Skip to Content | Accessibility Statement | Site Map

Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry
- Volume VI - Chapter 113

Arrests in Sector 4

Chapter 113: Arrests in Sector 4



Soldiers at the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North 113.11

Allegations of abuse and assault 113.66

Allegations of physical assault after arrest 113.68

113.1 A number of civilians were arrested as they sheltered behind or close to the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North or next to cars that were parked at the eastern end of the southern pavement of Glenfada Park North. The southern end of the eastern block was often referred to as the gable end. It is marked as such on the following photograph, which also shows the approximate position of the cars. The photograph was not taken on Bloody Sunday.

113.2 Seventeen people have said that they were arrested at or close to the gable end.1 Five have said that they were arrested next to the cars.2 In the case of Seamus (James) Liddy, in two of his three 1972 accounts he stated that he had been arrested in William Street.3 In the cases of PIRA 1 (then a member of the Provisional IRA) and Eamon McAteer,4 their accounts conflict with evidence from the soldiers. We consider these three accounts below, but so far as the others are concerned, there is nothing to contradict their accounts of where they were arrested and we are sure that they were arrested where they said they were.

1 Fr Denis Bradley (H1.42; H1.12), Eugene Bradley (AB113.3; AB113.7), Christopher James Doherty (AD58.1; AD58.12-13), George Irwin (AI4.1-2), James Kelly (AK12.5; AK12.34), Barry Liddy (AL13.1; AL13.8), Eamon McAteer (AM41.5; AM41.33), Fergus McAteer (AM42.2; AM42.9), Patrick McGinley (AM241.5), Denis Patrick McLaughlin (AM326.6; AM326.23; AM326.24), James McNulty (AM377.3; AM377.8), Patrick Joseph Norris (AN24.5), Winifred O’Brien (AO4.2-3), Patrick O’Donnell (AO35.2; AO35.7-8), Myles O’Hagan (AO43.3), Fr Terence O’Keeffe (H21.23; H21.48), PIRA 1 (AM508.3)

2 Anthony Coll (AC84.6-7), John Devine (AD41.1-3; AD41.6; AD41.7-8), Hugh O’Boyle (AO1.5-6; AO1.18; AO1.16), George Roberts (AR13.8; Day 151/82-84), Robert Wallace (AW3.2; AW3.14)

3 AL12.1; AL12.2-4

4 AM508.3; AM42.2

113.3 The people arrested at the gable end or next to the cars were escorted by soldiers along the eastern side of Glenfada Park North and then into Columbcille Court where they were made to stand for some time in the search position1 against a wall on the western side of the eastern block of Columbcille Court.2 While there, they were seen and photographed by a number of journalists,3 some of whom followed the arrestees as they were led out of Columbcille Court and north towards Little James Street. The photographs taken of the arrestees while they were detained in Columbcille Court included the image below, taken by William Rukeyser, a freelance photographer.

1 That is, with their faces against the wall and their arms above their heads.

2 H21.23; AW3.2-3; AW3.8; AM42.10; AM42.15

3 M13.5; M17.2; M23.2; M52.2; M57.3; M80.2-3

113.4 The two soldiers in the photograph would have been members of Anti-Tank Platoon. A number of arrestees were able to recognise themselves or other arrestees in this or other photographs taken of the same scene.1 The only arrestees whose faces are visible in this photograph, however, are the three who appear on the left of the image. They are, from left to right, Fr O’Keeffe, Fr Bradley and Winifred O’Brien. The latter was the only woman to be arrested on Bloody Sunday.

1 AM326.12; AN24.6; AN24.12-13; AK12.6; AK12.27; AM41.17; AM41.26

113.5 The arrestees were escorted by members of Anti-Tank Platoon north to the perimeter fence on the eastern side of the GPO sorting office building on Little James Street (the GPO perimeter fence). The photograph below was taken by Frederick Hoare of the Belfast Telegraph. It shows arrestees lined up, again in the search position. Winifred O’Brien can be seen on the left of the photograph. The arrestee standing next to her is Fr O’Keeffe. The soldier wearing a beret and holding a baton is Captain INQ 7, the 1 PARA Intelligence Officer.1 The helmeted soldiers are not members of Anti-Tank Platoon or the Provost Detachment of 1 PARA.2 It is possible that they are either members of Composite Platoon (Guinness Force) or C Company detailed to guard the arrestees. As we explain later in this report,3 the Provost Detachment was involved in transporting the arrestees gathered by the GPO perimeter fence to Fort George. This was the battalion headquarters of 1 CG4 but had been designated as a location where arrestees could be held and processed by the Royal Military Police (RMP).5

