projects. (Appendix 2). (Action: HCT, JNCC, NE, CCW, SNH)
Review the suitability of other sites where the species has become extinct, and undertake five translocations where appropriate by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure that landowners and local authorities are aware of the legal status and appropriate methods of habitat management for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Produce and distribute information explaining the implications of legal status, obligations and constraints to other bodies and organisations able to influence land use, eg. FA, FRCA, MAFF, Water Companies, CLA. (Action: NE, SNH, CCW, HCT, EA, SEPA.)
Research the impact of grazing, colonisation of new ponds, breeding success in large fish-stocked ponds and the significance of competition between tadpoles. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish monitoring methods for assessment of the condition of SSSIs for the species and appropriate validation studies. (Action: NE, CCW, SNH)
Develop opportunities to raise public awareness, including a slide pack and a leaflet on toad conservation. Progress reports on achievements of the strategy will be needed every 2-3 years. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Caloplaca luteoalba (Orange-Fruited Elm-lichen)
Seek to establish favourable management for all sites occupied by this species, ensuring all SSSI management agreements take into account its requirements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider the protection of all key sites for this species through SSSI notification where this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW)
Ensure that, wherever possible, host trees are not felled. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Once suitable methods have been determined and sites identified, seek to restore five populations to former sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Attempt to provide mechanisms to reduce the impact of agrochemicals on surviving populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure that local landowners, managers, naturalists and Wildlife Trusts are aware of the presence and importance of conserving this species, its legal protection and suitable methods of management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote a survey of all known and potential sites to determine the current distribution of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote research into the ecological requirements of this species, including the suitability of host trees other than elm as a substrate for this lichen, and determine the most suitable methods for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Investigate potentially harmful effects of sulphur dioxide pollution and agricultural chemical sprays on this species and its host. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the knowledge and expertise gained towards its conservation within the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Establish periodic monitoring of sites to assess population size and identify potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Subject to confidentiality and data ownership, pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases.(ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Nightjar)
Support extensive low intensity agricultural systems within the historic range of the species through the appropriate agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Consider notifying important nesting and foraging sites as SSSI/ASSIs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Designate as SPAs areas of 'special interest' that support nationally important populations of nightjars (subject to current guidelines) and encourage their appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, SNH)
Seek to achieve 'favourable conservation status' of the nightjar by measures complementary to SPAs. This will include projects to maintain, enhance and restore heathland adjacent to SPAs (eg through agri-environment schemes). (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Protect nationally important localities for nightjars from damaging developments through the planning process. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Investigate the availability of the nightjar's food supply. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Carduelis cannabina (Linnet)
Where appropriate, incorporate new management prescriptions when reviewing agri-environment schemes, especially ESAs, Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen and Countryside Premium Scheme, in order to reverse some of the recent changes in farm management outlined in Section 2. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider the setting up of an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Study the diet of the linnet in different breeding habitats and relate this to nesting success. Information is required on the diet of adults at different stages of the year, particularly during the summer, and on the food supplied by the adults to chicks and fledglings. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Investigate winter survival of linnet in relation to habitat and food availability and hence improve knowledge of the winter habitat requirements of the species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
As appropriate, use the linnet as an example when highlighting the issue of declining farmland birds. (ACTION: CCW, EH, NE, SNH)
Carex muricata ssp. muricata (Prickly Sedge)
Ensure that all extant sites are considered for notification as SSSIs where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that all extant populations for this taxon receive management which is beneficial to its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Seek full protection of the Denbighshire site from any future quarrying operations, through negotiation with all relevant parties. (ACTION: CCW, LAs)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of (re)introducing prickly sedge at other suitable sites should regeneration from the seed-bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish an ex-situ seed collection for this taxon in the Millenium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew). Plants should also be propagated for reinforcements and (re)introductions if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Advise all landowners and managers on extant and restored sites of the presence of prickly sedge and appropriate management for its conservation. Consultation with landowners should also be undertaken throughout the planning of any restoration work. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Survey all extant, historic and potential sites for this species in order to determine its current status. An assessment of current threats should be made at each site. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Devise and implement a monitoring programme for all extant and restored populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Investigate aspects of the seed biology of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Raise awareness of this Critically Endangered taxon amongst the botanical community, as it is possible that several sites for this species remain to be discovered. Botanists should be encouraged to survey potential sites for this plant. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Catapyrenium psoromoides (Tree Catapyrenium)
Attempt further local transplants to at least two other trees in the vicinity of the Scottish population, and consider translocation to former site in Wales. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Investigate the feasibility of ex situ cultivation as an adjunct to translocation attempts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake survey of potential sites, especially in eastern Scotland and south-west England and around the former site in Wales, so as to enhance known distribution of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Use tree catapyrenium as an example of the importance for nature conservation of mature deciduous trees in parkland, wayside and woodland-edge situations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of tree catapyrenium, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Centaurea cyanus (Cornflower)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of re-establishing cornflower in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of cornflower sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under appropriate agri-environment schemes, eg uncropped headlands. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from all extant native sites and any restored sites and deposit in the Millenium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew). (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of cornflower. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Publicise the plight of this and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to report any new records, eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Cephaloziella nicholsonii (Greater Copperwort)
Resurvey the site in Wales from which this species was formerly recorded. (ACTION: CCW)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of greater copperwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Cetorhinus maximus (Basking Shark)
Develop and implement a code of conduct to reduce levels of harassment, in collaboration with scientists engaged in research on this species. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DTI, EHS, NE, JNCC, LAs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SFCs, SNH)
Develop and publish a code of conduct regarding interactions with basking sharks to reduce levels of harassment (see 5.2.1). (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SFCs, SNH)
Commission research to elucidate the life-cycle of this poorly understood species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Quantify and monitor population size, structure, dynamics and movement patterns and range of individuals occurring in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Improve long-term studies to: assess scientifically the population trends; elucidate migration and over-wintering areas which may identify locations where basking sharks mate and the pregnant females reside; and minimise unnatural mortality in these areas. Genetic studies may help determine the degree of mixing between populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Distribute and disseminate a code of conduct to maritime users. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SFCs, SNH)
Chaenotheca phaeocephala (a Lichen)
Ensure that the remaining host tree and other suitable trees in the immediate vicinity are protected. If in the interests of amenity, apply Tree Preservation Orders to protect host and surrounding trees. (ACTION: CCW, LA)
Consider a planting programme or the provision of suitable hardwood substrate in an area adjacent to the host tree to enhance the quantity of suitable habitat. (ACTION: CCW)
Assess the threat to the extant population from eutrophication. If considered to be significant, consider providing mechanisms (e.g. an agri-environment scheme management agreement on land around the site) to address the problem. (ACTION: CCW, NAW)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of Chaenotheca phaeocephala, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of the locations for this species, its importance and management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NAW)
Carry out a survey of the host tree for signs of decay and structural weakness and remedy if possible, providing that this will not be detrimental to the lichen. (ACTION: CCW)
Monitor the remaining colony regularly to assess the size of the population and any potential threats. (ACTION: CCW)
Survey adjacent suitable habitat to seek additional populations of the species. (ACTION: CCW)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through the publication of articles or the provision of specialist workshops. (ACTION: CCW)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Chaenotheca phaeocephala, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Chara curta (Lesser Bearded Stonewort)
Review the management of over-stabilised dune systems and the conservation of their threatened early successional communities and species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Control scrub encroachment on all extant lesser bearded stonewort sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Assess, and modify if necessary, cattle grazing regimes at the Cors Goch site in Anglesey in order to help reduce competition from other vegetation. The need to introduce grazing at other extant British sites should also be assessed, and grazing introduced where appropriate and compatible with other conservation priorities. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Assess the benefits of undertaking limited excavation of pools at each dune-slack site, and where appropriate carry out such excavations. This will be a stop-gap means of providing suitable habitat for this species pending the review of the management of over-stabilised dune systems (5.1.4). (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider targeting relevant agri-environment schemes to land adjacent to lesser bearded stonewort sites, seeking to reduce the threat of adverse practices (including herbicide and fertiliser use). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Advise relevant landowners and managers of the presence and importance of lesser bearded stonewort, and of the appropriate management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers, waterways managers and drainage engineers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and of the management needed for its conservation on and adjacent to existing sites. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOEAFD, WOAD)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of lesser bearded stonewort. Priority areas for survey include the Shetland Isles, from which there are no recent records. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Devise and implement a monitoring programme for all extant populations. This would need to cover an assessment of population size, current management and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Cicindela germanica (Cliff tiger beetle)
Consider reintroducing Cicindela germanica to a series of sites within the former range, if necessary to establish five new viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Cicindela hybrida (Northern dune tiger beetle)
Consider reintroducing Cicindela hybrida to a series of sites within the former range, if necessary to establish five new viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Cladonia mediterranea (Reindeer Lichen)
Where possible, ensure that management on all SSSIs where C. mediterranea occurs is sympathetic to the conservation of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Assess the threats to extant populations of this species posed by trampling from livestock and walkers. Where necessary, devise and implement measures to ensure that these threats are minimised. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Devise and implement measures to minimise the risk to extant sites posed by moorland fires. Appropriate measures may include the creation of fire-breaks. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of Cladonia mediterranea, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake a thorough survey of all sites from which this species has been recorded in order to determine the current status of this species at each, and to assess the threats to extant colonies. If proved to occur at Lundy and in Pembrokeshire widen the search to other suitable areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Monitor all extant sites regularly in order to assess changes in population size and habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Cladonia mediterranea including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Cladonia peziziformis (a Lichen)
Consider notifying as ASSIs/SSSIs sites with viable populations of Cladonia peziziformis where this is consistent with selection guidelines and necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure that all extant sites are protected from overgrazing and, with the benefit of the findings of the research proposed under 5.5.3, establish grazing levels that are recommended for the conservation of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Implement measures to protect all extant sites from fires until the full effects of fire on this species are understood. Appropriate measures may include the creation of fire-breaks. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
To avoid damage by trampling, devise and implement measures to restrict public access in fragile areas where this plant occurs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Following the research outlined under 5.5.3, assess the possibility of creating bare patches of ground for colonisation through soil disturbance in the vicinity of extant colonies. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of Cladonia peziziformis, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of the locations of this species, its importance, management requirements and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Collate information and resurvey sites where necessary, so as to determine the current UK distribution and status of this species, and to assess the threats to all extant sites. This action should include a thorough survey of suitable habitat in the vicinity of known extant sites in order to look for additional colonies as yet unrecorded. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Monitor all extant colonies regularly to assess changes in population size and habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake a research project to improve understanding of the ecological requirements of this species. The research should include a study of the effects of fire, soil disturbance and different levels of grazing on its performance. On completion of the research, management guidelines should be written and used to inform and refine the action proposed in section 5.2. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Cladonia peziziformis, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Cliorismia rustica (a Stiletto Fly)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied sites are appropriately managed by 2005, for example through site management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites holding key populations of the species, where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with this habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Coenagrion mercuriale (Southern Damselfly)
Encourage the uptake of beneficial land management schemes on land adjacent to occupied sites, including design (or cessation) of drainage schemes, and other agri-environmental measures. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Consider notifying additional sites with large breeding centres as SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW)
Encourage the sympathetic management of all occupied and nearby sites, especially appropriate grazing management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Following further survey and identification of suitable sites, seek to re-establish populations at five former sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure relevant land owners, managers and all others involved in the management of sites which support this species are aware of its presence and rarity, and appropriate methods of habitat management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Encourage further research into the damselfly’s ecological requirements throughout its range in England and Wales, especially to identify precise habitat requirements and appropriate re-introduction techniques. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Use this species to promote awareness of the importance of heathland, chalk streams and mire habitats to species conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Collema dichotomum (River Jelly Lichen)
Consider notifying key sites for this species as SSSIs/ASSIs where this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI))
Following feasibility studies and identification of appropriate sites, seek to restore five populations to unoccupied sites when suitable conditions have been provided. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Ensure land managers adjacent to extant sites, local planning authorities and Water Management Authorities are aware of the presence, legal status and threats to the species and its community, and the importance of its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Undertake survey of potential sites to establish the distribution of the species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Encourage research into the ecological requirements of the species to determine the optimum conditions for growth and the feasibility of re-introduction. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Establish a protocol for regular monitoring of this species and the water quality in the vicinity of known sites. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Use the river jelly lichen to highlight threats from eutrophication to the ecology of streams. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Cosmia diffinis (White-spotted Pinion)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment or woodland grant schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed by the year 2005, for example through SSSI or agri-environment/woodland grant scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Increase the available habitat on the known sites and in adjacent sites, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Initiate a programme of captive breeding. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Identify a series of potential reintroduction sites in different parts of the former range. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
If further colonies are not found, release the species into a series of sites in different parts of the former range, to establish three new viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of white-spotted pinion and the issue of wildlife affected by Dutch elm disease. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Cotoneaster integerrimus (Wild Cotoneaster)
Continue to control public access including climbing in areas where this species occurs, preferably through continued voluntary agreement. (ACTION: CCW)
Continue propagation of plants and maintain stocks in cultivation, but cease translocation into the wild pending the outcome of taxonomic and genetic studies. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, LA)
Deposit seed with national seed bank at Wakehurst Place, keep plants in cultivation and formalise existing work at Treborth and Ness. (ACTION: CCW, LA)
Discourage illegal collecting of this species and ensure that offenders are prosecuted. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, LAs, WO)
Ensure that local botanical groups and other relevant organisations are aware of the legal and ecological implications of collecting this species. (ACTION: CCW, LAs)
Undertake genetic research to clarify the taxonomy of the species. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Carry out ecological research to identify the optimum conditions for growth and management requirements of this species. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Seek to establish a formal monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW,JNCC)
Continue monitoring the effects of grazing on this species and modify accordingly. (ACTION: CCW, LA)
If found to be an established introduction, monitor the effects of the existing 33 plants (and progeny) on the native flora. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW)
Crex crex (Corncrake)
Conduct a full survey of the breeding population of corncrake in Britain and Northern Ireland every five years. (ACTION: DoE(NI), SNH, RSPB, NE, CCW)
Cryphaea lamyana (Multi-fruited River Moss)
Where possible, to help maintain habitat and water quality at multi-fruited river moss sites, target agri-environment schemes, including the Countryside Stewardship Scheme, the Water Fringe Option of the Habitats Scheme, and the new Tir Gofal Scheme in Wales to land adjacent to rivers where this species occurs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Assess the desirability and feasibility of establishing new colonies of multi-fruited river moss by translocation to areas of suitable habitat on rivers where this species occurs. (ACTION: CCW, NE).
