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Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry
- Volume VII - Chapter 117



The movement of people through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats

Chapter 117: The movement of people through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats

Contents

Paragraph

Photographs taken by Gilles Peress in Sector 2 117.1

Whether Patrick Doherty was injured before moving into Sector 5 117.12

The movement of Gilles Peress into Sector 5 117.20

The evidence of Joe Nicholas and Patrick Walsh 117.25

Joe Nicholas 117.25

Patrick Walsh 117.28

The order in which people moved through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats 117.37

The general situation in Sector 5 immediately before the firing into that sector 117.47

Photographs taken by Gilles Peress in Sector 2

117.1 Earlier in this report1 we considered what happened in Sector 2, the area of the Eden Place waste ground and the car park of the Rossville Flats, where there were casualties from Army gunfire. During the course of this gunfire, civilians moved from Sector 2 into Sector 5 through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats. They included Patrick Doherty, who we are sure was then shot and killed in Sector 5, and a number of others, some of whom gave important evidence about what happened in that sector.

1 Chapters 2266

117.2 In our consideration of the events of Sector 2, we referred to some of the evidence of Gilles Peress about the photographs that he took in that sector. As discussed more fully in that context, he had come along Chamberlain Street to the Rossville Flats end of that street and, having taken a photograph of the group surrounding Jackie Duddy, moved westwards behind the low wall running along the car park side of Block 2 of the Rossville Flats. However, by the time he got to about the western end of the wall, Jackie Duddy’s body had been removed; and Gilles Peress moved back towards the retaining wall beneath Block 3. As he did so, he took six photographs from positions along the low wall.

117.3 Two of these photographs we have reproduced in the course of considering the events of Sector 21 but it is convenient to show here all six in the order in which they were taken, numbering them from 1 to 6.2

1 Paragraphs 55.293–295

2 In his statement for the Widgery Inquiry, Gilles Peress identified these six photographs by reference to a contact sheet on which they were numbered from 4 to 9

(M65.2; M65.28). By the time he came to give oral evidence to the Widgery Inquiry, enlargements of the photographs were available. However, they were numbered differently: from 2 to 7 (WT6.64).

Photographs 1–3

Photographs 4–6

117.4 The evidence Gilles Peress gave to the Widgery Inquiry was that there was ongoing gunfire as he took these photographs, directed towards the group of men he was photographing. He identified the direction of this gunfire as being from his “back left side” and its source as two soldiers: one positioned at the northern end of Block 1 of the Rossville Flats and the other at the rear of 36 Chamberlain Street.1 This was still his recollection when he came to give evidence to this Inquiry.2

1 M65.1.1; M65.2; M65.1.3; WT6.64-WT6.67 2M65.21; Day 213/14-20

117.5 Gilles Peress said that he had moved closer to the group when he took the third photograph and closer still when he took the last three.1

1 M65.1.1; M65.2; M65.1.3; WT6.64-67

117.6 For reasons given in the course of our consideration of the events of Sector 2, we are sure that the man lying flat on his stomach on the ground in the first two of these photographs was Patrick McDaid, one of those wounded in Sector 2; and that the balding man shown crouched above him was Patrick Walsh, whose evidence is of importance in the present context. The man with a white handkerchief over his face in the third, fifth and sixth photographs was Patrick Doherty. As we describe below, soon after taking these photographs Gilles Peress moved through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats, and then photographed Patrick Doherty as this casualty lay shot in Sector 5.1

1 Day 213/65

117.7 Joe Nicholas, whose evidence is also of importance in the present context, identified himself as the person whose outstretched left leg can be seen just in front of the feet of the prone Patrick McDaid, in the second of the photographs shown above. He thought he was also shown in the preceding photograph. In his evidence to this Inquiry he was able to identify Patrick Doherty as the man on the left in the third and sixth photographs shown above.1