1 B1288-1289; B1295.023; B1295.024

2 C301.4-5; C301.7

3 Chapter 159

4 C588.1; C179.1; C454.1

5 G95.571

113.6 Fr Bradley was not among those arrestees collected at the GPO perimeter fence. As the arrestees were taken from Columbcille Court, he and another arrestee, Patrick O’Donnell, were released in the area of William Street.1 We consider what then happened to Patrick O’Donnell in the next chapter.2

1 H1.43; AO35.7.8 2Chapter 114

113.7 It appears that two other people were arrested in or near Columbcille Court and joined the group being escorted from Glenfada Park North. Although John Gormley told us that he was arrested after leaving a house in Glenfada Park South, we prefer and accept the evidence of Fr George McLaughlin, that John Gormley was in fact arrested as he left a house in Columbcille Court.1 According to his Keville interview,2 George McDermott was arrested in Abbots Walk, which runs parallel to Drumcliffe Avenue, at the southern end of the Meenan Square complex. However, his description suggests to us that his arrest may have been on the western side of the central block of Columbcille Court.

1 H13.12-13; Day 57/99

2 AM183.2

113.8 As we have noted at the beginning of this chapter, 22 people were arrested in Glenfada Park North. With the arrest of Seamus Liddy, whose accounts we consider below, together with the arrests of John Gormley and George McDermott, it follows that Anti-Tank Platoon escorted 25 civilians north from Columbcille Court. However, with the release of Fr Bradley and Patrick O’Donnell, only 23 arrestees detained by Anti-Tank Platoon reached the GPO perimeter fence. As we explain more fully later in this report,1 they were joined there by four men (Charles Canning, William John Dillon, James Charles Doherty and Joseph Lynn) who had been arrested in the area of Rossville Street. Members of the Provost Detachment subsequently arrived at the GPO perimeter fence, escorted all 27 arrestees to a lorry parked in Sackville Street and then transferred them to Fort George.

1 Chapters 157 and 159

113.9 Those we are sure were arrested at the southern end of Glenfada Park North have given varying accounts of the number of soldiers involved in their apprehension.1We found convincing the 1972 accounts of Fr Bradley that soon after he heard shooting in Glenfada Park North, a soldier appeared round the corner of the gable end, seemed surprised to find people there, pointed a gun at them and told them to put their hands up, after which other soldiers appeared, whose numbers he put in his various accounts at between two and five.2In his written statement to this Inquiry,3he recalled that the soldier who came round the gable end was followed by a couple of others. Some civilians have said that a much larger number of soldiers were involved, ranging from 12 to about 40 but in our view these are overestimates and the evidence of the civilians as a whole leads us to conclude that Fr Bradley’s numbers (which can be found in the accounts of several others) are to be preferred.

1 Fr Bradley (H1.12; H1.32-33; H1.42; H1.51; H1.87), Eugene Bradley (AB113.3; Day 169/194-5), Anthony Coll
(AC84.1; AC84.2; AC84.7), John Devine (AD41.6; AD41.17; AD41.2-3), Christopher James Doherty (AD58.1; AD58.12-3), George Irwin (AI4.2), James Kelly
(Day 145/33, 79), Barry Liddy (AL13.8; AL13.15; AL13.68-71;
AL13.74), Seamus Liddy (AL12.3; AL12.5), Eamon McAteer (AM41.5; Day 135/23), Fergus McAteer (AM42.2; AM42.4; AM42.9; Day 168/68), Patrick McGinley (AM241.5; Day 425/150), Denis Patrick McLaughlin (AM326.6-7;
Day 159/42-48), James McNulty (AM377.3; AM377.13), Patrick Joseph Norris (AN24.21; AN24.5-6),

Hugh O’Boyle (AO1.16; AO1.24; AO1.6; Day 132/19, 69), Winifred O’Brien (AO4.5; AO4.3), Patrick O’Donnell (AO35.3; AO35.14; AO35.18; AO35.20; AO35.34), Myles O’Hagan (AO43.3; Day 388/104), Fr O’Keeffe (H21.23; H21.10; H21.39; H21.48; H21.104; H21.93; Day 127/232-3), George Roberts (AR13.10; AR13.2; Day 151/85), Robert Wallace (AW3.2; AW3.12;
Day 154/159; 183)

