Low carbon travel requires very effective city-wide integration between different modes of transport.
This includes improved:
- Inter-modality: enhancing the interface between different modes, including quality public transport interchanges, integrated ticketing and travel information
- Inter-operability: harmonising operating conditions between networks.
Interchanges should make it easy for people to connect with pedestrian and cycling routes as well as other forms of public transport.
At the site scale, some exemplary practice is found at interchanges in London (on the Jubilee line extension at Canary Wharf, and also at St Pancras and Paddington). In France, many of the TGV Méditerranée stations, such as Valence and Avignon are impressively designed to provide high quality interchange environments as are the Oriente Expo station in Lisbon (Portugal), Salamanca train station (Spain), the Nils Ericson bus station in Gothenburg (Sweden), Grand Central Station in New York (US), and Yokohama ferry terminal (Japan).
Central to the success of these examples is maximising the ease of access and transfer between different modes as well as the amenity quality of the experience.
In Strasbourg many of the tram stations are well integrated with bus services, in Freiburg the central station has an integral cycle park, cafe and cycle hire service. In Bilbao the pedestrian entrances to the Metro network are exceptionally well designed (and known as 'Fosteritos' after their architect Norman Foster). Oxford and Cambridge, amongst many other examples, offer ample cycle parking opportunities outside the central stations.
In London, the city-wide introduction of the Oyster Card has contributed to increased use and integration between the different public transport networks (Underground, tram, Docklands Light Railway and bus). These networks are supported by the Transport for London website which enables cross modal journey planning and ticket and route information.
In Sheffield the FreeBee low-emission bus provides a free hop-on hop-off service between Sheffield interchange, the main shopping areas and the station. This has proved popular with commuters and shoppers alike.
Copenhagen has integrated its transport and public space policies. This is transforming the city centre and ensuring the city’s airport, rail and suburbs are all connected to the centre by the metro system.
In the city centre, a combination of measures has encouraged an increase in walking and cycling and a decrease in private car use. Many public squares and streets are pedestrianised and form a well connected public realm. The city has a programme to gradually reduce the number of car parking spaces by 3 per cent per year and further develop cycle lanes and a free cycle hire scheme.
Klaus Bondam, Copenhagen’s mayor of environmental administration is leading the city’s drive to become provide the world’s best urban environment by 2015.
CABE and Urban Practitioners
with the cities of Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham and Sheffield