Depending on the results of 5.5.4, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Advise all relevant Environment Agency staff and agri-environment scheme project officers working in south-west England and Wales of the locations of this species, its importance, and measures needed to ensure its conservation. They should be told of the need to avoid felling host trees and dumping dredgings on colonies of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of multi-fruited river moss, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake thorough surveys of rivers in Devon, Cornwall and south-west Wales with suitable habitat for this species. These should include the rivers Taw, Bovey, Dart, Tamar and Gwaun. The aim should be to improve understanding of the current distribution and status of this species, and to identify threats to extant sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Compile a list of rivers that would be worth searching for multi-fruited river moss and distribute it to active bryologists in south-west England and Wales. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake regular monitoring of all extant sites to identify changes in population size and habitat quality with a view to initiating conservation management and site protection if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of multi-fruited river moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford Pink)
Consider notifying sites supporting viable, native populations as SSSIs where this is necessary to ensure their long-term protection. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider the need for conservation management at all extant sites. Mechanisms for implementing suitable management may include relevant agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that pasture and hedgerow sites are protected from development. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
When next reviewed, consider targeting Countryside Stewardship and other relevant agri-environment schemes to land adjacent to viable sites for Deptford pink so as to provide opportunities for its population expansion. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake experimental management on three selected extant sites and three historic sites with the aim of regenerating plants from the seed-bank. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing this species to selected historic sites should regeneration from the seed-bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Collect seed from a representative number of native sites in different parts of the range of this species and deposit in the Millenium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew). Plants should also be propagated for reintroductions if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Ensure that landowners and managers on all remaining sites for Deptford pink are advised of its importance and appropriate management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers and members of relevant regional agri-environment consultation groups are advised of locations of Deptford pink, its importance, and the need to secure agreements for beneficial land management both within existing sites and in the surrounding areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Resurvey all native sites where Deptford pink has been recorded since 1970, and consider a more extensive survey of potential sites, in order to determine its current status, ensure that appropriate management is in place, and identify threats to remaining populations. At least 10 historic sites should also be investigated with a view to clarifying the reasons for the decline of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Devise and implement a monitoring programme for all extant populations. This would need to cover an assessment of population size, current management and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake an initial genetic screening of populations of this species with a view to informing in-situ and ex-situ conservation priorities. (Action: CCW, NE)
Assess the current status of the species in Europe and if appropriate contact European colleagues with a view to exchanging information on the conservation of this species. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Raise awareness amongst the farming community of formerly widespread, but now rapidly declining species of farmland, such as Deptford pink. An article could be produced for the farming press. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Didymodon tomaculosus (Sausage Beard-moss)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from all extant native sites and deposit in the Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew) (Action: CCW, NE, RBGKew)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Publicise the plight of these and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to record any new records eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (Action: CCW, NE)
Ditrichum plumbicola (Lead-moss)
Ensure that the requirements of lead-moss are taken into account should proposals be put forward to change the use of its extant sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure that any proposals to re-work lead or re-landscape mine spoil where lead-moss occurs are accompanied by a conservation plan for this species, written with the guidance of an expert bryologist. The plan should set out measures which will ensure the conservation of lead-moss (in situ) during and after these operations. (ACTION: LAs, CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake scrub removal, soil disturbance, or other appropriate management at sites if found, from monitoring and research, to be necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Depending on the results of 5.5.4, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH, RBG Kew)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of undertaking translocations of lead-moss to suitable habitat at historic localities for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of lead-moss, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CADW, CCW, NE, SNH)
Compile a list of all sites where lead-moss has been recorded since 1960 and resurvey the sites in order to determine the current distribution and status of this species in Britain. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring of all extant sites. Information collected should include details of population size and threats to lead-moss colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage or commission an autecological research project in order to improve understanding of the methods of spread and habitat requirements of lead-moss, and to refine management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew, SNH)
Compile a list of lead-mine spoil sites which have never been thoroughly surveyed by bryologists. Distribute a list of these sites (dependent on safety aspects and public access) to active bryologists, to encourage their survey. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of lead-moss, including ecological information, to a national database (ACTION: NE, CCW, JNCC, SNH)
Use lead-moss as an example of a threatened bryophyte associated with metal-rich mine spoil in order to publicise the importance of lower plant communities of this habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Donacia aquatica (a Reed Beetle)
Consider reintroducing Donacia aquatica to a series of sites within the former range, if necessary to maintain six viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Donacia bicolora (a Reed Beetle)
Consider reintroducing Donacia bicolora to a series of sites within the former range, if necessary to maintain six viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Doros profuges (a Hoverfly)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)
Where appropriate incorporate new management prescriptions when reviewing agri-environment schemes, especially ESAs, Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen and Countryside Premium Scheme, in order to reverse some of the recent changes in farm management outlined in Section 2. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of the breeding population through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider setting up an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Analyse information on breeding habitats on farmland which was gathered during the BTO corn bunting survey. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider the need for a detailed study into the ecology of the reed bunting. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
As appropriate, use the reed bunting as an example when highlighting the issue of declining farmland birds. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote a change in perception of wild plants on farmland as essential food sources for seed-eating farmland birds, rather than as 'weeds'. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ephemerum stellatum (Starry Earth-moss)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of reestablishing these species in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (Action: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from all extant native sites and deposit in the Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew) (Action: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Publicise the plight of these and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to record any new records eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (Action: CCW, NE)
Epipactis youngiana (Young's Helleborine)
Pending confirmation of the Welsh site, consider notifying it as a SSSI if this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW)
Promote investigation of the status of the populations at the known sites, and the possible fourth site in south Wales. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Subject to confidentiality and data ownership, pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Eunicella verrucosa (Pink Sea-fan)
Ensure that the management of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Marine Nature Reserves (MNRs) takes account of the pink sea-fan. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that areas with significant populations of pink sea-fan in non-statutory (voluntary) marine protected areas are identified as being of appropriate sensitivity within management zoning schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Investigate causes of decline and take the appropriate management response where human activities are implicated. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Increase awareness among coastal zone management groups, divers and inshore fishermen of the sensitivity of the pink sea-fan in locations where it is known to exist. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue to monitor the abundance and condition of sea-fans as a part of established monitoring work and ensure that they are included in SAC monitoring programmes, where appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake a programme of spot surveys in three years between 1999 and 2004. The surveys are to be conducted at locations where pink sea-fan are known to occur, from ‘forest’ areas to areas where abundance is sparse. Sites at the present limit of distribution should also be included. This can be linked to long-term monitoring of climate change. The data to be recorded should include density, size structure, colour, ‘fouling’, percentage ‘infestation’ by predators (the seaslug Tritonia nilsodhneri, and the prosobranch Simnia patula). Data is also required on the occurrence and density of the sea-fan anemone Amphianthus dohrnii (often found attached to the pink sea-fan). (ACTION: CCW, NE, NERC)
Provide information on the pink sea-fan and Amphianthus dohrnii. Distribute as appropriate to recreational divers and lobster potters through leaflets, posters, displays and talks. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider including in public aquaria (with Amphianthus dohrnii) to increase general awareness of marine biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Synthesise and disseminate data from existing sea-fan monitoring and research programmes as appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Eurodryas aurinia (Marsh Fritillary)
Promote favourable land management on occupied grasslands, and those within dispersal range of existing populations, through management agreements and appropriate schemes, for example: ESA, Countryside Stewardship, and Tir Cymen. (ACTION: CC, CCW, NE, DANI, DoE(NI), LAs, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Set the criteria for, then identify key areas within which large populations will be maintained. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Seek to ensure that at least five large (1,000+ adults) or medium-sized (100 - 1,000 adults) colonies are notified as SSSI/ASSI per key area. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Ensure that at least 20 colonies lie within SSSIs across the current geographical range of the species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Encourage favourable management of all known sites with large and medium populations, and of associated occupied or potential sites, to encourage the formation of site networks. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Ensure information on the distribution of the marsh fritillary and the management of itshabitat is available to all those who play a role in its conservation and recovery. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Complete surveys to identify key areas and site networks. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Encourage further research on habitat management and assess the impact of such management on other important species associated with the same habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FC, SNH)
Encourage regular monitoring of a network of sites which are actively managed within the key areas and use the information gained to compare trends on individual sites and identify further threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation and conservation of the marsh fritillary and its habitat, and use the butterfly to illustrate the problems of habitat fragmentation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Eustroma reticulata (Netted Carpet)
Encourage sympathetic woodland management where the moth is present. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA)
Consider notifying SSSIs to include all known colonies. (ACTION: NE, CCW)
Continue to develop and promote appropriate management of sites by liaison with land owners and managers. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider habitat restoration within the dispersal range of existing colonies to increasing the current range of the moth in the UK to its recorded optimum, by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA)
Continue to encourage growth of the food plant colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure land owners and managers are aware of the presence and importance of conserving the species, and appropriate methods of management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake research into the long-term population dynamics of the species, effects of habitat management and dispersal abilities of the moth. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake a systematic survey of potential habitats to locate any previously unknown or new colonies of the food plant. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage regular monitoring of extant sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Produce an illustrated leaflet on the current status and requirements of the moth. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Fissidens exiguus (Tiny Fern-moss)
Where possible, ensure that the best sites for this species are protected from damaging activities and inappropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of this species where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
On streams with populations of tiny fern-moss, ensure that existing stream discharges and water quality are maintained. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Assess the threat to the extant population from eutrophication. If considered to be significant, consider providing mechanisms (eg an agri-environment scheme management agreement on and around the site) to address the problem. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, NAW)
Where possible, ensure that waterside trees are not removed from alongside those parts of streams with populations of tiny fern-moss. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Ensure that local planning policies take into account the requirements of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Depending on the results of 5.5.4, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of this species, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that relevant waterways managers and agri-environment project officers are advised of locations for this species, its importance and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Re-survey all known extant and historic sites for this species to determine its current distribution and status, and to assess possible threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake regular monitoring and ecological research on selected viable sites for this species to determine more precisely its requirements and the management techniques which should be employed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage international research on the distribution, status and ecology of this species, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of tiny fern-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Formica candida (Black bog ant)
Seek to secure sympathetic management of all known sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Following feasibility assessments and identification of suitable sites, seek to restore at least 20 self-sustaining populations to former sites by the year 2005, using habitat restoration where necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Seek to ensure the survival of threatened nest sites through implementation of short-term remedial management action. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure the provision of guidance on species and habitat management to site owners and managers. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote research into the ecology of the ant, including investigation of the genetic variation between colonies to ensure the maintenance of viable, but distinct, populations and to help identify suitable management methods. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Survey all current and former sites to ascertain the current status of the species in the UK and to identify sites for translocation by the year 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage regular monitoring of all extant populations and seek to identify any further threats to the species, in particular the effects of summer drought on populations size. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of the species at an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation and conservation of the black bog ant and its habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Fumaria purpurea (Purple Ramping-fumitory)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of re-establishing purple ramping-fumitory in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote beneficial management at all extant sites for this species. Particular emphasis should be given to sites where it is associated with species rich communities. The need for hedge bottom management should also be assessed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the natural range of purple ramping fumitory, thereby providing opportunities for its spread and recolonisation of former sites. Favourable management will include the relevant options under appropriate agri-environment schemes, eg uncropped headlands (cultivated in early to mid March or perhaps earlier in southern areas). (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Collect seed from a representative number of sites in various parts of the range of this species and deposit in the Millenium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew). (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of purple ramping fumitory, specific management for its conservation and any potentially damaging actions. Particular attention should be given to optimal cultivation and harvest times. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance, management requirements and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of purple ramping fumitory, and to assess current site management and threats to remaining populations in arable and non arable habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake monitoring on a representative number of extant sites in different parts of the range, with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Publicise the plight of this and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to report any new records, eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Galeopsis angustifolia (Red Hemp-nettle)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of re-establishing red hemp-nettle in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Promote beneficial management at all extant sites. Particular attention should be given to viable sites in different parts of its range and to sites where it occurs in a species rich community. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of red hemp nettle sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options outlined under appropriate agri-environment schemes, eg uncropped headlands (cultivated in mid March or possibly earlier in southern regions). (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake trial management at eight suitable historic sites with the aim of regenerating plants from the seed bank. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing red hemp nettle at selected sites, should attempts to regenerate it from the seed bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Collect seed from a representative number of sites in different parts of the range of this species and deposit in the Millenium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew). Plants should also be propagated for reintroductions if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of red hemp nettle, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Particular attention should be given to optimal cultivation and harvest times. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance, management requirements and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate information and survey extant, historic and potential sites in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of red hemp nettle; to assess current site management and threats to remaining populations; and to determine more precisely the reasons for its decline. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Undertake detailed monitoring on extant and restored sites with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Publicise the plight of this and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to report any new records, eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Galium tricornutum (Corn Cleavers)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of reestablishing these species in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from all extant native sites and deposit in the Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew) (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Publicise the plight of these and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to record any new records eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Gentianella anglica (Early Gentian)