2 H1.32-33; H1.42; H1.51

3 H1.12

113.10 We now turn to consider whether it is possible to identify the soldiers who appeared at the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North. This is important for two reasons, firstly because of the shooting that took place from this area at about this time, to which we return in our consideration of the events of Sector 5,1and secondly because of allegations of physical and verbal abuse made against these soldiers (and other soldiers) involved in escorting the arrestees.

1 Chapter 119

Soldiers at the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North

113.11 According to the evidence of Lance Corporal F, he was the soldier who first appeared round the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North (the gable end).1However, in view of our grave doubts about the reliability and truthfulness of much of his evidence, we are not sure that this was so. However, we are sure that he was one of the soldiers who did get to the gable end. As we discuss in the context of Sector 5,2he fired from the entrance to Glenfada Park North into that sector.

1 B122; B138; B143; B158 2Paragraphs 119.158–175

113.12 It is more difficult to identify from the soldiers’ evidence who accompanied or followed Lance Corporal F. Corporal E made no mention in his RMP statements of any involvement in arrests. In his written statement for the Widgery Inquiry, he described moving forward in Glenfada Park North with other soldiers to make arrests and we arrested about thirty people. My section took them back as far as the wall from which we had come for them to be conveyed back. I was still covering the position at the entrance to Glenfada Park for a few more seconds and then returned to a position in Rossville Street.1In his oral evidence to the Widgery Inquiry, he said that he had moved forward slightly from the position in Glenfada Park North from which he said he had fired at a nail and petrol bomber with three or four other soldiers, in order to collect prisoners. He told the Widgery Inquiry that the furthest south he had gone was about halfway down the eastern block of Glenfada Park North.2

1 B95

2 WT14.33

113.13 We have rejected the account given by Corporal E of firing at a nail and petrol bomber and find it difficult to place reliance on where he then said he went.

113.14 In this connection we turn to the note made by the journalist Peter Pringle of an interview described as given by Seamus Liddy to the Sunday Times Insight Team dated 18th May 1972.1According to this note Seamus Liddy told Peter Pringle that he went over to the group standing by the gable, and there saw a soldier standing at the bottom of the Rossville Flats who fired a rubber bullet which hit him in the chest. He said that his brother Barry and Fr Bradley then helped him. He also said he saw a crowd bending over the body of Michael Kelly and then three bodies lying in Glenfada Park North. The note continued, Then a soldier came round the corner with a sten gun, which he was firing … He says this man was a corporal and he knows his name because it was the same soldier who arrested him and accused him of stone throwing. Peter Pringle put a question mark against the statement that the soldier had come round the corner with a Sten gun that he was firing. We return to this account when considering the events of Sector 5.2

1 AL12.5-6 2Paragraph 119.41

113.15 According to these interview notes,1Seamus Liddy told Peter Pringle that when he was eventually released from Fort George he saw one of the Coldstream Sgts. he knew who sd to him: ‘You won’t be with us tomorrow, Jimmy’ and that when he turned up for work the next day he was turned away at the gate. In our view these notes show that Peter Pringle had got this information from Seamus ( Jimmy ) Liddy and that Jimmy was known to at least one of the sergeants at Fort George. In addition, the notes record that Seamus Liddy was a bar steward working in the NAAFI (the soldiers’ canteen) at Fort George.2

1 AL12.5-6

2 AL12.6

113.16 In his Keville interview and his Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) statement (this appears to have been prepared from the Keville tapes),1Seamus Liddy had described himself as a cleaner and as having been arrested in William Street on his way to work; and had stated that it was not the corporal who at Fort George had accused him of stone throwing who had arrested him. It should be noted, however, that he also stated that his brother was also employed by the army ”, which implies that both of them had Army jobs.

1 AL12.1; AL12.2-4

113.17 On the face of it, therefore, there is a sharp conflict between what Seamus Liddy said during his Keville interview and what he told the Sunday Times Insight Team about where he was arrested and by whom.

