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10/01/2011
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Other UK statistics

Over the last 50 years, there have been impressive social economic and health improvements in this country. People from every class and region are healthier and living longer than ever before.

Publications

Action Plan for Improving Oral Health and Modernising NHS Dental Services - NHS Monitoring Report
Department: ISD Scotland (part of NHS National Services Scotland)
The Action Plan for Improving Oral Health and Modernising NHS Dental Services was published in 2005. It set out the then Scottish Executive's policy and plans for dentistry and dental public health for the next 3 years (SEHD, 2005). This plan has brought increased investment to dentistry, and to ensure this investment is achieving its goals a range of targets was set around oral health improvement, primary care dental service delivery and quality, and dental workforce and training. This is a 6-monthly report monitoring NHS Boards progress towards the targets.
Continuous Household Survey Bulletin
Department: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency
The Bulletin provides summary information as well as some trend data from previous years. It includes information on - smoking, household composition, debt, internet access, health, sport and leisure, environmental issues, mobile phones and job applications.
Health Inequalities
Department: Office for National Statistics
A comprehensive volume of analysis and commentary which presents a picture of current patterns and recent trends in ill health and death in England and Wales by measures of socio-economic status.
Health Inequality PSA Target Monitoring
Department: Health
Health inequality monitoring.
Lifetime Oppurtunuties Monitoring Framework
Department: Office of the First and Deputy First Minister
This report presents a range of statistical targets and indicators in support of the Northern Ireland Executive’s anti poverty and social inclusion strategy ‘Lifetime Opportunities'. The monitoring framework is structured around 3 ‘layers’: • Child poverty targets • Poverty and social inclusion indicators • Public service agreement targets Analyses of statistics are on a lifecycle basis and are benchmarked against other jurisdictions when possible
Long-Term Monitoring of Health Inequalities, Scotland
Department: General Register Office for Scotland
Report on definitions, trends and baselines for measures adopted by the Ministerial Task Force, to monitor future progress towards reducing health inequalities in Scotland.
Mortality Monitoring Bulletin
Department: Health
Mortality monitoring
Mortality Target Monitoring
Department: Health
Mortality monitoring.
Northern Ireland Health & Social Care Inequalities Monitoring System - Sub-regional analysis
Department: Health, Social Service and Public Safety (Northern Ireland)
The Health & Social Care Inequalities Monitoring System comprises a basket of indicators to assess area differences in mortality, morbidity, utilisation of and access to health and social care services in Northern Ireland. Trends in Health Inequalities between both the 20% most deprived areas and rural areas within Trust areas compared with Trusts as a whole are reported.
Northern Ireland Health and Social Care Inequalities Monitoring System Third Update Bulletin
Department: Health, Social Service and Public Safety (Northern Ireland)
The Health and Social Care Inequalities Monitorting System comprises a basket of indicators to assess area differences in mortality, morbidity, utilisation of and access to health and social care services in Northern Ireland. Trends in Health Inequalities between both the 20% most deprived areas and rural areas compared with Northern Ireland as a whole are reported.

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Overview

Health inequalities targets are monitored by the Department of Health for lLife Eexpectancy, iInfant mMortality, All Age All Cause Mortality, Cancer Mortality in people aged under 75 and Circulatory disease mortality in people aged under 75, using data from the Office for National Statistics.

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Technical Data

The Health Improvement Analytical Team Monitoring Unit of the Department of Health publishes a set of annual updates, based on Office for National Statistics (ONS) data, which are used to monitor progress against Department of Health targets on health inequalities.

The measure used to assess progress on the life expectancy at birth target is the relative gap (percentage difference) in life expectancy at birth between the Spearhead Group and the England average. For infant mortality it is the relative gap between the rate in the Routine and Manual socio-economic group and the rate for the population as a whole.

The measure for the All Age All Cause Mortality (AAACM) indicator, and the Cancer and Circulatory Diseases (CVD) mortality targets for people aged under 75, is the absolute gap between the average mortality rate in the Spearhead Group of health deprived areas and the rate in the population as a whole.

In 2007, the Department of Health agreed a new Departmental Strategic Objective and Public Service Agreement structure with HM Treasury as part of the 2007 Spending Review. The existing health inequalities National Target was reaffirmed as part of PSA Delivery Agreement 18

The Health Inequalities National Target is to:

  • reduce health inequalities by 10 per cent by 2010 as measured by infant mortality and life expectancy at birth

This target is underpinned by two more detailed objectives:

  1. Starting with children under one year, by 2010 to reduce by at least 10 per cent the gap in mortality between the routine and manual group and the population as a whole, and 

  2. Starting with local authorities, by 2010 to reduce by at least 10 per cent the gap in life expectancy at birth between the fifth of areas with the worst health and deprivation indicators (the Spearhead Group) and the population as a whole

The target period ‘2010’ is defined as the three-year period 2009-2011 and will include all deaths up to 31 December 2011.

Ultimate success will be measured by the life expectancy at birth and infant mortality measures but AAACM will be used as a proxy to measure progress.