1 AN17.6; AN17.9; Day 78/19; Day 78/77

117.8 Kevin McDaid (the brother of Michael McDaid, who was shot and killed at the rubble barricade in Sector 3) identified himself as the man shown in the middle looking towards the photographer in the third of these photographs and thought he might be the man crouching immediately behind Patrick Walsh in the middle of the first photograph, though he was not certain about this. He too identified Patrick Doherty in the third of these photographs.1 He told us that some people around him made a break for the passageway. “For some reason, probably panic, I did not run all the way through the gap but instead I ran into the stairwell at the south eastern corner of Block 2…2

1 AM167.4; AM167.7; Day 100/94 2AM167.4

117.9 We have not been able to identify the other people in the first photograph. As to the man shown on the right in the third, fifth and sixth photographs, it was thought for a time that this might have been someone called Pat Friel, but we have found no evidence to support that possibility. He might have been someone called Barry Quigley, as this name was mentioned by Joe Nicholas to Philip Jacobson of the Sunday Times Insight Team,1 but Joe Nicholas could not help us on this.2 There is a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) statement from John McGowan, who observed events from his flat on the seventh floor of Block 2 of the Rossville Flats. He recorded that he saw an injured person make his way from the car park to the back entrance of Joseph Place; and that having seen Fr Daly and others carry Jackie Duddy off, he then returned to the south side of his living room to call down to a man he named as Barry Quigley to assist that injured man.3 This evidence lends some support to the possibility that the person identified by Joe Nicholas was Barry Quigley, but we remain unsure about this identification.

1 AN17.19 3Day 78/41-42; Day 78/81

2 AM467.4

117.10 The representatives of the majority of the represented soldiers submitted, in relation to these photographs:1

“Furthermore, there is evidence of something suspicious, possibly a pistol, being moved surreptitiously towards the gap between Blocks 2 and 3…”

1 FS7.2221

117.11 We see nothing in these photographs to support this submission. Gilles Peress said nothing about seeing the movement of a weapon and was not asked about it during the course of his oral evidence to this Inquiry.

Whether Patrick Doherty was injured before moving into Sector 5

117.12 It appears from the written statement he provided to the Widgery Inquiry that Gilles Peress thought, at the time, that between the taking of the third and fifth of the photographs shown above, Patrick Doherty had been hit by a ricocheting bullet. These two images were identified as photographs 6 and 8 respectively in Gilles Peress’s statement to the Widgery Inquiry, namely the photographs numbered 3 and 5 above. In his evidence to the Widgery Inquiry, Gilles Peress recalled that, having taken the third photograph, he noticed that Patrick Doherty seemed to be having difficulty crawling.1

1 M65.2; WT6.66

117.13 In our view, Gilles Peress was mistaken in thinking at the time that Patrick Doherty had been hit in Sector 2, as he acknowledged in his evidence to us he could have been.1 Joe Nicholas told Philip Jacobson that, just before he made a run for the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats, he looked back, saw Patrick Doherty lying on his stomach, shouted, “‘Are you o.k.?’” and “doherty shouted ‘Yeah, I’m fine’ or summat similar ”. Philip Jacobson notednicholas is positive he [Patrick Doherty] was neither shot nor hurt in any other way at that point ”.2Furthermore, as will be seen hereafter, the scientific evidence was to the effect that Patrick Doherty had not been hit by a ricochet.

1 Day 213/20-21 2AN17.19

117.14 In his written statement to this Inquiry, Gilles Peress expressed the view that Patrick Doherty could not have been shot “whilst he was crawling along the wall that runs parallel to Block 3 … he must have been shot after he had rounded the south eastern corner of Block 2.”1 In his oral evidence he said “to this day I do not know whether Patrick Doherty was wounded on this side of the alleyway [a reference to the gap], or indeed the other side of the alleyway. That said, given the gravity of the wounds, it seems more probable he would have been hit on the other side.”2

1 M65.21 2Day 213/20

117.15 Apart from Gilles Peress, Bernard Gilmour and Tony Morrison were the only other civilians, so far as we are aware, who said they thought Patrick Doherty had been shot in Sector 2. Bernard Gilmour’s brother, Hugh Gilmour, was shot and killed in Sector 3.