113.18 Seamus Liddy’s brother, Barry Liddy, also gave a Keville interview1and signed a NICRA statement2that appears to have been prepared from the Keville tape, as well as preparing a handwritten statement himself.3From these statements it appears not only that he was arrested at the gable end, but also that he had probably helped his brother there. In his handwritten statement, Barry Liddy, after describing seeing three people shot in Glenfada Park North, stated that, A Paratrooper then came round the corner of Glenfada Park firing his rifle as he came holding it under his arm but gave no further details about this.4

1 AL13.14-17

2 AL13.1-2

3 AL13.3-6

4 AL13.8

113.19 There is no doubt that Barry Liddy was employed in the NAAFI at Fort George. He not only said so himself1but the possessions listed when he was taken under arrest to Fort George included “1X MOD PASS and !X NAAFI PASS”. However, he could not have been the person who was turned away when he went to work the next day, for records show that at this time he was in hospital.2In an interview with Paul Mahon in 1998, Barry Liddy said that the NAAFI had employed both him and his brother Jimmy.3

1 AL13.9

2 AL13.10-13

3 AL13.165

113.20 Seamus Liddy probably initially gave a false account of where and by whom he had been arrested, since he feared for his Army job; and thus also had to deny that a corporal at the gable end had arrested him. By the time of the Sunday Times interview some months later, the motive for denying where he had been arrested and by whom seems to have disappeared. Looking at what both brothers have said, we consider that Seamus Liddy was probably arrested at the gable end. Furthermore, though we are satisfied that Corporal E did not have a Sten gun on Bloody Sunday, we have no reason to doubt Seamus Liddy’s account that it was Corporal E who arrested him. The arrest records at Fort George record Corporal E as the arresting soldier. In our view, therefore, it is likely that this soldier did get as far as the gable end.

113.21 Private G, in his first RMP statement,1said that when he returned from the south-west alleyway of Glenfada Park North, prisoners had been taken from the area by other members of my platoon.2

1 B168

2 B169

113.22 In his written statement for the Widgery Inquiry, Private G recorded that after seeing (from the south-western corner) Lance Corporal F fire one or two shots from the south-eastern corner of Glenfada Park North, he saw a party of about 20 people where F was were ferried back by F and some others. I went quickly across the courtyard to join them. I went back through the alleyway we had come in by, and went with the party into Columbcille Court where the civilians were handed over to another party from our unit.1

1 B187

113.23 For reasons already given,1we have rejected much of the evidence of Private G. Indeed we have concluded that he was responsible for shooting two people in Abbey Park, something which he never admitted doing and, in his evidence to the Widgery Inquiry, which he effectively denied. His evidence therefore must be treated with great caution. Thus he may have got as far as the south-east corner of Glenfada Park North.

1 Chapters 100 and 112

113.24 In his first RMP statement,1Lance Corporal J recorded that after the crowds from the barricade were dispersed, I then received orders to go to Glenfada Park and assist in escort duties for a number of civilians that had been arrested for rioting”.2In his written statement for the Widgery Inquiry,3Lance Corporal J did not mention these orders but, after describing going into Glenfada Park North, recorded that, Two suspects had been arrested by myself and my companion”.

1 B265

2 B266

3 B273

113.25 In his oral evidence to the Widgery Inquiry,1Lance Corporal J said that he went into Glenfada Park North from Rossville Street because, he thought, there was a Platoon Commander standing behind us who shouted, ‘Move into Glenfada Park as there are a lot of people there and arrest them’ . He then said that after he had moved into Glenfada Park North and had seen Lance Corporal F and Private G firing at men at the far corner, myself and the soldier with me arrested two people”.2He identified where he had made these arrests as at about here but the transcript does not reveal where that was, nor did Lance Corporal J identify his colleague. It is possible, therefore, that he was one of the soldiers who accompanied or followed Lance Corporal F to the gable end.

1 WT15.31 2WT15.32

113.26 According to the records that were made at Fort George of the people arrested and taken there on Bloody Sunday,1Corporal E, Lance Corporal F, Private G and Lance Corporal J were among those who had arrested people who have told us that they were apprehended at the gable end or next to the parked cars. From the evidence of arrests by Lance Corporal F and of the Liddy brothers that we have discussed above, these seem to be an accurate record of arrests by Lance Corporal F and Corporal E, and possibly of arrests by Lance Corporal J. However, we consider that little reliance should be placed on those records as in themselves and without other supporting evidence demonstrating that the soldiers named were among those who got to the gable end and arrested people there or at the cars. Thus we consider that the records do not establish that Private G was one of their number. He may well have been selected as the arresting soldier simply because he was later involved with escorting the civilians from Glenfada Park North.

