Very little is known of this fungus, which requires a dry, sunny habitat, possibly facing towards the light inside hollow trees. It was first described from Britain and has a scattered distribution in western Europe. Although it was formerly known from much further north, its main areas of distribution became confined to sites in southern and eastern England. The fungus is only known now from three sites, and only predictably in one hedge-bank in Suffolk. Although the population at this site fluctuates from year to year, it appears to be stable.
This species is listed as endangered on the GB Red List.
Current factors causing loss or decline
Overgrowth of hedge-bank in Suffolk.
Loss of hollow trees which provided its former habitat.
Road-widening or re-surfacing of road at Suffolk site.
The hedge-bank where this fungus grows is monitored regularly and is managed by the Suffolk Wildlife Trust for the benefit of the species (as far as its requirements are known).
Action plan objectives and targets
Maintain all currently known populations.
Proposed actions with lead agencies
Policy and legislation
Consider adding the species to Schedule 8 of the WCA. (ACTION: DoE, NE, JNCC)
Site safeguard and management
Continue management at the Suffolk site and apply experience gained at this site to any other extant sites. (ACTION: NE)
Encourage hollow trees, or other suitable habitat, to be retained in areas adjacent to known sites. (ACTION: NE, FA, FE)
Seek to protect the Suffolk population from road-widening or re-surfacing activities which may damage the population. (ACTION: DoT, Local Highways Authorities)
Consider notifying sites for the species as SSSI. (ACTION: NE)
Species management and protection
Ensure relevant landowners, managers and conservation agencies are aware of the presence and importance of conserving this species and any appropriate methods for its management. (ACTION: NE)
Future Research and Monitoring
Promote the survey of all previously known sites to establish the change in distribution and status of this species. (ACTION: NE)
Encourage research into the ecological requirements of this species to underpin management advice. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Continue monitoring populations regularly at present known sites. (ACTION: NE)
Encourage research on the ecology and conservation of this species on an international level and use the information and expertise gained towards its conservation in the UK. (ACTION: NE, JNCC)
Pass information gathered during survey and monitoring of this species to JNCC or BRC so that it can be incorporated in national databases. (ACTION: NE)
Provide information annually to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the UK status of the species to contribute to maintenance of an up-to-date global Red Data List. (ACTION: JNCC)
Communications and Publicity
Discourage the collection of this fungi in restricted areas where it occurs. (ACTION: NE)
Links with other action plans
The following LBAPs are working on Battarrea phalloides:
Originally published in: Biodiversity: The UK Steering Group Report - Volume II: Action Plans (December 1995, Tranche 1, Vol 2, p200)
Visit the ARKive website to view images and further information relating to this species