117.16 In his written statement to this Inquiry, Bernard Gilmour told us he recalled looking out from a bedroom window in his mother’s flat in Block 2, onto the car park of the Rossville Flats. He noticed a group of men crawling along the high retaining wall towards the gap between Blocks 2 and 3, one of whom, he later learned, was Patrick Doherty. As he watched the men, Bernard Gilmour saw the person he believed to be Patrick Doherty hit by a shot but continue to crawl towards and through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3.1However, in the course of his oral evidence to us, it emerged that a recollection of the manner in which this group of men had reacted to gunfire (by changing from crawling towards to running for the gap) had led Bernard Gilmour to assume that one of their number had been shot. Indeed, Bernard Gilmour could not say with certainty whether the person he had assumed was shot had been Patrick Doherty, or that anyone in the group of men he had observed had, in fact, been shot.2In this context, it is relevant to point out that Bernard Gilmour did not make any reference to seeing a group of men moving along the high retaining wall in the joint statement he, together with two members of his family, gave to NICRA in 1972.3

1 Day 87/195; AG38.5

2 Day 88/24-26; Day 88/32-33; Day 88/46

3 AG38.9

117.17 We have already considered the evidence of Tony Morrison in our discussion of the events in Sector 2. Both in his account to NICRA and in his written statement to this Inquiry, Tony Morrison described standing at the gable wall of 36 Chamberlain Street, from where he saw Michael Bridge shot and wounded in the car park of the Rossville Flats. In his written account to us, Tony Morrison went on to record his recollection of seeing Patrick Doherty shot while crawling past the gap between Blocks 2 and 3. There is no reference to this incident in Tony Morrison’s NICRA statement.1

1 AM439.1; AM439.5; AM439.6

117.18 In our view, Tony Morrison was mistaken in his recollection of seeing Patrick Doherty shot. When he gave his oral evidence to this Inquiry, Tony Morrison explained that he did not know Patrick Doherty and that he had not actually seen him shot. Confusingly, Tony Morrison also gave an account of seeing Patrick Doherty’s body in the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 and it then being moved to a point south of Block 2. His belief that he had seen someone shot near the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 seemed to be based on a recollection of seeing a man being dragged along by others. However, as Tony Morrison recognised, his description of that man’s clothing did not accord with the available details for Patrick Doherty.1

1 Day 184/122-143; Day 184/153

117.19 We are sure that Patrick Doherty was not shot in Sector 2. On the basis of what Joe Nicholas told Philip Jacobson and for the reasons we give later in this part of the report, we have no doubt that Patrick Doherty was shot and mortally wounded in Sector 5.

The movement of Gilles Peress into Sector 5

117.20 Having taken the photographs shown above, Gilles Peress moved into Sector 5.

117.21 In his written statement for the Widgery Inquiry, Gilles Peress recorded that from the position where he had taken the last three of these photographs, “I went to the wall and crawled along the same route as Doherty. I could not see him at this time.” He continued:1

“Shooting was still going on. I crawled under the colonnade and ran to the corner of the building, position ‘D’. There I took pictures 10 and 11 of Mr Doherty. Then I took picture 12, in another direction along the building on my right. Then I took 13 and 14 of Mr Doherty. His hands are moving in No. 11 and I think he died as I took 13 and 14.”