1 We explain the records made at Fort George later in this report (paragraphs 156.5–9).

113.27 These records list other soldiers as arresting those who have told us that this happened at the gable end or next to the parked cars. We turn to consider these soldiers below.

113.28 Lance Corporal 033 was a member of HQ Platoon and Major Loden’s signaller.1According to the Fort George records he arrested PIRA 1 in Rossville Street. According to his RMP statement dated 4th February 1972,2he was never in Glenfada Park North nor went as far south as the gable end, but in Rossville Street made an arrest and returned to the ACV [Armoured Command Vehicle] with my prisoner who he delivered to the arrest team at the corner of Eden Place/Rossville St”.

1 B1621.001; Day 324/34

2 B1617

113.29 PIRA 1 thought that he was the man photographed at Fort George with Lance Corporal 0331but told us that he did not recognise this soldier as the one who had arrested him.2Lance Corporal 033, in his oral evidence to this Inquiry,3was sure that he had arrested the person shown in the photo with him, though he maintained that he had not carried out the arrest at the gable end.

1 As we explain later in this report (paragraphs 156.5–9), the processing of arrestees at Fort George included members of 1 PARA being photographed with the person or persons they told the RMP they had arrested in the Bogside. These photographs were often described as arrest photographs.

2 AM508.4; Day 409/47

3 Day 324/94-95

113.30 We are sure that PIRA 1 was arrested at the gable end, since, apart from his own evidence, we are satisfied from the evidence of George Roberts and Denis Patrick McLaughlin1that PIRA 1 was with them and that they were arrested there. We are equally satisfied that it was not Lance Corporal 033 who arrested PIRA 1 and that this soldier was never at the gable end. It follows that if PIRA 1 is the person shown in the photograph with Lance Corporal 033, as we consider is likely to be the case, we must reject this soldier’s evidence that it was PIRA 1 whom he arrested in Rossville Street.

1 AR13.2; AM326.5-6

113.31 Private 112 was a member of Mortar Platoon. According to the Fort George records, he arrested Eamon McAteer in Rossville Street. In his written evidence to this Inquiry,1Private 112 told us that he had arrested someone on the Eden Place waste ground. In his oral evidence to this Inquiry,2he accepted that he might have made a mistake and identified the wrong prisoner as the one he had arrested.

1 B1732.004

2 Day 320/100-101

113.32 We are sure from his accounts that Eamon McAteer was arrested at the gable end.1We are also sure that Private 112 was never at the gable end. It follows that the person he said he arrested on the Eden Place waste ground was not Eamon McAteer.2

1 AM41.33; Day 135/31

2 Earlier in this report (Chapter 35), we concluded that Private 112 had taken part, with Private U, in the arrest of Charles Canning.

113.33 Lance Corporal 229 was a member of Composite Platoon (Guinness Force). According to the Fort George records, he arrested Patrick McGinley, Denis Patrick McLaughlin and Joseph Lynn in Rossville Street. In his RMP statement dated 15th February 1972,1after describing making another arrest, Lance Corporal 229 stated that he then:

“went back through the barricade and finished up with elements of Support Company in Glenfada Park. There was a crowd of civilians throwing stones at us and being generally abusive. I was aware that shooting was taking place but it seemed to be coming from above us … We went into the ‘snatch’ routine, and I joined one of the Support Company squads and arrested two young male civilians, one of whom was a Mr McLoughlin [sic], and a second whose name I cannot remember. I arrested these two alone and took them back to the rear echelon where I handed them over. I do not recall to whom.”