Complete survey work of extant and historic site for this species, and prepare a review of our current knowledge of distribution, and of conservation action for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, Plantlife)
Gentianella uliginosa (Dune Gentian)
Following further survey and assessment, review the need for protection of this species under Annex II of the EU Habitats and Species Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD)
Seek to establish suitable grazing and allied management regimes at all former and extant sites. Where grazing is not possible, alternative management practices should be used if appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Ensure that further afforestation proposed in the vicinity of sites for dune gentian avoids any adverse effects to the populations. (ACTION: CCW, FA, FE, SNH)
Consider the management of forest areas adjacent to existing populations and mitigate possible adverse effects. This may include harvesting of some areas at the earliest opportunity. (ACTION: CCW, FA)
Undertake trial management at sites in Wales and Scotland from which dune gentian has become extinct, with the aim of regenerating plants from the seed-bank. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Consider reintroducing dune gentian to historic sites in Wales and Scotland, should restoration of populations from the seed-bank fail. (ACTION: CCW, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Ensure that all relevant landowners and managers are aware of the presence and importance of this threatened species. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Collate information and undertake surveys where necessary in order to establish an accurate population size and distribution baseline. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Monitor extant, restored or (re)introduced populations on a regular basis for at least 10 years. (ACTION: CCW, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Commission research into the threats posed to dune gentian by afforestation and overstabilisation of dune systems, and how to mitigate them. (ACTION: CCW, FA, JNCC, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Encourage exchange of information on the ecology of dune gentian and management techniques for its conservation between conservation managers in Wales and Scotland, and the relevant botanical experts. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Use the conservation of dune gentian and other rare sand dune species covered by published action plans to illustrate the consequences of dune system overstabilisation for biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Grouped plan for commercial marine fish
Promote the message and explain to the public and the fishing industry the need to reduce fishing effort to get more stable and greater long-term yields for less effort. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, MAFF, SE, SNH)
Grouped plan for eyebrights
Encourage suitable habitat management at sites, including the maintenance or restoration of grazing for those species, where necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying key sites for threatened species as SSSIs where this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, SNH)
Ensure land owners and local voluntary conservation groups are aware of the presence and importance of conserving these species, and that advice on appropriate methods of habitat management is available. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote morphological and genetic investigations to clarify the taxonomy of these species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew and Edinburgh SNH)
Undertake a survey of all known, and former, sites to ascertain the distribution of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage research to compare the taxonomy and ecology of these species with related species outside the UK and use the information and expertise towards the conservation of species within the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Subject to confidentiality and data ownership, pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Use these species to highlight the threat to UK biodiversity from the destruction of heathland and coastal habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Grouped plan for marine turtles
Introduce a code of practice for the ‘repatriation’, where necessary, of cheloniid turtle species which are occasionally stranded live on UK shores by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Produce and disseminate information (which could be based on the SNH advice note) for conservation agencies, veterinary surgeries, relevant public bodies and other organisations, to help them deal with enquiries relating to stranded marine turtles by 2001. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Pass on all records to the central UK database and ensure marine survey projects (eg by-catch surveys, seabirds at sea surveys) record and submit any marine turtle information. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage projects involved with the study of by-catch to include assessments of impacts on marine turtle populations. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SE, SNH, NAW)
Establish and support by 2004 a system for undertaking autopsies on dead turtle specimens and distributing biological material to specialists, including those working abroad, in order to determine causes of death, to improve knowledge of marine turtle biology and the threats to turtles in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Further promote a system for undertaking surveillance of marine turtles in UK waters and reporting results. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, NE, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Further promote a system for monitoring and reporting incidental capture and killing of marine turtles. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, NE, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage and support projects which add to knowledge and understanding of the biology of turtles and the threats they face, when in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Encourage the submission of old and new records of living, entangled or dead stranded turtles through appropriate publications and the media. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, NHM, SNH)
Promote the need of global conservation through local action using these truly transglobal species as champions. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, EHS, NE, FCO, JNCC, SNH)
Grouped plan for river shingle beetles
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Address the requirements of these species in the LEAP process, and in relevant catchment management plans. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied sites are appropriately managed, including the maintenance or restoration of appropriate flow regimes. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, IDBs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of the species are taken into account in any development policies, plans and proposals, particularly in relation to river engineering. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, IDBs, LAs, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that the species are included in site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSI's sites supporting viable populations where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of these species and the importance of beneficial management for their conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, relevant drainage engineers and waterways managers are advised of locations for these species, their importance, and the management needed for their conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, IDBs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA, SNH)
Continue to undertake surveys to determine the UK status of these species. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species and their habitats. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of these species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SNH)
Undertake taxonomic and other investigations to clarify the putative endemic status of Thinobius newberyi and Meotica anglica. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of these species on an international level and use the experience gained towards their conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of exposed riverine sediment species and of the conservation issues associated with their habitats. This may be achieved by articles in conservation-related wildlife, environmental, and user-group (e.g. anglers) journals, by posters and leaflets, and by involving the media in a publicity campaign. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Grouped plan for small dolphins
By 2001 encourage commercial dolphin-watching and other vessels to follow a code of conduct when operating in the vicinity of dolphins, which minimises the disturbance to these animals and the chance of injury. (ACTION: CCW, DCMS, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Review advice on the best measures to avoid disturbance of dolphins. Ensure that this advice, and other on avoiding by-catches and injury, is readily available to all organisations: commercial, military and recreational. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote among oil, gas and geophysical exploration industries a better understanding of cetaceans and the effects of underwater sounds upon their lives. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Commission autecological studies of all UK dolphin species to identify appropriate habitat management needs. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, NERC, SE, SNH)
By 2002, produce illustrative information material for specific coastal regions emphasising the value of habitats they contain for promoting dolphin biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI) NE, JNCC, SNH)
Grouped plan for tooth fungi
Ensure that semi-natural woods with populations of these species are managed appropriately. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSIs, sites with viable populations of tooth fungi, where this is consistent with selection guidelines and is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Assess the threat to sites for threatened hydnoid fungi posed by drift and run-off of agricultural chemicals, or by deposition of atmospheric nitrogen. Where a threat is identified, seek to undertake remedial management to address the problem. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, FC, MAFF, SEPA, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Undertake management where appropriate to ensure a continuity of mature trees on all sites with populations of these species (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Advise landowners and land managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of tooth fungi, specific management for their conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Compile information and resurvey sites where necessary in order to assess the habitat quality at all post-1970 sites and to improve knowledge of the current status of these species at each site. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of tooth fungi, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002 (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to tooth fungi, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Grouped plan for toothed whales
By 2001 encourage commercial dolphin-watching and other vessels to follow a code of conduct when operating in the vicinity of toothed whales, which minimises the disturbance to these animals and the chance of injury. A definition of harassment, which did not require proof of intent to disturb, should be considered.(ACTION: CCW, DCMS, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Identify important sites used by toothed whales for breeding and feeding. Area protection measures should then be sought for these locations. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, MAFF, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Support long-term monitoring of population abundance and distribution via dedicated surveys and platforms of opportunity. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, JNCC, MAFF, SNH)
Support research into population structure and habitat use to identify waters which may be particularly suitable for toothed whales and which may qualify for further protection. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, DETR, JNCC, SE)
By 2004, produce illustrative information material emphasising the value of particular offshore habitats for a diversity of toothed whale species. This should be directed at the fishing industry, oil and gas industry, merchant shipping and ferry operators. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote wider dissemination of Codes of Conduct for recreational users to minimise human disturbance in coastal waters through production of material at strategic coastal sites. Recomendations in the Codes of Conduct should be consistent between regions although adaptations to local circumstances and species may be required. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC, LAs, SE, SNH)
Continue to publicise stranding and sighting schemes. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SE, SNH)
Gyalideopsis scotica (a Lichen)
Ensure that management agreements on all sites where Gyalideopsis scotica occurs are sympathetic to the conservation of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Where necessary, control the encroachment of scrub and other coarse vegetation on extant sites for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Seek to minimise the effects of recreational pressure where this is a threat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of Gyalideopsis scotica, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if required. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Survey all known and potential sites for this species, to determine its current status at each and to assess the current threats to all extant populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites to assess changes in the population size and the habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through the publication of articles or the provision of specialist workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Gyalideopsis scotica, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Hamatocaulis vernicosus (Slender Green Feather-moss)
If species is found to be genuinely threatened, ensure land owners, land managers and local authorities are aware of its presence, legal status and importance of its conservation, and appropriate methods of habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Herbarium specimens from all sites at which D. vernicosus has been recorded should be examined to determine the true status and distribution of the species (and S. cossonii). (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
If following herbarium work, D. vernicosus is found to be genuinely rare, known sites should be surveyed to determine its current status. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
If species is found to be genuinely threatened, encourage research to determine the ecological requirements of the species to underpin appropriate advice on habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
No publicity necessary at present. Statutory agency staff should be made aware of the necessity to clarify the status of the plant. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Heliophobus reticulata (Bordered Gothic)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, increase available habitat on known sites and in adjacent sites, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that the bordered gothic is listed in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Reintroduce the bordered gothic to a series of sites within the historic range, if necessary to restore five additional viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine current distribution. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Hemaris tityus (Narrow-bordered Bee Hawk-moth)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth when drawing up or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2005, for example through SSSI/ASSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, MoD, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage an increase in the available habitat and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, MoD, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of this species are taken account of in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure that the narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs/ASSIs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider reintroducing populations to a series of sites within the former range, if necessary to restore 10 new populations within the former range by 2010. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers about the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the current distribution and status of the narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. It will be important to monitor the effects of habitat management for this moth. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MoD, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for inclusion in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Heterodermia leucomelos (Ciliate Strap-lichen)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of ciliate strap-lichen, where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Control the encroachment of scrub and other coarse vegetation on all extant ciliate strap-lichen sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Devise and implement measures to restrict public access in areas where this species is vulnerable to trampling. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that grazing on all extant sites is carefully maintained at levels that will provide maximum benefits for the conservation of ciliate strap-lichen. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of ciliate strap-lichen, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of the locations of this species, its importance, management requirements and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake a thorough survey of all sites from which ciliate strap-lichen has been recorded in the past, in order to determine the current status of this species at each, and to assess the current threats to all extant populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites to assess changes in population size and habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake a research project to improve understanding of the ecological requirements of this species, with the aim of producing guidelines on management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Review available ecological information from all sites to determine the tolerance of this species to air pollution and drift of agricultural chemicals. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of ciliate strap-lichen, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Hirudo medicinalis (Medicinal Leech)
Consider designating additional SSSIs for the species where this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW)
Seek to secure favourable management for the species at all occupied sites, including ensuring that suitable hosts are available. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Where appropriate, consider the creation of new pond habitat within 200 metres of existing sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
If appropriate, develop and implement a policy on translocation of leeches to new sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Retain on Schedule 5 of the WCA 1981 and issue licences for non-damaging activities only. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Provide management advice to owners or managers of leech ponds. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Ensure the relevant societies and organisations are aware of the ecological and legal implications of collecting this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Survey to identify the population status at all known and likely leech sites by the year 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage regular monitoring of extant sites and identify any further threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote further research on the ecological requirements of this species to identify habitat requirements and the most appropriate methods for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise relevant medical research institutions on the status of the leech and encourage use of alternative species for research. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Hydrelia sylvata (Waved Carpet)
Where possible, ensure that occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2010, for example through SSSI or woodland grant scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Where possible, increase the available habitat at known sites and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider notifying as SSSI's sites holding key populations of the species where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management, including the age of coppice after cutting which is preferred by the moth, the length of time such cut areas remain suitable, mobility and population structure. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved via articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Hydroporus rufifrons (a Diving Beetle)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2010, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites holding key populations, where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider reintroducing the beetle to a series of sites within the former range to establish three new viable populations, two in East Anglia and one in South Wales. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage studies of the genetics of the beetle to inform any reintroduction programme. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience to inform habitat management in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Hygrocybe calyptriformis (Pink Waxcap)
Where possible, provide mechanisms (such as management agreements on SSSIs and relevant agri-environment schemes) to encourage grazing or continued mowing on all extant grassland sites. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, MoD, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Control scrub invasion on all extant pink meadow cap sites where considered to be threatening population viability. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as ASSI/SSSIs sites with viable populations of this species where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where this is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and land managers of the presence and importance of this species, specific management for conservation and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