1 M65.2

117.22 Position D is shown on a drawing that accompanied this statement and is at the south-eastern corner of Block 2 of the Rossville Flats. This drawing also shows the positions (“A”, “B” and “C”) from which Gilles Peress took the six photographs we have shown above.1

1 M65.1.3

117.23 We return below to the photographs that Gilles Peress took after he had gone through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 and to his evidence of what he saw in Sector 5. Here, it should be noted that in his written statement to this Inquiry,1 Gilles Peress told us that he estimated that less than one minute had elapsed between taking the last of the six photographs discussed above and taking his first photograph in Sector 5, which was of Patrick Doherty lying shot on the ground. However, in his oral evidence to this Inquiry, Gilles Peress explained that he could only say that the time gap between the taking of these two photographs could have been between one and three minutes.2 He also told us that he took his first photograph of Patrick Doherty “seconds” after getting through the gap to the point on its south-east corner, but that he did not see Patrick Doherty going through the passageway or being shot.3

1 M65.21

2 Day 213/59-63; Day 213/27-28

3 Day 213/36-37; Day 213/59-60

117.24 We now turn to some of the evidence of two of those who also moved through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats.

The evidence of Joe Nicholas and Patrick Walsh

Joe Nicholas

117.25 In 1972 Philip Jacobson interviewed Joe Nicholas.1 The undated note of that interview records that having crawled along the bottom of the high retaining wall as shown in the photographs taken by Gilles Peress, Joe Nicholas decided to “make a run for the passageway ”, ie the gap between Blocks 2 and 3. As he did so “he heard the crack of several shots very close to him. Those in the passageway told him the shots hit the wall immediately behind him.He told Philip Jacobson that he wasa few minutesin the gap recovering his “breath and nerves” and that the next significant thing he recalled was seeing Patrick Doherty on theother side”, which in context must be a reference to the south side of Block 2 of the Rossville Flats.2In his oral evidence to this Inquiry, Joe Nicholas agreed that he had gone before Patrick Doherty, who must have passed him at some stage, but said he had no memory of him doing so.3

1 Day 78/40; Day 78/42 3Day 78/83-84

2 AN17.20

117.26 We return to Joe Nicholas’s evidence when considering the circumstances in which Patrick Doherty was shot, but we should note here that he recalled in his evidence to this Inquiry that after he had seen this casualty shot he went back through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 to where he had previously seen a photographer in the car park, and conveyed to him that he should come through the gap and photograph this casualty, which the photographer did.1 Joe Nicholas told us that he recalled that when doing this I was not aware of firing at that particular point ”.2Joe Nicholas had in 1972 identified Gilles Peress as the photographer he had seen in Sector 2.3

1 AN17.4; AN17.5; Day 78/30; Day 78/50

2 Day 78/51

3 AN17.19

117.27 Gilles Peress at no stage suggested that he went through the gap at the insistence of anyone. He was not asked whether anyone had asked him to go and photograph a casualty in Sector 5, and in his written statement to this Inquiry he told us that having seen men making their way through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 I thought that if they managed to get through then I should follow them, from which it would seem, on his evidence, that he decided to go through the gap on his own initiative.1 To our minds, he did decide to move, as he put it, because the action … had moved ” and, as a photographer, he had to go and check it out 2 and thus we consider that Joe Nicholas was probably mistaken in his recollection that he went back and fetched a photographer.

1 M65.2; M65.21; Day 213/30-32

2 Day 213/32-33

Patrick Walsh

117.28 Philip Jacobson interviewed Patrick Walsh in 1972.1 His notes are dated 13th April 1972. Patrick Walsh also gave written and oral evidence to this Inquiry.2 He died in June 2005.

1 AW5.32

2 AW5.1-31; Day 171/1-64

117.29 According to the notes made by Philip Jacobson, Patrick Walsh had come along Chamberlain Street and sheltered with about 30 others against the wall by the playground ”.1

1 AW5.33

117.30 The playground appears to be the area we have described as a recreation ground in Sector 2. We set out below a photograph and a map on which we have indicated this area.