1 B2211.014-15

113.34 He added in this statement that Lance Corporal F was not concerned with any of the arrests he made.

113.35 In his written statement to this Inquiry, Lance Corporal 229 stated that he did not remember being in Glenfada Park, but that he must have been there since this appeared in his RMP statement.1He also stated that, “It was possible that you could make a mistake in picking out the people you had arrested but I am fairly sure that I recognised the ones I had arrested.2

1 B2211.005

2 B2211.007

113.36 In his oral evidence to this Inquiry,1Lance Corporal 229 said that he could remember little and was not sure, but doubted that he was ever in Glenfada Park North. He told us that he thought that he might have received arrestees at a point north of Glenfada Park North, where he was informed where they had been arrested. He admitted that he had not seen the two he arrested actually rioting in Rossville Street, but had been told by others that this was the case.2

1 Day 341/47; Day 341/53-55

2 Day 341/54

113.37 Patrick McGinley (who was 16 at the time) is one of those who we are sure was arrested at the gable end. His account of being at the gable end is supported by the evidence of Myles O’Hagan.1In his Keville interview,2Patrick McGinley described being pinned down there when soldiers charged round the corner and held them at gunpoint. He gave a similar account in his written statement and his oral evidence to this Inquiry,3though his recollection of about a dozen soldiers appearing is, in our view, an overestimate.

1 AO43.3

2 AM241.18

3 AM241.5; Day 30/64

113.38 Denis Patrick McLaughlin is another of those who we are sure was arrested at the gable end. He also gave a Keville interview,1in which he described some soldiers coming round the corner where he was sheltering up against a wall with Fr Bradley and seeing a man with a wound in his shoulder, who we are sure was Patrick O’Donnell. In his written statement to this Inquiry and in his oral evidence,2Denis Patrick McLaughlin gave a similar account, describing how he saw one soldier come from Glenfada Park North followed almost immediately by others.

1 AM326.39

2 AM326.6-7; Day 159/42-48

113.39 It is just possible that Lance Corporal 229 was one of the soldiers who got as far as the gable end, and there was involved with the arrest of Patrick McGinley and Denis Patrick McLaughlin, though in our view this is unlikely.

113.40 According to his written evidence to this Inquiry,1Private Longstaff had followed Lance Corporals F and J and Private G and others to the right from Rossville Street. He stated that he believed that he was looking northwards towards Columbcille Court from the north-west corner of Glenfada Park North when he heard gunshots from behind him. He told this Inquiry that although he recalled later guarding prisoners up against a wall, he had no recollection of having made the arrests himself.2

1 C23.5

2 C23.5

113.41 According to the Fort George records, Private Longstaff arrested James Kelly and George Roberts for throwing stones in Rossville Street. However, both in his written evidence and when giving oral evidence, Private Longstaff admitted that he may have lied when he identified James Kelly and George Roberts as rioters.1

1 C23.7; Day 374/107-112

113.42 George Roberts is one of those who we are sure was arrested as he sheltered behind a car on the south-eastern side of Glenfada Park North.1He could not tell us if the soldier who had claimed at Fort George to have arrested him was in fact the one who had done so.

1 AR13.10; AR13.2; Day 151/84

113.43 James Kelly is also one of those who we are sure was sheltering behind the gable wall. In his written statement to this Inquiry,1he stated that he moved out slightly from the wall in a westerly direction and round the corner towards a wooden fence. As I moved out a paratrooper (who I later identify in this statement as ‘Falstaff’) was suddenly stood right in front of me in the gate or gap in the fence, blocking my way at the position marked E on the attached map (grid reference I14). He stuck the barrel of his gun into my abdomen and said, ‘Get your hands up, you hairy fucker!’He stated that he then saw other paratroopers and was made to stand facing the gable end wall. He recalled Fr Bradley trying to reason with the paratroopers. He also recalled that there was a sergeant or an officer of some sort there giving orders, but that the officer he identified later in his statement as Falstaff was not the officer in charge, nor was Falstaff ”one of the soldiers who frogmarched him to or from the GPO.2

1 AK12.13-14 2Day 145/32

113.44 James Kelly told us that when he got to Fort George, he heard the soldier who had stuck his gun into James Kelly’s abdomen addressed by one of his colleagues as Falstaffand that he later learned that the name of this soldier was Longstaff.1It should be noted, however, that he was unable to recognise Private Longstaff from what was a rather poor quality arrest photo, and told us that the soldier who had identified him at Fort George was not Private Longstaff.2Despite this, there is no doubt that James Kelly was photographed with Private Longstaff and, as we have noted, he appears as the arresting soldier in the Fort George records.

1 AK12.15

2 Day 145/38

113.45 In these circumstances, though we are not certain, we consider that it is more likely than not that Private Longstaff was the soldier who arrested James Kelly; and it is possible, since on this basis he was in the area, that he also apprehended George Roberts, though in the case of the latter individual, it is equally possible that he was not the arresting soldier, but was at best involved in escorting the arrestees after they had been apprehended.