The Smoking National Target is to:

  • reduce adult (16+) smoking rates to 21 per cent or less by 2010, with a reduction in prevalence among routine and manual groups to 26 per cent or less

The Cancer and CVD National Targets are:

  • to reduce the mortality rate by 2010 for cancer by at least 20 per cent in people under 75, with a reduction in the inequalities gap of at least 6 per cent between the fifth of areas with the worst health and deprivation indicators and the population as a whole, and

  • to reduce the mortality rate by 2010 for heart disease, stroke and related diseases by at least 40 per cent in people under 75, with a 40 per cent reduction in the inequalities gap between the fifth of areas with the worst health and deprivation indicators and the population as a whole

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Glossary

  • All Age All Cause Mortality rate

    The measure used is the three-year average directly standardised death rate per 100,000 population (standardised against the European Standard Population) – for all ages and all causes of death (ICD-10 A00-Y99). Rates are calculated using Office for National Statistics death registrations and population estimates.

  • Cancer mortality

    ICD-10 codes C00–C97 (Malignant Neoplasms).

  • Cause of death

    Defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) for the years 1991 to 2000, and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) for 2001 onwards.

  • Circulatory disease (also called Cardiovascular, or CVD) mortality

    CD-10 codes I00–I99 (Diseases of the circulatory system).

  • Health Statistics Quarterly (HSQ)

    HSQ is an Office for National Statistics quarterly publication.

  • Infant Mortality rate

    The number of infant deaths (deaths under one year of age) per 1,000 live births.

  • International Classification of Diseases (ICD)

    The ICD is the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological, many health management purposes and clinical use. It is used to classify diseases and other health problems recorded on many types of health and vital records including death certificates. In addition to enabling the storage and retrieval of diagnostic information for clinical, epidemiological and quality purposes, these records also provide the basis for the compilation of national mortality and morbidity statistics.

  • Life expectancy at birth

    This is the average number of additional years a person would live if he or she experienced the age-specific mortality rates of the given area and time period for the rest of their life. Therefore it is not the number of years someone in the area in that time period is actually likely to live. This is because the death rates of the area are likely to change and because people may live in other areas for at least part of their lives. (This is referred to as the period life expectancy).

  • Mortality rate

    The usual practice in Office for National Statistics publications is to calculate age-standardised mortality rates per 100,000 population, standardised to the European Standard Population. Age-standardised rates are used to allow comparison between populations which may contain different proportions of people of different ages.

  • National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC)

    In June 1998 the Government Statistical Service Social Statistics Committee agreed to adopt a new National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS- SEC) for use with government statistics. It replaced both Social Class (SC) and Socio-economic Group (SEG).  Like both SC and SEG, the NS-SEC is based on occupation and employment status, but the NS-SEC was developed to reflect more accurately the socio-economic structure of 21st century societies and the major shift in the UK economy from manufacturing to service industries.

  • Proxy Measure

    A proxy measure is one that stands in for something else. Life expectancy remains the ultimate measure of success at national level, but was considered unsuitable for local performance management, so All Age All Cause Mortality (AAACM) was selected in 2007 as a single measure that encompasses the 2004 Public Service Agreement mortality targets and is a good measure for local performance management.  The translation from life expectancy to AAACM depends on the age distribution of death rates, so different age distributions can give different AAACM values for the same life expectancy value.

  • Public Service Agreement (PSA)

    Spending Reviews set firm and fixed three-year Departmental Expenditure Limits and, through Public Service Agreements, define the key improvements that the public can expect from these resources. The 2007 Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR) set spending plans for 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11.

  • Relative gap

    Relative gap is used to measure inequalities in life expectancy and infant mortality. It is the percentage difference between the mortality rate in the target population and the population as a whole. 

  • Routine and Manual socio-economic group

    The Routine and Manual group is composed of ‘Lower supervisory and technical occupations’, ’Semi-routine’ and ’Routine’ occupations. The infant mortality rate among these groups is currently higher than the national average – the target is to reduce this gap.

  • Spearhead Group

    The Spearhead Group consists of the 70 local authority areas that are in the bottom fifth nationally for 3 or more of the following 5 factors: 1. Male life expectancy at birth.  2. Female life expectancy at birth.  3. Cancer mortality rate in under 75s.  4. Cardiovascular disease mortality rate in under 75s. 5. Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 (local authority summary), average score. For life expectancy, the ‘bottom’ fifth means those with the lowest figures; for mortality rates and deprivation scores, it means those with the highest figures.

  • Standardised mortality ratio (SMR)

    An SMR is the ratio of the observed number of deaths in an area (for example, an electoral ward) to the number expected if that area had the same age-specific rates as a reference area (for example, England and Wales). If an SMR is less than 100, the number of deaths in an area was less than would have been expected. Conversely, if an SMR is greater than 100, the number of deaths was greater than expected.

  • Standard population

    Used in the calculation of the age-standardised death rates; an element of the population (such as age and sex) is ‘held constant’ to control its effect. For example, the European Standard Population.

  • Underlying cause of death

    The cause of death selected for primary tabulation based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) rules.

  • WHO

    The World Health Organisation is the directing and co-ordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.

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Contact Details

For statistical enquiries about this topic, please contact:

Health Improvement Analytical Team Monitoring Unit

Email: sue.graves@dh.gsi.gov.uk

Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7972 3753

Department of Health Area 580D Skipton House London SE1 6LH

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