117.31 It is apparent that where Patrick Walsh sheltered with others was in the area of the eastern corner of the wall at the southern end of the houses on the eastern side of Chamberlain Street. In his notes of his interview with Joe Nicholas, Philip Jacobson put him and Patrick McDaid as sheltering in the same area as Patrick Walsh and Patrick Doherty,1 while in his written statement to this Inquiry, Joe Nicholas put himself close to the people sheltering in that corner. It appears that Patrick McDaid was also in that corner.2

1 AN17.9 2AM172.10; AM172.34; AM172.37

117.32 According to Philip Jacobson’s note, from this position Patrick Walsh saw Fr Daly huddled by a body and described the Army fire getting heavier. He then described seeing the man with a handgun (often called “Fr Daly’s gunman”), whom we have discussed in the context of Sector 2. Philip Jacobson’s note continued:1

“walsh then decided to make a break for it. he thinks two or three had already gone ahead of him (pj; uncertain; could be that doherty, nicholas and quigley had made it to the stairs shown in gilles pix) he crawled along the wall to the stairs, where there were two others crouching down out of the firing line. there were bullets still hitting the wall, but welch [sic] doesnt know if they were aimed at them.

walsh decided to run the next short bit from the stairs to the safety of the passage. at that point, he became aware of a girl’s voice directing operations from the flats just above, he judged on the first floor. she was shouting down, ‘stop, there’s a soldier looking your way … o.k., he’s turned his head, run … stop, he’s turning back … o.k., run like hell’ etc etc. as she gave the go-ahead, walsh was just getting into his stride when a youth cannoned into him and they both fell. on the ground walsh was just going to ask the boy what had happened when he said ‘mister, i’m shot, i’m shot by my head.’ walsh started running his hands over the boy, looking for the wound. the head was o.k. then he felt his back and found the rent in the jacket (pj; this is shown in gilles first shot; walsh has his hand on mcdaid’s back.) ‘i lifted the lad’s jacket and shirt and saw a terrible wound in his back, it looked just as if you’d taken a butterknife and scooped a big piece of flesh away, there was just a big lump of the flesh gone.’ it wasnt bleeding much, oozing more. the boy was, reasonably, terrified and begged walsh not to leave him. walsh then decided to make a dash upright; the girl shouted it was o.k. and he simply picked mcdaid up and ran with him supported into the alleyway. ‘he didn’t seem to weight [sic] any more than my little girl’ walsh recalls.

it was clear to him that mcdaid needed attention and from the alleyway he could see the back doors to joseph place were open and people were crouching there. with mcdaid on one arm, he waited until the girl upstairs shouted it was o.k. to move and they ran across to the alley behind joseph place. there another man helped him get the boy into the second house. (PJ; see mcdaid’s own story)”

1 AW5.34-35

117.33 The injured man Patrick Walsh helped to safety was Patrick McDaid. We have dealt in the course of our consideration of the events of Sector 21 with the circumstances in which this casualty was wounded.

1 Paragraphs 55.262–310

117.34 Philip Jacobson’s note continued with Patrick Walsh describing how he had then come out of the house in Joseph Place and seen Patrick Campbell, whom he knew, staggering about and shouting that he had been hit.1 We return to this aspect of Patrick Walsh’s evidence when considering the circumstances in which Patrick Campbell came to be injured in Sector 5.

1 AW5.36

117.35 In the course of recording what Patrick Walsh had told him, Philip Jacobson had put a note of his own in parentheses: pj; uncertain; could be that doherty, nicholas and quigley had made it to the stairs shown in gilles pix.” It is not entirely clear whether this note meant that Philip Jacobson was uncertain whether Patrick Walsh was correct in thinking that two or three had gone ahead of him, or whether these were Patrick Doherty, Joe Nicholas and Barry Quigley. The reference to gilles pix can only be a reference to photographs taken by Gilles Peress. As to stairs, this must be a reference to the shallow set of steps which allowed access to the children’s playground from the gap between Blocks 2 and 3. The steps themselves are not in fact visible in Gilles Peress’s photographs, but the leg of someone on the steps is visible in the first photograph and two figures on the steps in the second. The steps can just be seen in the following photograph, which was not taken on Bloody Sunday.