As far as possible, advise relevant agri-environment scheme project officers of the locations for this species and the need to encourage appropriate grazing regimes at these sites. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Compile records of pink meadow cap and encourage regular visits to known sites where necessary, in order to determine the current status of this species at each site. An assessment of current threats should be made at each site. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Commission research into the habitat requirements and methods of spread of this species, with a view to refining management techniques for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of pink meadow cap including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, JNCC, SNH)
Hygrocybe spadicea (Date Waxcap)
Where possible, provide mechanisms (such as management agreements on SSSIs and relevant agri-environment schemes) to encourage grazing or continued mowing on all extant grassland sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Control scrub invasion on all extant sites where considered to be threatening population viability. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure regular assessment of threats posed by visitors to grassland and sand-dune sites where date-coloured waxcap occurs, and implement measures (such as fencing) where necessary to ensure that these threats are minimised. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of this species where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where this is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and land managers of the presence and importance of date-coloured waxcap, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
As far as possible, advise relevant agri-environment scheme project officers of the locations for this species and the need to encourage appropriate grazing regimes at these sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Conduct a search for this species, following suitable weather, on selected south-facing, short-turfed <a href="UKPlans.aspx?ID=52">calcareous grassland</a> sites, in order to establish a better understanding of its UK distribution. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure that all sites from which this species has been recorded are visited regularly during appropriate weather so as to monitor the status of this species at each, and to assess changes in habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Commission a research project to investigate the ecology of this species with a view to refining management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage mycologists to pass all records of date-coloured waxcap, including ecological information, to a national database by 2002. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Hypena rostralis (Buttoned Snout)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed by 2005, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, increase available habitat on known sites and in adjacent sites, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that the buttoned snout is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Reintroduce the buttoned snout to a series of sites, if necessary to restore an additional five self-sustaining populations by 2010. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the current status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the buttoned snout and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Hypocreopsis rhododendri (Hazel Gloves)
Undertake a survey of suitable hazel woods in western England, Wales and Scotland with the aim of discovering new sites for H. rhododendri. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Idaea dilutaria (Silky Wave)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2004, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, increase the area of suitable habitat on known sites and adjacent areas, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the silky wave is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider reintroducing populations to three former sites by 2010. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake further surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the silky wave and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Jodia croceago (Orange Upperwing)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the orange upperwing when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment and woodland grant schemes, focussing on the retention of small oak trees within woodlands. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF. WOAD)
Ensure that all sites where re-establishment is proposed are appropriately managed, for example through uptake of woodland grants. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Initiate a programme of captive breeding to provide material for experimental study and reintroductions. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Following assessment of the current status of the orange upperwing, undertake reintroductions into suitably restored habitats in a range of former sites across southern and south-western England and in Wales. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the orange upperwing and the importance of beneficial management, aimed at a diverse woodland structure, for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Juniperus communis (Juniper)
Consider the best examples of juniper habitat which meet local or national criteria for notification as SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Assess site management in reserves and designated sites where juniper exists and ensure that site management permits the natural regeneration of juniper in part at least. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Maintain existing populations outside SSSIs wherever possible by encouraging landowners to manage their land in ways that encourage juniper, and by offering advice and practical assistance for such management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Assess the desirability of reintroducing juniper at former sites in regions of the UK in which the species has declined significantly. Undertake trial reintroductions where appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise relevant landowners and managers of the presence and importance of juniper, and of the appropriate management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and of the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Develop and issue best practice guidance to encourage the maintenance and regeneration of juniper in woodland communities. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Develop and issue best practice guidance to encourage the restoration of treeline scrub woodland with juniper as a component. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Review the taxonomic status of subspecies hemisphaerica and intermediates. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Update the BRC database on the species to act as a base line for regional assessments of local conservation requirements for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Develop and carry out a programme for regional survey to assess the extent, age range and reproductive potential of juniper populations, classifying populations according to the risk of loss and potential for survival. Use the results of this survey to set priorities for regional action to maintain and, where necessary, restore populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Identify suitable areas where new populations of juniper can be established to contribute to habitat biodiversity and replace unavoidable losses of existing populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake research into optimum levels of grazing disturbance and habitat management to encourage germination, regeneration and development of juniper. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Review methods for establishing juniper. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Encourage research into possible sustainable economic uses of juniper as a means to encourage an expansion in the area of semi-natural juniper vegetation and to enhance management of existing areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Ensure that the significance of juniper, the threats to it and suitable management to maintain it are publicised, particularly in relation to the different land management systems in which it occurs - forestry, agriculture and recreation (the latter including deer stalking and shooting estates). (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Support a publication on the significance to biodiversity of montane scrub woodland including juniper as a component. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Continue and expand the exchange of information on the ecology and habitat requirements of juniper with European counterparts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Lacerta agilis (Sand Lizard)
Review SSSI coverage of sand lizard sites in Wales and England and seek to ensure all significant populations are designated (Action: CCW and NE)
Review SSSI coverage of sand lizard sites in Wales and seek to ensure all significant populations are designated. (ACTION: CCW)
Identify all sites with sand lizards to LAs for identification in Development Plans. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Consider habitat re-creation on suitable heathland and dune vegetation to consolidate and expand the current range (Action: CCW, NE, FA, FE, LAs, MAFF, MoD, other land owners, HCT and WTs)
Consider habitat re-creation on suitable heathland and dune vegetation to consolidate and expand the current range. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, LAs, MAFF)
Develop standard guidance and protocols to ensure consistent high quality advice and clear working practices in reptile casework (to inform developers, consultants and LAs) (Action: NE, CCW, SNH, HCT and Froglife/HGBI, IEEM, Consultants, ALGE)
Ensure sand lizard needs are catered for in programmes of cutting, burning or grazing management on sites supporting populations or likely to do so (Action: CCW, NE, SNH, NT, RSPB, LAs, HCT)
Ensure sand lizard needs are catered for in programmes of cutting, burning or grazing management on sites supporting populations, or likely to do so. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Maintain all breeding populations at current levels and enhance where possible (Action: CCW, NE and SNH and HCT to advise in advisory and funding role: action for all land owners and managers)
Maintain all breeding populations at current levels, and enhance where possible. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Where feasible, and following the identification of suitable sites, consider 10 translocations to re-establish the former range and distribution of the species in suitable habitats (for example coastal sand dunes). (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Further develop and refine captive breeding programme following a review of its role and function (Action: HCT, Zoos, NE, CCW)
Develop local / Regional plans / SAPs/ BAPs to set sand lizard conservation in a local context in all areas currently with the species and those where reintroduction would be appropriate (Action: LAs, NE, CCW, HCT, ARGs, WTs)
Prepare site management objectives for sand lizards and ensure that specific conservation measures for the species are included in all plans and management schemes for all designated sites (statutory and ‘second tier’ designations) and nature reserves with this species. These should consider the relevance of the site relative to adjacent populations, etc. (Action: NE, CCW, HCT, WTs, Las
Identify a re-introduction rationale and list of proposed sites and areas by 2000. Initiate 3 translocations by 2005 and a further 3 initiated by 2010. (Action: HCT with CCW, NE, ARGs/WTs, LAs and landowners)
Ensure that relevant LAs and landowners and managers of sites containing sand lizard are aware of its needs, legal status and importance of conserving the species and that advice on its management is available (Action: CCW, NE, FA, SNH, LAs, HCT/ARGs)
Ensure that relevant LAs and landowners and managers of sites containing sand lizard are aware of its needs, legal status and importance of conserving the species and that advice on management is available. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Provide detailed information about the conservation and management needs of sand lizards through written advice and training, etc, so that the necessary management can be taken forward (Action: NE, CCW with HCT/WWF)
Investigate and refine methods for permanently controlling and redressing habitat degradation by bracken and Gaultheria shallon. (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF and HCT: link to Heathland HAP project)
Investigate and refine methods for permanently controlling and redressing habitat degradation by bracken and Gaultheria. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, MAFF)
Encourage the regular monitoring of known populations, devise monitoring objectives and devise a meaningful and repeatable method for assessing the status of these populations (Action: CCW, NE, JNCC, ARGs: co-ordinated by HCT)
Encourage the regular monitoring of known populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Publicise the importance, rarity and conservation needs of sand lizard through the use of interpretative materials and the involvement of the media, zoos and other captive collections. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Publicise the importance, rarity and conservation needs of sand lizard through the use of interpretative materials and the involvement of the media, zoos and other captive collections. (Action: CCW/NE/HCT/Zoos)
Lanius collurio (Red-Backed Shrike)
Maintain nest site confidentiality (but see 5.6.1 below) and investigate all reliable reports of egg collecting. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH, Police Authorities)
Consider wardening of sensitive, accessible sites to prevent undue disturbance from birdwatchers or members of the public. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Provide advice to landowners/site managers on the prevention of disturbance and habitat management to maintain and, if possible, enhance habitat suitability of breeding sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage research into the ecology and management needs of this species throughout the year in order to improve the chances of re-colonisation and the success of any breeding attempts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
In cooperation with landowners/occupiers, consider providing a public viewing facility where nesting occurs in a popular public site and where some form of wardening effort is required. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Lejeunea mandonii (Atlantic lejeunea)
Raise awareness among landowners along the Atlantic fringe of the uniqueness of Atlantic bryophyte flora and the need for its protection. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, SNH)
Lepus europaeus (Brown Hare)
Review the use of legislation pertaining to shooting and selling of hares in the light of research findings on the seasonality of reproduction. (ACTION: CCW, DOE, NE, JNCC, SNH, SOAEFD, WO)
Seek to develop a strategy for the conservation and monitoring of the brown hare (possibly as part of a wider mammals strategy). (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Use the popularity of brown hares to highlight the impact on biodiversity of modern agricultural practices and loss of mixed farms. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Limonium binervosum agg.
Consider proposing the British endemic rock sea lavenders for inclusion on Annex II of the EU Habitats and Species Directive. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, JNCC)
Promote the development of an ex-situ conservation programme for the endemic Limonium taxa. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Ensure that rock climbing clubs and organisations active on coastal cliffs in Wales and western England are aware of the importance of these plants and advise on particular areas which should be avoided. Priority should be given to sites for L. loganicum. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Collate information from relevant experts and re-survey sites where necessary in order to assess the status of populations of L. binervosum agg. The species L. parvum and L. loganicum should both be treated as priorities for further survey with the aim of finding additional sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Investigate current threats to populations including an assessment of the effects of adjacent land uses, eg herbicide drift. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Establish good baselines for the monitoring of rock sea-lavenders. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Assess the effects of the Sea Empress oil spill, if any, on populations of L. parvum. This species is commonly found growing around the rims of sea-cliff blow-holes and observations suggest that oil residue from the Sea Empress disaster has also accumulated in these areas. (ACTION: CCW)
Assess the need to raise awareness in the tourism sector of the important coastal flora of western Britain, perhaps by writing articles for local tourist guidebooks. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Liparis loeselii (Fen Orchid)
Provide suitable management for this species at all sites where it occurs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider restoration management to encourage regeneration from seed banks or seedlings at four former sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue to implement the recovery strategies for the existing populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider translocation of material to these sites if restoration management is unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Research further seed-bank viability and dormancy, and habitat requirements to help conserve the species in situ. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Investigate the feasibility of translocation to dune systems within forests, including the potential of rotational tree felling to provide appropriate successional stages. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards it conservation both in the UK and at a European level. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As it is possible that the management required for recovery in South Wales may cause some concern with other users of the sites, including the public, information boards should be provided and public meetings held to dispel any misunderstandings that may occur. (ACTION: CCW)
Lipsothrix nervosa (a Cranefly)
Take account of the requirements of L. nervosa when considering felling and forestry schemes and woodland grant schemes in deciduous woodlands. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Ensure that sites supporting key populations are appropriately managed by 2008, with particular reference to maintaining beneficial hydrological conditions. Appropriate management could be achieved through site management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species at key sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with this habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Lipsothrix nigristigma (a Cranefly)
Take account of the requirements of L. nigristima when considering relevant felling and forestry schemes and woodland grant schemes in deciduous woodlands. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites holding key populations of the species, where this is necessary to secure long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider establishing new populations by translocation if this is necessary to maintain 10 viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Luronium natans (Floating Water Plantain)
Seek to develop and implement a Code of Practice to protect and enhance populations of floating water plantain in canals, to include management of disused and navigable sections of canal, and the amelioration of the effects of canal restoration. (ACTION: British Waterways,CCW, NE)
Seek to minimise the effects of acidification on waters containing the plantain in acid-sensitive areas. (ACTION: British Waterways, CCW, NE, FE, NRA)
Ensure the needs of the species are taken into account in management plans for any SAC, National Park, NNR or SSSI where it occurs, including prevention of encroaching emergent vegetation likely out-compete this plant.. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Seek to develop management agreements with the owners of disused and little used canals to include a programme of dredging and other maintenance work to produce the open habitat necessary for this plant. (ACTION: British Waterways, CCW, NE)
Where high volumes of boat traffic may damage beds of this species, seek to develop ‘refuges’ near the banks protected barriers such as piling. (ACTION: British Waterways, CCW, NE)
Where canals containing this plant are subject to unavoidable restoration schemes, consider creating reserves and manage them to maintain healthy colonies of the species. (ACTION: British Waterways, CCW, NE)
Seek to dissuade planting of coniferous forests in sensitive lake catchments and around river headwaters important for this species. Where such forests already exist, encourage the creation of buffer zones around lake shores and river margins to allow deciduous woodland to develop. For proposed new plantings in areas containing the water plantain, carry out catchment assessments to determine the potential threat and any ameliorative treatment which would be necessary. (ACTION: CCW, FA, NRA, Snowdonia NPC)
In nature reserves with records of the species, but where it is no longer apparently present, experiment with dredging small areas of water bodies to give any remaining seed a chance to germinate. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
In England and Wales complete the baseline survey of known sites for floating water plantain and develop a method of quantitative assessment for colonies of the plant. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage ecological studies of this species to support site management and translocationprogrammes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research into the effects of acidification of water bodies on the survival of this species in acid-sensitive areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species on a European level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that any published guidelines for canal management take account of the conservation of this species. (ACTION: British Waterways, CCW, NE)
Lutra lutra (Otter)
Review the protection afforded to otters by current legislation and investigate the usefulness and appropriateness of licensing to control release of otters. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Identify and resolve problems with existing legislation. Seek to clarify the definition of "trap" in the WCA 1981 and resolve inconsistencies over the use of otter guards on fishtraps. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure otter releases are carried out only under the guidelines set out in the Framework for Otter Conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Ensure the provision of information on otter requirements and conservation to key groups, to include land owners, through the publication of posters and guidelines. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Develop a methodology for identifying otter breeding areas and produce guidelines for the protection and creation of breeding habitat. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH).