117.36 According to Philip Jacobson’s note, Patrick Walsh decided to move to the most easterly set of steps, which led down to the gap between Blocks 2 and 3. Philip Jacobson’s interview with Joe Nicholas places him in the same location as Patrick Walsh and suggests that Joe Nicholas ran to the same steps with Barry Quigley and Patrick Doherty.1 However, Joe Nicholas’s written statement to this Inquiry does not suggest he moved in a group: his recollection is that he walked along the wall while others crawled.2 Philip Jacobson seems to suggest that Joe Nicholas’s group was the one described by Patrick McDaid in his 1972 accounts.3Patrick McDaid’s written statement to this Inquiry contains a similar recollection.4

1 AN17.9

2 AN17.4; Day 78/17-18

3 AM172.10; AM172.34

4 AM172.3; Day 92/111-115

The order in which people moved through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats

117.37 From Gilles Peress’s six photographs it is possible to attempt to establish the order in which those we have been able to identify moved into the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats.

117.38 Patrick Walsh and Patrick McDaid can be seen in the first and second photographs under the letters “IRA” painted on the high retaining wall, with the others behind and nearer to the steps. In the third photograph those words can also be seen, but instead of Patrick Walsh and Patrick McDaid, it is Patrick Doherty who is under these letters. To the right appear Kevin McDaid and the man we have been unable to identify. In the fifth and sixth photographs Patrick Doherty and the unidentified man again appear, having moved slightly further along, towards the passageway, but Kevin McDaid is no longer in sight.

117.39 Since there is nothing to suggest that Patrick Walsh and Patrick McDaid moved back (ie towards Chamberlain Street) between the taking of the second and third photographs, it seems likely that these two moved towards and went through the gap before Patrick Doherty. As noted above, it seems that Joe Nicholas also did so. Since Kevin McDaid appears in the third but not the fifth or sixth photograph, it appears that he too went before Patrick Doherty. We do not know what happened to the unidentified man, though if it was Barry Quigley he appears to have moved through the gap at some stage.

117.40 On this basis Patrick Doherty was the last or one of the last of those seen in the photographs crouched below the high retaining wall who sought to escape through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats.

117.41 This conclusion seems to us to be reinforced by the NICRA statement made by Hugh Sheerin and the notes of an interview conducted with Hugh Sheerin conducted by Philip Jacobson of the Sunday Times Insight Team.

117.42 In his NICRA statement, Hugh Sheerin described seeing, from the wall at the southern end of the eastern row of houses of Chamberlain Street, three men in the group with him who decided, when there was a lull in the firing, to make their way towards the gap between Blocks 2 and 3:1

“I presumed these three to be safe as I saw them disappear down the alleyway. I took the same course of action and proceeded along the wall and into the alleyway. At the bottom of the alleyway, I noticed the last of these three men who had gone before me, lying shot on the ground. He was lying directly in front of the shopping area of the flats (Rossville).”

1 AS10.1-2

117.43 Hugh Sheerin’s NICRA statement does not identify by name any of the men he saw shot. However, according to Philip Jacobson’s notes,1 Hugh Sheerin did identify the person he saw lying shot on the south side of Block 2 as Patrick Doherty. The notes contain additional details, which it is relevant to mention here. They record that it was several minutes after seeing Michael Bridge shot and carried to 33 Chamberlain Street that Patrick Doherty and two others decided to try and crawl over to the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats. The notes identify Patrick Walsh and Patrick Doherty as being two of the three men seen by Hugh Sheerin making their way towards the gap between Blocks 2 and 3. They also record that there was more shooting just before these men reached the gap.

1 AS18.3-4

117.44 We have no doubt that the person Hugh Sheerin saw lying shot on the south side of Block 2 was Patrick Doherty.

117.45 By the time Patrick Doherty went through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3, Jackie Duddy had been taken from the car park, Margaret Deery and Michael Bridge had been taken to 33 Chamberlain Street, and Michael Bradley, Pius McCarron and Patrick McDaid had been assisted through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats.