Use this popular species to publicise the importance of water quality and riparian habitats to biodiversity. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, JNCC, SNH, NRA, SEPA)
Lycia zonaria britannica (Belted Beauty)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and potential nearby habitat is appropriately managed by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of the belted beauty are taken into account in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
If possible, increase the available habitat on known sites and adjacent sites and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that the belted beauty is listed on site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Lycopodiella inundata (Marsh Clubmoss)
Assess the scale of protection already afforded to this species by designated sites and consider the need for additional designation or protection on other extant sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
When next reviewed, consider how existing agri-environment schemes could benefit the species, particularly in encouraging extensive land-use practices on land surrounding stronghold sites, and reducing the impact of run-off on water quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
In contributing to any review of common land legislation, take into account the requirements of marsh clubmoss and other wet heath species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Where marsh clubmoss falls within SACs, promote favourable wet heath management which will benefit the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Where indicated as being necessary by 5.5.1, attempt to secure suitable management conditions on threatened sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Restore marsh clubmoss to three historic sites where conditions still appear to be suitable for the species. Translocation of plant material from extant sites or ex-situ sources should only be undertaken if regeneration from the spore-bank or natural recolonisation does not occur. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of establishing an ex-situ conservation programme, and implement promptly if appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure that landowners and managers on extant sites are aware of the presence and importance of this species, and are advised on appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Advise relevant agri environment project officers of locations of this species, its importance and management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Collate all known information on extant and former British sites, re-surveying sites where necessary to determine the current distribution and status of this species, assess management regimes and identify current threats. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake research into the ecological requirements of this species and the reasons for its decline. Research should include a comparison of survival and performance on sites selected for a range of management conditions in order to inform positive management agreements to maintain and enhance existing populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake further surveys for the plant, particularly in Scotland and north Wales where new sites may await discovery. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote the importance of habitats with fluctuating water levels and high levels of disturbance. An article should be written for appropriate farming and conservation publications. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage botanists to report any records of this species, including ecological information. An article should be written for botanical publications in order to raise awareness of the plant. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Malachius aeneus (Scarlet malachite beetle)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Margaritifera margaritifera (Freshwater Pearl Mussel)
Consider designating centres of large, self-sustaining populations as SSSI/ASSI, and designate SACs for the most important ones. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, DoE(NI), SOAEFD, WO)
Consider re-introduction into formerly occupied areas if conditions become ecologically suitable, using appropriate stock to maintain regional genetic variation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Provide advice to river and land managers, water bailiffs and local police in relevant areas on the presence and legal status of this species, and appropriate methods of management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Identify catchments where there is the best chance of re-establishing this species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Carry out research to investigate key threats; fish hosts; life cycle and life history in different places; tolerance to variation in acidity; genetic variation; viability of re-seeding populations, and the effects of commercial exploitation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, DoE(NI), NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Establish the current status of populations throughout the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Encourage regular monitoring of known populations and seek to identify further threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Promote awareness of the threats to the species and publicise the legal protection afforded to it. (ACTION: CCW, NE, DoE(NI), NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Melampyrum sylvaticum (Small Cow-wheat)
Consider the representation of small cow-wheat in the ASSI/SSSI series and ensure that management prescriptions for ASSI/SSSIs with small cow-wheat take its requirements into account. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Use all available means to ensure that all sites with small cow-wheat are managed sympathetically to its requirements, with regard to forestry operations, grazing regimes and agricultural practices on adjoining land. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD)
Reintroduce the species to five historic sites that appear to be ecologically suitable. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Inform landowners and managers of sites on which small cow-wheat occurs of the presence and importance of species, and provide them with guidance on the requirements for the survival of the species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and of the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Survey current and historic sites to establish the full range of the species in the UK, the status of surviving populations, and to evaluate environmental variables in order to improve management prescriptions. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage research into the ecology of the small cow-wheat, particularly those aspects which are likely to define management for the maintenance of the species. Undertake population viability analyses. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote European cooperation in the conservation of small cow-wheat by the exchange of information on ecological and habitat requirements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH, Research Institutes)
Ensure that the scarcity of the species and threats to it are understood, and raise public awareness about the need to conserve this attractive plant. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, SNH)
Melanapion minimum (a Weevil)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment or woodland grant schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2005, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, WOAD)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with key populations of the species, where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider reintroducing to a series of sites within the former range, if necessary to ensure that there are six viable populations by 2010. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the species by 2008. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to elucidate the causes of decline and inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Melanitta nigra (Common Scoter)
Consider the adoption of improved pollution prevention and control measures, including MEHRAs, and shipping management measures. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, EA, EHS, NE, Harbour authorities, JNCC, LAs, MCA, SEPA, SNH)
Take forward enforcement of MARPOL limits on deliberate discharges, port waste management plans and oil spill contingency planning. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, EA, EHS, NE, Harbour authorities, JNCC, LAs, MCA, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that licensing of offshore oil and gas blocks does not detrimentally affect important wintering or moulting sites of common scoters. (ACTION: CCW, DTI, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Designate important breeding, moulting and wintering sites as SSSI/ASSI and SPA for common scoters, and encourage their appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, SNH, SOAEFD)
Ensure that detrimental effects of development proposals on regular breeding sites and key wintering/moulting sites for common scoters are minimised. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, LAs, SNH, SOAEFD)
Revise methods of survey and monitoring of wintering common scoters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Investigate the ecology, food sources and origin of wintering and moulting common scoters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Promote research into the wintering grounds of UK breeding birds and the origins of birds wintering in UK waters. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Raise the profile of common scoter as a species that has recently become extinct as a breeder in Northern Ireland and is under threat from land-use changes in the Flow Country. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Melanotus punctolineatus (a Click Beetle)
Undertake surveys, including dune systems on the South Wales coast, to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of the species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Mentha pulegium (Pennyroyal)
Take account of the requirements of pennyroyal when developing new, or reviewing existing, environmental land management schemes that promote the traditional management of lowland commons and village greens. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, EHS, NE, LAs, MAFF, WOAD)
In contributing to any review of common land legislation, take into account the requirements of pennyroyal and other wet heath species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Seek protection of all extant sites from damaging activities including infilling with hardcore, metalling of trackway sites, drainage and application of agro-chemicals. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, FE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure the long-term protection and appropriate management of all extant native sites. Where necessary to achieve this, consider notifying sites as SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, FE)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of reintroducing pennyroyal at suitable historic sites should regeneration from the seed-bank prove unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Collect seed from a representative number of sites throughout pennyroyal's range and deposit in the Millenium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew). (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, RBG Kew)
Ensure that landowners and managers are aware of the presence and importance of this species and are advised on appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Re-survey all native sites which have not been surveyed in the last three years and where records have been made since 1970, in order to determine the current distribution and status of pennyroyal in the UK, ensure that management at each site is suitable and identify any potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Undertake detailed monitoring and ecological research on three viable sites in different parts of the range of pennyroyal with a view to improving understanding of its requirements and refining management techniques for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Undertake regular monitoring on sites where populations have been restored. There should be a commitment to do this for at least 10 years. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Generally promote the importance of ephemeral, muddy, superficially untidy habitats. Articles could be produced for the media. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Microglossum olivaceum (Olive Earthtongue)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of this species where this is consistent with selection guidelines and is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Assess the threat to known M. olivaceum sites posed by drift and run-off of agricultural chemicals. Where a threat is identified, seek to undertake remedial action to address the problem. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, provide mechanisms (such as management agreements on SSSIs and relevant agri-environment schemes) to establish suitable grazing regimes on and around all extant M. olivaceum sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Advise landowners and land managers of the presence and importance of this species, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise all relevant agri-environment scheme project officers of the locations for this species and the need to encourage appropriate grazing regimes at these sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Compile information on the current distribution and status of this species in Britain, and undertake further survey if appropriate. An assessment of current threats to each extant site should also be made. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring of all extant M. olivaceum sites in order to assess changes in population size and habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Commission a research project to investigate aspects of the ecology of this species, with a view to providing information for future management and conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of mycologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Miliaria calandra (Corn Bunting)
Where appropriate, incorporate new management prescriptions when reviewing agri-environment schemes, especially ESAs, Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen and Countryside Premium Scheme, in order to reverse some of the recent changes in farm management outlined in Section 2. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Carry out further studies to gain an adequate understanding of the ecological requirements of the corn bunting, including the role of different factors in the decline of the species in different parts of the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of the breeding population through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider setting up an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
As appropriate, use the corn bunting as an example when highlighting the issue of declining farmland birds. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote the importance of traditional crofting with cattle and mixed cultivation for the conservation of corn buntings in western Scotland, and of traditional ley farming elsewhere in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Promote a change in perception of wild plants on farmland as essential food sources for seed-eating farmland birds, rather than as 'weeds'. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Muscardinus avellanarius (Dormouse)
Sites supporting dormice should be identified and advice provided to land managers on appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Support training in conservation of dormice both for land managers and advisers. (ACTION: MAFF, FA, WOAD, CCW, NE)
The National Dormouse Monitoring Scheme should be maintained and extended to 25 counties. Methods of survey or monitoring should be further developed and standardised to obtain sufficient long-term data on which to assess the effects of site management and successional development. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Carry out a survey of dormice in Wales to assess the range and habitat use and identify necessary conservation measures. (ACTION: CCW)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species in an international context. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that landowners, agencies and local authorities are aware of the requirements of the dormouse, especially the impact woodland and hedgerow management may have, and the effects of habitat fragmentation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure continued public awareness of this species as a key indicator of desirable woodland and hedge conditions. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, MAFF, WOAD)
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)
Consider the requirements of nesting spotted flycatchers when providing nest-boxes in nature reserves, country parks and other protected areas. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, LAs, SNH)
Consider the needs of spotted flycatchers in general advice on woodland management. These should include encouraging the provision of broadleaved stands with an open canopy and open spaces, including rides and tree fall gaps. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FA, SNH)
Analyse BTO Nest Record Cards from the 1960s to look for changes in productivity which might explain the recent population decline. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake a study into the summer ecology and habitat use of spotted flycatchers, including an investigation of the relationship between diet/insect availability, the growth/survival of chicks and fledging success. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH, WOAD)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of spotted flycatcher numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH, WOAD)
Myotis bechsteinii (Bechstein's Bat)
Pursue the principles and requirements of the Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EA, NE, FA, FE, LAs, MAFF)
When next reviewed, consider targeting the Woodland Grant Scheme (Project 3), Forest Design Plans, Countryside Stewardship Schemes, ESAs and other relevant agri-environment and forestry schemes towards land in the vicinity of important roost sites, with the aim of enhancing and extending habitat used by bats. Consideration should be given to the retention of hollow, veteran, dying and dead trees in hedgerows and woodlands. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, FA, FE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure the long-term protection of maternity roosts, key hibernation roosts and the habitat surrounding these sites. Consider notifying such areas as SSSIs where it is necessary to achieve this. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue to install bat boxes and expand their use from an initial focus in Dorset and Wiltshire to include other important population centres. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, LAs)
Advise relevant project officers for Countryside Stewardship, the Woodland Grant Scheme and other agri-environment and forestry schemes of the location of key roost sites, their importance and appropriate habitat management for the surrounding areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, MAFF)
Advise tree surgeons, tree wardens and foresters operating in the vicinity of Bechstein's bat sites on tree management practices which will assist the conservation of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Continue to support the current network providing bat conservation advice including the use of licensed bat workers/wardens for roost visits. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue to search for maternity and cave roosting sites. On locating such sites, undertake autecological research and monitoring into the roosting requirements and foraging habitats of this species, with a view to refining habitat protection and management practices and producing guidelines on the construction and installation of artificial roosts. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, FC)
Research the food and feeding requirements of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Maintain discussions on the conservation of the species on a pan-European scale through the IUCN Coordinating Panel for the Conservation of Bats in Europe and the European Bat Agreement. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE)
Use the conservation requirements of Bechstein's bat to illustrate the importance of native deciduous woodland. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE)
Raise awareness of the importance of old trees as roost and hibernation sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA)
Mythimna turca (Double Line)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes (eg ESAs, Woodland Grant Schemes). (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, LAs, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of this species are taken account of in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that the double line moth is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the double line and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE).
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species on key sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during the survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitats. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Myxas glutinosa (Glutinous Snail)
Survey all sites where the snail has been recorded this century by the year 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Nitella gracilis (Slender Stonewort)
Ensure that sites for this species are protected from damaging activities and inappropriate management, through SSSI notification if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider targeting relevant agri-environment schemes to land adjacent to remaining slender stonewort sites, seeking to reduce the threat of adverse practices (including herbicide and fertiliser use). (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Undertake control of scrub and periodic clearance of ditches at all extant sites where the performance of slender stonewort is threatened. This action should be refined with the benefit of the management guidelines proposed under 5.5.4. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote schemes which facilitate the development of buffer strips along water-courses feeding into sites and around the edges of sites, where this will help to reduce pollution from agricultural run-off. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Undertake suitable management to regenerate a colony of slender stonewort from the seed-bank of at least one suitable historic site. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
If the action suggested under 5.3.1 is considered inappropriate or the trial is unsuccessful, assess the feasibility and desirability of (re)introducing this species to suitable habitat. Establish a trials at a suitable site if appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise relevant landowners and managers of the presence and importance of slender stonewort, and of the appropriate management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and of the management needed for its conservation on and adjacent to existing sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Commission a review of all British records of slender stonewort. The review is needed because it is now thought that many of the early records of this species were erroneous. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Following the review of slender stonewort records outlined under 5.5.1, collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Devise and implement a monitoring programme for all extant populations. This would need to cover an assessment of population size, current management and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Commission a research project in order to improve understanding of the ecological requirements of this species. Following the research, management guidelines should be produced and used to refine conservation action for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Nitella tenuissima (Dwarf Stonewort)
Ensure that grazing is continued or reinstated at all extant dwarf stonewort sites, and on historic sites where suitable habitat remains and when consistent with other conservation priorities. It is, however, important that a careful check is kept on grazing levels so as to avoid excessive nutrient enrichment. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider targeting relevant agri-environment schemes to land adjacent to remaining dwarf stonewort sites, seeking to reduce the threat of adverse practices (including herbicide and fertiliser use). (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where appropriate, undertake periodic local clearance of vegetation at extant sites. Assess the need for other habitat management at each site with the guidance of a relevant expert. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Assess the feasibility of regenerating colonies of dwarf stonewort from the spore-bank at carefully selected historic sites. Suitable management may include clearance of fen vegetation. If appropriate, undertake trials at three sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider undertaking transplantation of turves of dwarf stonewort to suitable pools within the three selected historic sites if regeneration from the spore-bank proves unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise relevant landowners and managers of the presence (or former presence) and importance of dwarf stonewort, and of the appropriate management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and of the management needed for its conservation on and adjacent to existing sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of dwarf stonewort. The survey should include a search of pools close to extant colonies, that have not been adequately surveyed in recent years. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Devise and implement a monitoring programme for all extant populations. This would need to cover an assessment of population size, current management and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake a research project to investigate further the habitat requirements and reproductive ecology of dwarf stonewort. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Nitellopsis obtusa (Starry Stonewort)
Assess the feasibility of regenerating colonies of dwarf stonewort from the spore-bank at carefully selected historic sites. Suitable management may include clearance of fen vegetation. If appropriate, undertake trials at three sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider undertaking transplantation of turves of dwarf stonewort to suitable pools within the three selected historic sites if regeneration from the spore-bank proves unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that relevant agri-environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance and of the management needed for its conservation on and adjacent to existing sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Noctua orbona (Lunar Yellow Underwing)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of this species are taken into account in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and potential nearby habitat is appropriately managed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure that the lunar yellow underwing is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to elucidate the causes of the decline of this species and to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved via articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Nomada armata (a Cuckoo Bee)
If necessary to maintain 10 viable populations, undertake habitat restoration and/or re-introductions at suitable former or potential sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the bee by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Odontomyia hydroleon (a Soldierfly)
Where possible, ensure mineral abstraction planning permission minimises hydrological impact and that any restoration or after-use is compatible with maintaining Odontomyia hydroleon. (ACTION: CCW, LAs)
Ensure that all sites are appropriately managed by 2005, for example through site management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved via articles within appropriate journals. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Opegrapha paraxanthodes (a Lichen)
Consider notifying as ASSI/SSSIs sites with viable populations of the species where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Where possible, establish sympathetic management at sites for this species. Particular emphasis should be given to protecting this species from inappropriate management of the surrounding woodland, which would result in increased levels of light and a reduction in levels of humidity. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers on extant and restored sites of the presence and importance of this species, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake a thorough survey of all known sites, including those sites where it was recorded in the past, to determine the current status of this species at each, and to assess the threats to extant populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Monitor all extant sites regularly to assess changes in population size and habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of lichenologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through the publication of articles or the provision of specialist workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage lichenologists to pass all records of Opegrapha paraxanthodes, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Orthodontium gracile (Slender Thread-moss)
Assess the reasons for the loss of slender thread-moss from its former sites and, if appropriate, consider undertaking re-establishments. These should use propagated material originating from the nearest extant site. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Compile information and resurvey sites where necessary in order to determine the current distribution and status of this species in the UK. All herbarium material needs to be checked following the recent report of vegetative differentiation from O. lineare (see 3.5). Survey should cover former and extant sites in northern England, Sussex, Devon, Midlothian, north-east Wales, Lough Navar site and its surroundings An assessment of threats to extant populations should be made at each site. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake a research project to investigate the ecology of slender thread-moss. The project should include an investigation of the extent to which slender thread-moss is threatened by competition with O. lineare. The results of the research should be used to refine conservation action for slender thread-moss. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake experimental control of the competitive mosses such as Orthodontium lineare at one site in order to assess the benefits to slender thread-moss. Clearance of O. lineare should be supervised by an expert, and the colonisation of cleared patches should be monitored. If the technique proves successful, consider implementing at other sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of slender thread-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Osmia parietina (a Mason Bee)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes, including the sympathetic maintenance of dry-stone walls. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of the species are taken into account in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure that this species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSI sites supporting viable populations of Osmia parietina, where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
If necessary to ensure that there are 20 viable populations, undertake habitat restoration and/or reintroductions at suitable former or potential sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the current status of the bee by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote autecological research targeted to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this bee and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by publicity leaflets. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Osmia xanthomelana (a Mason Bee)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for relevant agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of Osmia xanthomelana are taken into account in relevant coastal protection and development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that this species is included in site management documents for any relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider notifying sites supporting viable populations of Osmia xanthomelana as SSSIs, where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
If necessary to maintain five viable populations, undertake habitat restoration and/or re-introductions at suitable former or potential sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake further surveys to determine the status of the bee by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote ecological research to establish the habitat requirements of this species, the factors limiting breeding success at existing sites, its dispersal ability, and appropriate reintroduction methods. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ostrea edulis (Native Oyster)
Produce guidance notes and a code of practice on habitat restoration and species protection. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Assess and report on the implications for genetic variability and biodiversity of using hatchery brood stock to produce seed for stock replenishment. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
To raise awareness and provide information about the Biodiversity Action Plan, write articles on progress with the plans for appropriate trade journals (eg Fishing News, Fish Farming International) explaining the action plan. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Pallavicinia lyellii (Veilwort)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of veilwort where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that the habitat quality of extant sites is not adversely affected by land drainage activities. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, FE, IDBs)
Assess the need to control scrub where it threatens to overshade extant colonies of veilwort, exercising caution so that the colonies are not over-exposed to the equally damaging effects of direct sunlight. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE)
Following the research outlined under 5.5.3, consider undertaking clearance of vegetation at appropriate localities in order to create bare surfaces for veilwort to colonise. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE)
Undertake experimental management with the aim of re-establishing populations of veilwort from a possible soil spore-bank at suitable historic sites. Trial management should be carried out on three sites and extended to more localities if successful. Suitable sites will include those where a long-term management plan is in place. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Depending on the results of 5.5.4, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Consider the feasibility and desirability of undertaking reintroductions of this species on suitable habitat in the vicinity of extant sites, particularly if 5.3.1 is unsuccessful. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of veilwort, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Compile information and resurvey sites where necessary in order to update information on the current distribution and status of veilwort in Britain. The opportunity should also be taken to assess current threats to this species at each site. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites in order to assess changes in population size and habitat quality. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew).