117.46 We should note at this point that the journalist and photographer Fulvio Grimaldi and his companion Susan North also went through the gap between Blocks 2 and 3, probably shortly after Gilles Peress. As will be seen, Fulvio Grimaldi then took photographs in Sector 5.

The general situation in Sector 5 immediately before the firing into that sector

117.47 As we have already noted, three of those wounded in Sector 2, namely Michael Bradley, Pius McCarron and Patrick McDaid, were assisted through the passageway between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats and across to Joseph Place. None of those who assisted these casualties mentioned that they came under fire as they left the passageway and made their way to the Joseph Place maisonettes, as opposed to hearing firing while they were still in Sector 2. According to his NICRA statement,1 Patrick Clarke came across Pius McCarron in the gap between Blocks 2 and 3 of the Rossville Flats and with another started to carry him to one of the nearby houses, and while doing so some shots were also fired at us, hitting the wall above our heads”. In view of the absence of other evidence of firing in Sector 5 at this time, we consider that these shots were fired in Sector 2.

1 AC64.1

117.48 There were a number of people sheltering in the maisonettes of Joseph Place and in the Joseph Place alleyway. By this time there had been firing in the Rossville Flats car park, in Rossville Street and in Glenfada Park North, which is no doubt why people were sheltering where they were.

117.49 As we have described in the course of considering the events of Sector 3, at the other (western) end of Block 2 of the Rossville Flats, a group of people was sheltering behind the southern end of Block 1. In discussing the layout of Sector 5, we referred to a photograph taken by Robert White. It is useful to show the same photograph again, as it illustrates the scene at the southern end of Block 1 before any shooting began in Sector 5. Robert White took this photograph from the bottom of the pram-ramp at the north-eastern end of Glenfada Park South.1

1 AW11.5

117.50 On the ground to the left of this photograph and surrounded by people lay Hugh Gilmour, who, as we have described earlier, was mortally wounded in Sector 3. Bernard McGuigan, who was shot dead in Sector 5 not long after this photograph was taken, is the figure with his back to the camera immediately behind the third bollard from the left. It is possible, but far from certain, that Daniel McGowan, who was wounded in Sector 5, was among the people around Hugh Gilmour. Patrick Campbell, the other person to be wounded in Sector 5, was in the vicinity of the southern end of Block 1 at this time. There is no evidence to suggest that when this photograph was taken, any firing had broken out in Sector 5 or that any soldier or soldiers had appeared in the entrance to Glenfada Park North, on the other side of Rossville Street. Most of the people appear to be looking at where Hugh Gilmour was lying, while others are looking in various directions.

117.51 The position of those sheltering at the southern end of Block 1 would have affected their view across Rossville Street towards the entrance into Glenfada Park North. This can be demonstrated by means of the map and photograph below. As can be seen, the view of someone standing up against the wall of Block 1 would have been limited to the southern side of the entrance into Glenfada Park North. That person would have not been able to see the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North. To do so, they would have had to stand at, and look around, the south-western corner of Block 1 or move away from the wall of Block 1. The map and photograph both demonstrate that a person standing a few feet south-west of Block 1 would have had a view of the southern end
of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North.

117.52 As we describe below, people were observing events in Sector 5 from Block 2 of the Rossville Flats, as well as from other locations.

117.53 As we have discussed in the context of considering the events of Sector 4, a number of people had also taken shelter at or in the area of the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North, on the other side of Rossville Street. At some stage after Robert White had taken the photograph shown above, of people at the south end of Block 1 of the Rossville Flats, soldiers from Anti-Tank Platoon of Support Company appeared at the entrance to Glenfada Park North. Most of the people sheltering at or in the area of the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North were then arrested. We have dealt with these arrests in the course of considering the events of Sector 4.1

1 Chapter 113

117.54 We have no doubt that it was at about this time that firing broke out in Sector 5.