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of veilwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Panagaeus cruxmajor (Crucifix ground beetle)
Encourage sympathetic management of all sites where the species occurs, as far as knowledge of its habitat requirements allow. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
If the species is found at less than five sites, following feasibility assessment and the identification of suitable sites, seek to re-establish populations in at least two former sites by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote survey work to establish whether the beetle occurs at any further sites by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage research into the species’ ecology to determine its habitat management needs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Use this colourful and bizarre species as a flagship to publicise dune and flood meadow wetland conservation, and to popularise ground beetle conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Passer montanus (Tree Sparrow)
Where appropriate, incorporate new management prescriptions when reviewing agri-environment schemes, especially ESAs, Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen and Countryside Premium Scheme, in order to reverse some of the recent changes in farm management outlined in Section 2. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Consider implementing site safeguard measures for a small number of large tree sparrow colonies (ie those in excess of 20 pairs). (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake management measures for tree sparrows within protected areas (especially nature reserves) and, where possible, promote them on adjoining farmland. Measures will include nest-box schemes, retention of dead trees and provision of winter feeding habitat. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Carry out an historical review of the species, including analysis of existing BTO Nest Record Cards, in order to investigate the possible reasons for decline. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake an autecological study of the tree sparrow in order to determine its requirements and investigate the factors causing the population decline. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider the setting up of an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
As appropriate, use the tree sparrow as an example when highlighting the issue of declining farmland birds. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Perdix perdix (Grey Partridge)
Continue to provide information and management advice to landowners and managers through GCT, FWAG and other advisors. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Continue to investigate the ecological requirements of the grey partridge to help develop management advice. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Investigate the impact of different management regimes on grey partridge populations, using selected farms with experimental schemes or ESA prescriptions. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage regular monitoring of the UK population through census work and bag returns. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote further research into the indirect effects of agrochemical use on the grey partridge. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Petalophyllum ralfsii (Petalwort)
Seek to ensure that local planning policies take into account the requirements of this species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, LAs, SNH)
Review the existing SSSI/ASSI coverage for this species, to determine whether it is sufficient. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Develop management plans for occupied dune slacks, including measures to maintain or, if necessary, increase wetness and prevent deterioration through human recreational pressure and development. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, IDBs, NRA, SNH)
Maintain moist partially colonised and open dune slack habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Discourage illegal collecting of this species and seek to ensure offenders are prosecuted. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Take action to assess the viability of translocations of this species. (Action: CCW, NE, Plantlife, SNH)
Wherever practicable, ensure that landowners and managers are aware of the presence, legal status and importance of conserving this species and its habitat, and appropriate methods of management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Ensure that relevant societies are aware of the legal and ecological implications of collecting this species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research to assess changes in populations size in response to human recreational activities, and to identify any potential threats from other sources. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Consider research needs to better characterise reproductive biology and microhabitat requirements, and assess the suitability of the species for ex-situ cultivation and translocation, if appropriate. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Undertake a survey of all former and potential sites to determine the current distribution of this species in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species on an international level, particularly the reasons for its decline throughout the current range, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Seek to monitor extant populations and identify further threats to this species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Use this species to highlight the importance of dune systems and the threats facing them. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Phocoena phocoena (Harbour Porpoise)
Continue to introduce agreed codes of conduct to reduce disturbance from acoustic sources and physical pressures. (ACTION: CCW, NE, DoE(NI), JNCC, SNH)
Introduce codes of practice to reduce disturbance from whale-watching.(ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH,)
Promote research into the causes of death of the harbour porpoise within UK waters to determine the context and need for future conservation action. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Continue to publicise reporting schemes for strandings and live-sightings. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, SOAEFD)
Pilularia globulifera (Pillwort)
Where appropriate, promote entry of pillwort sites and on land adjacent to them into relevant agri-environment schemes to encourage sympathetic land management practices which would reduce impacts of enriched run-off. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Encourage beneficial site management where a long-term commitment is possible. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage the creation of suitable habitats where opportunities arise in the vicinity of extant sites. Heritage and cultural organisations could consider restoring mill-ponds and curling ponds. Any such schemes should consider the possibility of restoring cattle/pony grazing, or (re)introducing pillwort if natural colonisation fails to occur. (ACTION: Cadw, CCW, EA, EH, EHS, NE, HS, SNH)
Where this species falls within candidate SACs, ensure that management plans take pillwort into account. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSIs a representative number of sites with viable populations across the range of this species where this is necessary to ensure their long-term protection. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of (re)introducing the species to suitable new and former sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Where sites exist with recent records and suitable habitat and management can be restored, attempt to regenerate plants from the spore bank (Action: CCW, NE)
Ensure that landowners and managers are aware of the presence of pillwort and are advised on appropriate management. Particular attention should be given to owners of land with stronghold populations. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SNH)
Advise relevant agri environment project officers of locations of this species, its importance and management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Re-survey all known sites to assess the changes that have occurred since the early 1980s and to identify potential threats. Priority should be given to isolated sites in the lowlands. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Investigate the effects of competitive non-native marginal plants, eg Australian swamp stonecrop, on pillwort populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Consider other research elements which may be necessary to inform conservation management for this species, and which could become part of a wider study into the ecology of species of ephemeral water bodies on lowland heathland (Action: CCW, NE, ITE, Plantlife, Pond Action)
Develop protocols for monitoring and surveillance of this species and implement where appropriate (Action: CCW, NE, BSBI, Plantlife)
Promote the importance of habitats with fluctuating water levels and high levels of disturbance. Articles could be written for appropriate county wildlife trust magazines and other relevant farming and conservation publications. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Pipistrelle Bat)
Encourage favourable management of land adjacent to known roost sites to support foraging by juvenile pipistrelles. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Maintain current licensing procedures and training schemes as appropriate. Assess the effect of current management and protection policies and amend as necessary to ensure maintenance of healthy populations. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Ensure landowners are aware of the presence and legal status of pipistrelle bats, and that advice is available on appropriate methods of management for conservation of their roosts and foraging habitats. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Continue to research the habitat requirements and ecology of the species to help develop appropriate management advice. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Develop and implement a systematic survey technique to clarify the conservation status of the species in the UK. This should include monitoring of summer maternity roosts and the extent and effect of reproductive isolation of summer colonies used for monitoring. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of pipistrelles on an international level. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Maintain programmes of carefully supervised roost visiting, general education and publicity. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Pisidium tenuilineatum (Freshwater pea mussel)
Undertake a survey of all post-1950 sites by 2000, to establish the current distribution of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Research ecological requirements of the species, including habitat requirements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Survey poorly recorded areas to discover if further colonies exist. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the silver-studded blue when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that existing populations do not become fragmented by management practices or development. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, LAs, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, increase the available habitat at known sites and adjacent areas, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of this species are taken account of in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider reintroducing the silver-studded blue to a series of sites within its former range. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the silver-studded blue and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine the current status of the silver-studded blue. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Collate transect and management data from all monitored sites (in addition to Butterfly Monitoring Scheme sites) annually, and calculate an annual index to compare trends on individual sites. Review and extend series of monitored sites if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the silver-studded blue and the conservation issues associated with lowland heathland and lowland calcareous grassland. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Polia bombycina (Pale Shining Brown)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment and woodland grant schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2005, for example, through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Increase the available habitat on the known sites and in adjacent sites, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the pale shining brown is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine current distribution. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Conduct targeted autecological research to elucidate the causes of decline and inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass the information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote understanding and appreciation of this moth and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Potamogeton compressus (Grass-wrack Pondweed)
Consider the value of buffer strips and other measures alongside watercourses in reducing the impacts of nutrient enrichment and pollution on key populations of grass-wrack pondweed. These measures are likely to be most valuable in Broadland, where grass-wrack pondweed grows in drainage ditches that are highly vulnerable to eutrophication. (ACTION: Broads Authority, CCW, EA, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Assess the feasibility and desirability of re-establishing grass-wrack pondweed at suitable sites from which it has been lost. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers who manage waters containing grass-wrack pondweed of its presence, importance and appropriate management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that all agri-environment project officers and members of appropriate liaison groups and partner organisations are advised of locations of this species, its importance and appropriate management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Collate information, and resurvey sites where necessary to determine the current distribution and status of grass-wrack pondweed in Britain. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Raise awareness amongst boating groups of the presence and importance of grass-wrack pondweed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Procas granulicollis (a Weevil)
Where possible, ensure the appropriate management of known sites by 2004, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of Procas granullicolas are taken into account in any relevant development policies, plans or proposals. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure that this species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites holding key populations of this species, where this is necessary to secure long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake further surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake studies to clarify the taxonomic relationships of P. granulicollis and P. armillatus. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Collaborate with European specialists to investigate the endemicity of P. granulicollis. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, NHM, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pseudanodonta complanata (Depressed River Mussel)
Seek to identify key sites throughout the range of this species, and ensure that suitable habitat is maintained within them. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Following further research to determine the habitat requirements of this species, provide advice to all river managers in areas where this mussel occurs. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Undertake studies to identify water quality, flow and habitat requirements for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Carry out surveys to establish the distribution of the species, and the location of key populations by 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA)
Undertake further research to assess the impact of collecting on the population of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and distribution of this species to determine its status in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage regular monitoring of known populations and seek to identify any further threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pseudocyphellaria norvegica (a Lichen)
If feasible following survey and assessment, seek to restore species to five former sites by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Bullfinch)
Where appropriate, incorporate new management prescriptions when reviewing agri-environment schemes, especially ESAs, Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen and Countryside Premium Scheme, in order to reverse some of the recent changes in farm management outlined in Section 2. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Consider producing advisory material for orchard owners on the provision of alternative sources of natural food for bullfinches. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey and consider the setting up of an equivalent survey to monitor winter populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake an autecological study of the bullfinch to identify appropriate habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Promote the bullfinch as a species in need of conservation assistance. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Raja batis (Common Skate)
Designate at least five refuge areas (see 5.5.1) within which common skate are given legal protection from commercial fishing and deliberate killing or retention by anglers. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Protect the species within at least five designated refuge areas using appropriate legislation (see 5.2). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and publicise a code of conduct for the live release of immature common skate by all fishermen, both commercial and recreational. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, DETR, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Develop and publicise a code of conduct for the careful handling (including tag reporting) and live release of all common skate by sports anglers. (ACTION: CCW,DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Publicise the vulnerability and threatened status of the common skate to commercial and sports fishermen, to minimise mortality in fisheries. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, NE, JNCC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Ranunculus tripartitus (Three-lobed Water-crowfoot)
Consider protection for major populations through SSSI notification where this is necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW)
Encourage land management promoting open ground habitats suitable for this species, especially appropriate grazing and maintenance of temporary pools. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage positive habitat management at suitable former sites to aid germination of dormant seed in the seed bank. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Seek to maintain water levels in the winter and prevent drainage of the surrounding area. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
If feasible, seek to restore to ten suitable former sites by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Collect and deposit seed in the national seed bank at Wakehurst Place and ensure that plants are kept in cultivation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure that landowners and managers are aware of the presence and importance of conserving this species and appropriate methods of habitat management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Survey to assess seed banks at former sites to determine the extent and feasibility of regeneration programmes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote research into the ecology and habitat requirements of this species to underpin management advice and identify its suitability for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
If found to be necessary, survey to determine whether suitable sites exist for regeneration or re-introduction of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, seeking to determine the reasons for its decline in northern Europe and using the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Monitor extant populations regularly and seek to identify any potential threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Rheumaptera hastata (Argent and sable)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment and woodland grant schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Where possible, ensure that occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2010, for example through SSSI or agri-environment/woodland grant scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Where possible, increase the available habitat at known sites and in adjacent areas, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSI's sites holding key populations of the species where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups are advised of locations of this species, its importance and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research, including on the age of coppice after cutting preferred by the moth, the length of time such cut areas remain suitable, mobility and population structure, to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: NE, CCW, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved via articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Greater Horseshoe Bat)
Consider the obligations of the Habitats Directive and Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe, and seek to develop appropriate policies on wider habitat conservation for bats. (ACTION: CCW, DOE, NE, FA, JNCC, WO)
Consider statutory protection for roost sites not already covered, and seek to ensure that consideration is given to key areas, or population centres, in respect of planning and land-use strategies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Following further research to identify the ecological requirements of this species more precisely, encourage favourable habitat management (aiming for up to 4 km around each roost), seeking to implement these through voluntary or informal agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue to implement the current advisory mechanisms for roost sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Prepare and distribute advice on the management of foraging areas by the year 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Seek to maintain the current level of research into the ecology and conservation requirements of this species, identifying further areas of research as necessary. This should include studies on the population genetics and feeding requirements of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote research to assess the importance of sites used by small numbers of bats and develop and implement a strategy for their conservation. Investigate the rate of loss of minor sites and their importance to the population structure. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Identify key areas or population centres for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Develop and implement a systematic recording scheme to standardise population estimates between sites and between years. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Rhinolophus hipposideros (Lesser Horseshoe Bat)
Pursue the principles and requirements of the Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EA, NE, FA, LAs, MAFF, WOAD)
When next reviewed, consider targeting the Woodland Grant Scheme (WGS) (Project 3), Forest Design Plans, Countryside Stewardship Schemes, ESAs and other relevant agri-environment and forestry schemes to land in the vicinity of important roost sites, with the aim of enhancing and extending habitat used by bats. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE, FA, FE, MAFF, WOAD)
Establish mechanisms to ensure routine survey of mines or other underground sites due for closure or change of use, or otherwise considered vulnerable, with a view to protecting any bat colonies identified. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, JNCC)
Ensure that consideration is given to key maternity roost sites and the surrounding habitat when developing structure plans and assessing planning applications, particularly those for redundant buildings. The provision of alternative roost sites should be considered to mitigate any loss, as should the need for survey on planning applications for old buildings in current (and any expanded) range. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Ensure that management agreements for all SSSIs where the lesser horseshoe bat is known to occur take account of the requirements of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Identify representative numbers of key maternity, hibernation and other roosts across the range of this species and ensure that they are notified to Local Authorities and fully protected from damaging developments. Ensure adequate representation in the SSSI series. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Include the lesser horseshoe bat on the list of reasons for notification on those SSSIs which have been notified for other reasons (eg geology) but which also support important bat roosts. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
When appropriate, advise project officers for Countryside Stewardship, the WIG scheme and other forestry and agri-environment schemes of the location of key roost sites, their importance and appropriate habitat management for the surrounding areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, MAFF, WOAD)
Establish links with organisations associated with the care and restoration of old buildings in the vicinity of lesser horseshoe bat sites, in order to encourage provision for the requirements of the species within old buildings. (ACTION: CADW, CCW, EH, NE, LAs)
Advise organisations engaged in underground research and recreation on the location and importance of lesser horseshoe bat roosts and the need to avoid causing disturbance to them. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Advise key landowners, managers and other relevant organisations in the vicinity of important populations of this species on appropriate habitat management for the conservation of the lesser horseshoe bat. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue to support and expand the current network providing bat conservation advice including the use of licensed bat workers/wardens for roost visits. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Maintain and enhance national monitoring, in relation to pan-European proposals under the Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE)
Undertake research to identify the habitat requirements of this species and the appropriate management of feeding areas needed to maintain populations at a favourable conservation status. The findings should be used to inform development of guidelines and policies for habitat protection, creation and management around roost sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, JNCC)
Assess the importance of mating roosts, underground sites and satellite or minor summer sites used by small numbers of bats with a view to establishing protection for key sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Raise awareness of bat conservation issues amongst the owners of large country houses and farm buildings through relevant organisations and appropriate property and farming magazines. (ACTION: CADW, CCW, EH, NE)
Raise awareness of this bat species among land managers and Local Authorities. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Maintain discussions on the conservation of the species on a pan-European scale through the IUCN Coordinating Panel for the Conservation of Bats in Europe and the European Bat Agreement. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, NE)
Rhynchaenus testaceus (Jumping Weevil)
Consider reintroducing Rhynchaenus testaceus to a series of sites within the former range, if necessary to ensure the maintenance of six viable populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Riccia huebeneriana (Violet Crystalwort)
Consider notifying as SSSIs sites with viable populations of violet crystalwort where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Where appropriate, ensure that natural seasonal fluctuations in water levels are maintained at extant violet crystalwort sites, and that any attempts to stabilise water levels artificially for fishing (or other purposes) are prevented. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Assess the risk to each extant violet crystalwort site posed by run-off of agricultural chemicals including nitrate and phosphate fertilisers. Where this is identified to be a risk, seek to target, when next reviewed, agri-environment schemes and other protection measures to land surrounding violet crystalwort colonies, in order to reduce the pollution of its habitat by agricultural run-off. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Ensure that the habitat quality of extant sites is not adversely affected by land drainage activities. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, IDBs)
Where necessary, seek to maintain grazing regimes that provide appropriate open muddy water-side habitats for violet crystalwort. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Assess the possibility of regenerating populations of violet crystalwort from a possible spore-bank at suitable historic sites. If appropriate, undertake experimental management at three sites and extend to more localities if trials are successful. Suitable sites will be those where a long-term management commitment is possible. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Depending on the results of 5.5.5, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
If the action outlined under 5.3.1 proves unsuccessful, consider the feasibility and desirability of undertaking translocations of violet crystalwort to suitable habitat in the vicinity of extant colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of violet crystalwort, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Compile information, and resurvey sites where necessary, in order to determine the current distribution and status of this species in Britain. Survey work should include visits to all post-1960 sites which have not been recently revisited. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites in order to identify changes in populations of violet crystalwort and changes in the quality of its habitat. The monitoring programme should allow for surveys to be carried out during very dry periods when this species often flourishes. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Commission a research project to investigate the effects of nitrate and phosphate pollution on the performance of violet crystalwort. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Promote research to investigate the importance of substrate disturbance for violet crystalwort. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of violet crystalwort, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Rumex rupestris (Shore Dock)
Seek to ensure that proposals for coastal defence development do not damage further the existing sites for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Seek to integrate the needs of this species into shoreline management plans and encourage sympathetic management to enable natural re-colonisation at all sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Develop zoning of sites where populations may be threatened by excessive recreationaluse. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Continue the species recovery project, and re-survey previously occupied sites to assess the feasibility of restoring at least two populations by 2004. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Ensure that land managers realise the importance of conserving this species and are advised on management requirements. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Encourage ecological research on this species to underpin conservation management and to assess the suitability of the species for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this declining species with French and Spanish counterparts and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE)
Use this species to publicise the threat to coastal habitats. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Scandix pecten-veneris (Shepherd’s Needle)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of re-establishing shepherd's needle in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of shepherd's needle sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options outlined under appropriate agri-environment schemes, eg uncropped headlands (cultivated between mid October and early November). (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from a representative number of extant sites throughout the range of this species and deposit in the Millenium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew). (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of shepherd's needle, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging activities. Particular attention should be given to optimal cultivation and harvest times. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of shepherd's needle. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Publicise the plight of this and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to report any new records, eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Sciurus vulgaris (Red Squirrel)
Prepare and implement site management plans for all sites with viable populations. This should be phased, with plans for all marginal sites by the year 2000 and all other sites by 2005. (ACTION: CCW, NE, DoE(NI), FA, FE, LAs, SNH,)
Attempt to create or maintain 2,000 ha of conifer reserves in Wales to provide a suitable habitat for the red squirrel. (ACTION: CCW, FA, FE, WOAD)
Develop strategies, within the national framework, to guide and co-ordinate work. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FC, JNCC, SNH)
Assess experimental translocation projects for wider use. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE)
Advise land managers on the relationship between reds and greys, and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Continue research on feeding ecology, bait hoppers,supplementary feeding,red/grey interactions, methods of control and eradication (e.g. immunosterilants), translocation, population reinforcement, habitat manipulation (including nestbox provision), and phylogenetic studies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, DoE(NI), JNCC, SNH,)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
The balance between red and grey squirrel populations is an emotive issue. Clear information explaining the relationship between reds and greys should be made available to the public and landowners. (ACTION: CCW, NE, DoE(NI), FA, SNH)
Sematophyllum demissum (Prostrate Feather-moss)
Ensure that the requirements of this species are taken into account when assessing development proposals (eg hydro-electric power schemes) which affect extant sites. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EA, LAs)
Undertake management, where necessary, to remove invading Rhododendron which threatens to cause deterioration of prostrate feather-moss habitat, and to restrict or prevent tree felling and timber removal. (ACTION: CCW)
Assess the need to control levels of grazing by sheep and deer at all sites with extant populations of prostrate feather-moss. Appropriate action should be taken to ensure that grazing levels are maintained at optimum levels to prevent over-shading and littering by herbaceous species and dwarf shrubs. (ACTION: CCW)
Depending on the results of 5.5.4, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: CCW, RBG Kew)
Advise landowners and managers, and relevant agencies, of the presence and importance of prostrate feather-moss, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW)
Compile information on the current distribution and status of this species in Britain. Sites should be resurveyed if necessary and threats to each colony should be assessed. (ACTION: CCW)
Monitor all extant sites regularly so as to identify imminent threats to prostrate feather-moss colonies and to identify any need for habitat management. (ACTION: CCW)
Promote research into the ecology of this species with a view to refining habitat management for its conservation, particularly optimum grazing levels and patterns. (ACTION: CCW)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes. (ACTION: CCW, RBG Kew)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of prostrate feather-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Silene gallica (Small-flowered Catchfly)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of re-establishing small-flowered catchfly in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Promote beneficial management at all extant arable and coastal sites. Particular emphasis should be given to populations which are associated with species rich communities. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of small flowered catchfly sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options outlined under the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme, eg uncropped headlands (cultivated in autumn). (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from a representative number of extant populations in different parts of the range of this species and deposit at Wakehurst Place (Kew). Plants should also be propagated for reintroductions if necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Collect seed from all extant native sites and deposit in the Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew) (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of small flowered catchfly, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Particular attention should be given to optimal cultivation and harvest times. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri environment project officers are advised of locations of this species, its importance, management requirements and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of small flowered catchfly, and to assess current site management and threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Undertake monitoring on a representative number of extant sites and all restored sites, with a view to refining conservation management techniques. Where possible, monitoring visits should be combined with meeting landowners to discuss conservation management for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Publicise the plight of these and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to record any new records eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Sorbus leyana (Ley's whitebeam)
Consider the inclusion of this taxon on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, at the earliest possible opportunity. (ACTION: CCW, JNCC)
Following the research outlined in 5.5.3, assess the need for site management at extant sites in order to create favourable conditions for growth and recruitment. If a management programme is considered necessary, it should be implemented by 2003. (ACTION: CCW, FE)
Seek opportunities for the creation of suitable habitats for Ley's whitebeam within currently afforested areas. (ACTION: CCW, FE)
Coordinate existing programmes for the ex-situ conservation of Ley's whitebeam and seek to involve Wakehurst Place and the new National Botanic Garden of Wales. The material cultivated for any future introduction schemes should be genetically representative, as identified by the research outlined under 5.5.4. Priority should also be given to the maintenance of ex-situ populations of budded material and, if possible, seed from all existing wild individuals. (ACTION: CCW)
Undertake a survey to identify suitable sites away from (but close to) native localities where cultivated seedlings of Ley's whitebeam could be introduced in the event of wild populations being lost (although sites with S. minima or S. anglica should be avoided). This work should also serve to identify potential sites for natural recruitment. (ACTION: CCW)
Advise landowners and managers of sites supporting native populations (and sites proposed for introduction), the importance of this taxon and any activities which may be damaging to it. (ACTION: CCW)
Survey the two known sites for this species and map all surviving trees and any seedlings found. The sites should then be monitored frequently for at least 10 years and the need to protect individual seedlings reviewed at each visit. (ACTION: CCW)
Make a demographic assessment of each population, and use the findings to inform site and species management. (ACTION: CCW)
Assess potential factors which may be limiting the population size, including the effects of disease, herbivores and the spread of non-native trees, with a view to developing a beneficial management programme for both sites. (ACTION: CCW, FE)
Consider a genetic screening programme to add to existing data on intra- and inter-population genetic variation. (ACTION: CCW)
Promote the development of existing visitor interpretation about endemic whitebeams at the Garw Nant Centre and seek to establish a similar educational resource at the new Welsh National Botanic Garden. (ACTION: CCW, FE)
Sphagnum balticum (Baltic Bog-Moss)
Discourage large-scale peat cutting on all sites where this species occurs, and on nearby land where there is a risk that site hydrology will be affected. (Peat cutting at the northern end of Thorne Moors poses a serious threat to the hydrology of the NNR and should be discouraged.) (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs)
Consider targeting the Countryside Stewardship Scheme and other relevant agri-environment schemes (eg Tir Gofal in Wales) at land in the vicinity of Baltic bog-moss sites in order to reduce levels of nutrient-rich run-off which may otherwise lead to deterioration of the oligotrophic habitat in which this species grows. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Assess the threat to this species at each extant site posed by indiscriminate collecting of Sphagnum for horticultural purposes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure that management plans or agreements on all SSSIs at which Baltic bog-moss occurs take into account the requirements of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Depending on the results of 5.5.5, establish ex situ stocks of this species from material derived from British populations. (ACTION: NE, CCW, RBG Kew, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of this species, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
By 2005, collate existing data, undertake a comprehensive survey of extant and former sites (and potential sites in the vicinity of these sites), and assess threats at extant sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Commission research into the habitat requirements of Baltic bog-moss. The findings should be used to inform conservation management of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring at all extant sites in order to record changes in population size and habitat and water quality. A review of threats at each site should be made during each visit. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SNH)
Check the herbarium specimen of the Welsh record, to ascertain correct identification. (ACTION: CCW)
Undertake pilot studies to develop and refine ex situ conservation techniques for this species and other threatened bryophytes. (ACTION: NE, CCW, RBG Kew, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of Baltic bog-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase the awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
If the action outlined under 5.2.2 identifies a significant threat to this species from moss collecting, address this threat through appropriate measures which may include discussion with local horticulturists, leafleting local people, and on-site signs to explain the problem and the legal implications. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH)
Spiriverpa lunulata (a Stiletto Fly)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied sites are appropriately managed by 2010. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSI's sites holding key populations of the species, where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for this species. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of this species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved via articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE, SEPA, SNH)
Sterna dougallii (Roseate Tern)
Ensure that the protection of breeding colonies is actively considered in development policies and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Maintain and, where appropriate, enhance species management measures at all regularly used breeding sites and a suite of formerly used sites. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Assess levels of predation at breeding sites and, where necessary, carry out programmes of predator control. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Streptopelia turtur (Turtle Dove)
Where appropriate, incorporate new management prescriptions when reviewing agri-environment schemes, especially ESAs, Countryside Stewardship, Tir Cymen and Countryside Premium Scheme, in order to reverse some of the recent changes in farm management outlined in Section 2. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, MAFF, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure appropriate management of areas of scrub on protected sites (including nature reserves) within the existing and former range of the turtle dove. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Compare Nest Record Cards from the 1960s with those from recent years in order to look for possible explanations for the population decline. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Undertake a study into the summer ecology and habitat use of turtle doves, including an assessment of diet and a comparison with a study carried out in the 1960s. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Ensure appropriate monitoring of turtle dove breeding numbers through continuation of the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Synaptus filiformis (a Click Beetle)
Undertake surveys to determine the status of the species. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation into national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, EA, NE)
Tetrao tetrix (Black Grouse)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the black grouse when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Seek policies which ensure protection of key black grouse habitats, and identify and target positive opportunities for expanding such habitats (e.g. through Indicative Forestry Strategies). (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, LAs, MAFF, National Park Authorities, NAW, SE, SNH)
Encourage the use of Objective 1/5b and Leader funding, and subsequent European grant schemes, to support low-intensity mixed farming systems suitable for the black grouse. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, National Park Authorities, NAW, SE, SNH)
Consider notifying areas with high densities of breeding black grouse and with important lek sites as SSSI's, and negotiate positive management agreements to secure favourable site management where necessary. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Safeguard important black grouse habitat from inappropriate development, through the development control and planning process. (ACTION: CCW, NE, LAs, SNH)
Where possible, ensure favourable management of moorland and native woodland for the benefit of the black grouse. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, MoD, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote and support the wise use of black grouse populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, Home Office, SE, SNH)
Ensure the protection of important or isolated lek sites from human disturbance. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, MoD, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence and importance of the black grouse, and specific management for its conservation, and update that advice in the light of new policies and research findings. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, Regional Forestry Initiatives, SE, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that all agri-environment and forestry advisers are advised of locations of this species, management requirements and potential threats. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Ensure the continuation of a collaborative population monitoring programme. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Continue to investigate black grouse demography to understand the factors limiting populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Continue research into black grouse ecology, with particular reference to diet, habitat and spatial requirements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Monitor the effectiveness of measures introduced to increase or restore black grouse populations, including agri-environment prescriptions and forest management by FE. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
As appropriate, use the black grouse to illustrate the issue of sustainable agricultural management in the uplands. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Promote literature and other information sources detailing management measures to enhance black grouse populations, as further information from research work becomes available. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Thyasira gouldi (Northern Hatchett Shell)
Review existing UK legislation relating to marine site protection and conservation designations to facilitate the inclusion of the northern hatchett shell in order to protect sites where this species occurs. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, NAW, SE, SNH)
Seek to identify any other key sites for this species within the UK, concentrating initial efforts on Loch Eil and Loch Sunart, Scotland. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Review the schedule status of T. gouldi under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
For key sites, provide advice to local authorities and others on the sensitivity, conservation importance and ecological requirements of the species, to raise awareness and to ensure that all relevant authorities are aware of the distribution in their areas. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Provide information, in the form of leaflets or articles, for local bodies, interests and communities, to raise awareness of this relic species, whose UK distribution is limited to a very few sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, EHS, SNH)
Torilis arvensis (Spreading Hedge Parsley)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of re-establishing spreading hedge-parsley in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from all extant native sites and deposit in the Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew) (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate information and resurvey extant sites where necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of spreading hedge parsley. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC).
Publicise the plight of these and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to record any new records eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Trichomanes speciosum (Killarney Fern)
Seek to ensure the requirements of the species are taken into account in site management plans and attempt to secure favourable management agreements for sites containing this species which are not protected through designation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, FE, SNH)
Consider the protection of additional sites through SSSI/ASSI notification where this is necessary to secure appropriate management and does not compromise the security of the site. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI))
Consider re-introduction to four localities, in Merioneth, Cumbria, Arran and Argyll, where the precise site of previous occurrence is known, and the fern was lost either by collecting or through exceptional conditions. Use only cultivated material of known provenance to the four localities. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure that landowners are aware of the importance and legal status of this species, appropriate methods of habitat management for its conservation and the threats currently facing known populations. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Ensure the relevant societies are aware of the legal and ecological implication of collecting this species. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Consider research needs to clarify the taxonomy of the species, including the relationship between the gametophyte and sporophyte forms, and the suitability of the species for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Compile an inventory of all sporophyte populations in cultivation, in botanic gardens and private collections, and establish provenances if possible. Consider the feasability of using material of known provenance in re-introduction experiments. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Monitor all sporophyte colonies regularly to assess status of the species in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Subject to confidentiality and data ownership, pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH)
Triturus cristatus (Great Crested Newt)
Seek to ensure all ponds known to hold viable populations are identified in Local plans or Part II of unitary development plans, and that the protection and enhancement of the ponds is taken into account in accordance with paragraph 24 of DOE's Planning Policy Guidance note: PPG9. (ACTION: CCW, DoE, NE, LAs, SNH)
Seek to ensure that key sites for the great crested newt in Wales are safeguarded, considering SSSI notification where necessary to secure appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW)
Promote favourable management on all key sites where this species is known to occur. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, LAs, SNH)
Seek to maintain the number and distribution of occupied sites through habitat restoration or creation of sufficient new sites near existing ones to compensate for local losses. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, FE, LAs, SNH)
Encourage the natural dispersal of the species to new sites through habitat management and re-creation and, if necessary, consider establishing a translocation or re-introduction programme to restore populations to previously occupied or appropriate new sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Publish guidance for LAs, developers, land managers and others on legal obligations for the species, local management and, where appropriate, translocation techniques for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, NRA, RPBs, SNH)
Promote training of professional and volunteer surveyors and those involved in the management and conservation of the great crested newt. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage further surveys to identify important breeding sites. (ACTION: BRC, CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC in order that it can be incorporated in a national database and contribute to the maintenance of an up-to-date Red List. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Further develop communications between statutory authorities and local conservation groups. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote, through publicity and media opportunities, a wider and more sympathetic understanding of amphibian conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)
Ensure landowners and managers are aware of the presence, legal status and conservation requirements of this species, and appropriate methods of habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, FA, SNH)
Investigate the relationship between agricultural changes and the use of agrochemicals with the decline of this species, using information collected by the BTO and other sources. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Encourage adequate monitoring annually of national breeding song thrush populations through the BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecological requirements of this species to help identify the causes of the population decline. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, JNCC, SNH)
Produce publicity material and information for the general public to raise awareness of the song thrush and the possible links between population changes and human activities. (ACTION: CCW, DoE(NI), NE, SNH, JNCC)
Valerianella rimosa (Broad-Fruited Corn Salad)
Encourage the development of relevant agri-environment schemes, such as the pilot Arable Stewardship Scheme in England, as a potential means of reestablishing these species in the countryside. When reviewing such schemes, consider whether changes are needed to increase their potential benefits for this and other threatened arable species (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Seek to develop a network of suitable habitats within the vicinity of these species sites, thereby providing opportunities for its spread. Favourable management will include the relevant options under the appropriate agri-environment schemes e.g. uncropped headlands (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, WOAD)
Collect seed from all extant native sites and deposit in the Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place (Kew) (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Kew)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of these species. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations.(ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Collate information and resurvey extant and historic sites where necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the current distribution and status of broad fruited corn salad. This will determine the range over which conservation action is appropriate and help to clarify the threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC).
Publicise the plight of these and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to record any new records eg through Atlas 2000 recording. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Publicise the plight of this and other threatened arable species. Articles should be written for relevant conservation and farming magazines and newsletters. Botanists should be encouraged to report any new records and be made aware of the characteristics that distinguish it from the more common narrow fruited corn salad (V. dentata). (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Establish arable conservation display and education centres with the aim of raising public awareness of this threatened group of the UK flora. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Vertigo angustior (Narrow-mouthed whorl snail)
Seek to ensure that appropriate catchment management plans, flood defence activities, water level management plans, sea defence strategies and structures take account of the requirements of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, IDBs, NRA, LAs, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD).
Seek to secure appropriate management of all known sites for this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Seek to ensure that all relevant SSSI and NNR management plans take into account the needs of the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Consider the need for further sites to be notified as SSSI. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure that all remaining populations are maintained and enhanced, if possible, particularly the Oxwich and East Anglian sites. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure that land owners and managers are aware of the presence and importance of conserving this species and, following further research to identify the requirements of this species, provide advice on appropriate methods of management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, NRA, SNH)
Promote research into the ecology of this species to improve management advice, having regard to the very fragile nature of the colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Ensure all known colonies are mapped in detail to assist with management, and encourage regular monitoring to help identify any further threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species with European partners. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Vertigo genesii (Round-mouthed whorl snail)
Carry out surveys at potentially suitable sites to discover any other populations. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Vertigo geyeri (Whorl snail)
Ensure all known populations are maintained. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure landowners and managers are aware of the presence, vulnerability and importance of conserving this species, and provide advice on appropriate methods of management for their conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Surveys to determine whether this species occurs in other tufa-depositing springs and calcareous upland fens and flushes, having regard to the fragile nature of the habitat, by the year 2000. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage regular monitoring of extant, and any newly discovered, colonies and identify any further threats to the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Encourage further research on the ecological requirements of this species to underpin management advice. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species at an international level and use the information and experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage monitoring of extant, and newly discovered, colonies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Weissia multicapsularis (Moss)
Consider notification of key sites through SSSIs where this is necessary to achieve appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW)
Encourage positive management for this species on all sites, especially periodic disturbance to maintain open soils. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FA, LAs, MAFF)
Ensure conservation bodies, landowners and managers are aware of the presence and importance of conserving this species, and appropriate methods of management. (ACTION: ADAS, CCW, NE, FA, LAs)
Collate available information on occurrence at former and current sites to establish the status of this moss, and attempt to assess the most favourable localities for long-term survival in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Promote research into the ecological and habitat requirements of this species to underpin appropriate management advice and assess the suitability of the species for re-introduction or translocation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE)
Weissia rostellata (Beaked Beardless-moss)
Ensure that the best sites for this species in each region are protected from inappropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as ASSIs/SSSIs sites with viable populations of beaked beardless-moss where this is consistent with selection guidelines and where it is necessary to ensure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
On sites where the moss is thriving, ensure that current management practices (especially current water-level management) are continued. On other sites where it has declined, undertake experimental management with the aim of enhancing the populations. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, SEPA, SNH, SWAs)
Where appropriate, target relevant agri-environment schemes on land with populations of beaked beardless-moss so as to ensure that these populations are not threatened by changing land-use practices (including herbicide and fertiliser use). (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Where relevant, ensure that extant sites for the species are not threatened by land drainage activities or through increases in water abstraction. The requirements of this species should be considered when setting limits on water abstraction. (ACTION: CCW, EA, EHS, NE, IDBs, SE, SEPA, SNH, SWAs)
Advise landowners and managers of extant and restored sites of the presence and importance of this species, specific management for its conservation, and any potentially damaging actions. Landowners and managers should have access to specialist advice if needed. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Ensure that all relevant reservoir and waterways managers, drainage engineers, agri-environment project officers and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups are advised of locations for this species, its importance and management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EA, EHS, NE, IDBs, LAs, MAFF, NAW, SE, SEPA, SNH, SWAs)
When water-levels are sufficiently low, re-survey all known extant and historic sites for this species in order to determine its current distribution and status, and assess possible threats to remaining populations. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Undertake regular monitoring and ecological research on selected viable sites for this species in order to determine more precisely its requirements and appropriate management techniques. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage international research on the distribution, status and ecology of this species, and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Liaise with specialist societies to increase awareness and identification skills of bryologists and other naturalists in relation to this species, through publishing articles or holding identification workshops. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Encourage bryologists to pass all records of beaked beardless-moss, including ecological information, to a national database. They should be encouraged in particular to search exposed lake and reservoir margins. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Woodsia ilvensis (Oblong Woodsia)
At three sites threatened with extinction, experimentally implement practical recommendations, resulting from research in 5.5.3, in an effort to reverse declines. (ACTION: CCW, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Restore populations to three former sites (identified in 5.5.2 as suitable) by 2003. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
If methods of improving natural recruitment fail (see 5.2.1) or cannot be defined, carry out reinforcement of three populations threatened with imminent extinction, ensuring that any period of ex-situ cultivation does not lead to any reduction in the genetic variation of introduced material. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Ensure that landowners at all remaining sites are aware of the presence and significance of this species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Ensure that the location of all individuals at known populations is recorded and monitor their fate at regular intervals to assess damage, patterns of survival, and viable spore production. Monitor suitable adjacent areas for recruitment. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Survey all former sites to confirm that the species is absent and report on the suitability of sites for reintroduction. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Carry out investigations of genetic variation in existing populations of oblong woodsia (if this can be done without threatening them further) to determine if loss of genetic variation might be inhibiting recruitment, and to guide management and reintroduction policies. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Edinburgh, SNH)
Incorporate oblong woodsia in education programmes on rare British plants. (ACTION: CCW, NE, RBG Edinburgh, RBG Kew, SNH)
Xestia rhomboidea (square-spotted clay)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment and woodland grant schemes. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2010, for example through SSSI or woodland grant scheme management agreements. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Where possible, increase the available habitat at known sites and in adjacent areas, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Ensure that the species is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSI's. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Consider notifying as SSSI's sites holding key populations of the species where this is necessary to secure their long-term protection and appropriate management. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of this species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups are advised of locations of this species, its importance and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, NE, MAFF, NAW, SE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to inform habitat management, including the age of coppice after cutting which is preferred by the moth, the length of time such cut areas remain suitable, mobility and population structure. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, NE, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the species and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved via articles within appropriate journals as well as by a publicity leaflet. (ACTION: CCW, NE, FC, SNH)
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-Grass)
Where appropriate, include the requirements of the species when preparing or revising prescriptions for agri-environment schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreeements. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Where possible, increase the available habitat on the known sites and adjacent areas, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Ensure that the existing populations do not become fragmented by management practices or development. (ACTION: CCW, EHS NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure that the habitat requirements of this species are taken account of in relevant development policies, plans and proposals. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, LAs, SNH)
Ensure that the sword-grass is included in site management documents for all relevant SSSIs/ASSIs. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Advise landowners and managers of the presence of the species and the importance of beneficial management for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
As far as possible, ensure that all relevant agri-environment project officers, and members of regional agri-environment consultation groups, are advised of locations of this species, its importance, and the management needed for its conservation. (ACTION: CCW, DANI, EHS, NE, MAFF, SNH, SOAEFD, WOAD)
Undertake surveys to determine current status of this species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Conduct targeted autecological research to elucidate the causes of decline and inform habitat management. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Establish a regular monitoring programme for the species. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Pass the information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to a central database for incorporation in national and international databases. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level, and use the experience gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Promote opportunities for the appreciation of the sword-grass and the conservation issues associated with its habitat. This should be achieved through articles within appropriate journals, as well as by publicity leaflets. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NE, SNH)
Grouped plan for baleen whales
Continue to improve agreed codes of conduct to reduce disturbance from physical and acoustic sources. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, SNH)
Review DETR guidelines for minimising disturbance to cetaceans from whale watching operations and from recreation at sea by 2001. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, JNCC, NERC, SNH)
Promote among oil and gas and geophysical exploration industries a better understanding of cetaceans and the effects of underwater sounds upon their lives. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, DTI, NE, JNCC, SE, SNH)
Support appropriate research into population structure and habitat use to identify, by 2009, waters which may be particularly suitable for baleen whales and which may qualify for further protection. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, JNCC, SE)
Continue to support appropriate research into the effects of acoustic disturbance. (ACTION: CCW, EHS, NERC, JNCC)
Continue to publicise stranding and sighting schemes. (ACTION: CCW, DETR, EHS, NE, SE, SNH)
© Joint Nature Conservation Committee 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010