113.46 According to his written evidence to this Inquiry,1Private INQ 635, a member of Anti-Tank Platoon, was given a line of civilians to escort back to a holding area. He stated that he was unable to locate where he then was but gave a description of being in a courtyard area underneath some flats on stilts possibly to the west of Rossville Street. On his behalf it was suggested that this might be Columbcille Court,2but there are no flats on stilts there. By flats on stilts Private INQ 635 may have been referring to a block of flats which had large brick pillars, which could be a description of the east block of Columbcille Court, but this is a description that could equally well fit Glenfada Park North, where there were flats to the same design. However, in his oral evidence,3Private INQ 635 said he believed that he was not still in the area he had described when he was given the prisoners to escort.

1 C635.5

2 FR7.685

3 Day 352/30; Day 352/83

113.47 According to the Fort George records, Private INQ 635 arrested John Rodgers, James McNulty and George Irwin for throwing stones at security forces. The first two of these are among those who we have no doubt were apprehended at the gable end,1while John Rodgers said in 1972 that he was arrested from a taxi in William Street.2George Irwin gave a NICRA statement in which he described being arrested at the gable end with Fr Bradley.3George Irwin died before the present Inquiry was established. We have no reason to doubt that he was arrested at the gable end.

1 AR42.2; AM377.4

2 AR42.1

3 I4.1-2

113.48 Private INQ 635 stated to us that he did not recall who had given him the arrestees nor where they had come from, though he did recall a woman among them, who we consider is likely to have been Winifred O’Brien. He said to us that he did not remember arresting anyone, and while he accepted that he must have provided the information in the Fort George arrest report forms (and agreed that his signature appeared on the arrest report forms) he told us he had no memory of doing so or indeed of ever having been at Fort George.1There is, however, a police report dated 2nd June 1972, in which the police officer recorded that Private INQ 635 gave a good description of John Rodgers, and also described seeing him throw stones in Rossville Street, chasing him into Glenfada Park and arresting him there.

1 Day 352/38-39; Day 352/84

113.49 Leaving aside the Fort George records, there is nothing to indicate that Private INQ 635 was, or even might have been, involved with arresting civilians at the gable end. On the whole it seems to us that though he took part in escorting those apprehended there, it is more likely that he only became involved as the arrestees were being escorted from the area.

113.50 According to the Fort George records, Private INQ 1237 arrested Charles Glenn and George McDermott in William Street. The former said that he was arrested in William Street1while, as we have noted, George McDermott seems to have been arrested in the Columbcille Court area. Private INQ 1237 told us that he had no memory of dealing with any arrested civilians.2There is therefore no material at all to suggest that Private INQ 1237 was ever near the gable wall, though he may have been one of the escorting soldiers at a later stage.

1 AG43.6

2 C1237.8

113.51 Sergeant INQ 1694 is dead and gave no evidence to this Inquiry. According to the Fort George records, he arrested Hugh O’Boyle and Robert Wallace in Rossville Street for throwing stones at the security forces.

113.52 Hugh O’Boyle and Robert Wallace are among those who we are sure were arrested as they sheltered behind the cars near the gable end. The former originally stated that Sergeant INQ 1694 was not one of the soldiers who had carried out the arrest, though later he modified this and thought that it could possibly have been so.1He described these soldiers as about 5ft 8in in height. The arrest photograph shows that Sergeant INQ 1694 was about 6ft tall.2

1 AO1.8; AO1.19; Day 132/44; Day 132/47

2 Day 132/56

113.53 Robert Wallace told this Inquiry that the soldier who arrested him was tall and well built with a blackened face but was not Sergeant INQ 1694.1

1 AW3.02; AW3.04; Day 154/167

113.54 In these circumstances, though Hugh O’Boyle thought that one of the two soldiers who had arrested him may have been a sergeant,1his evidence and that of Robert Wallace provide little support for any suggestion that Sergeant INQ 1694 was one of the soldiers who got as far as the southern end of Glenfada Park.

1 AO1.6

113.55 Gerry McLaughlin was one of the civilians who, when soldiers came into Glenfada Park North, ran into Glenfada Park South. He told us that he heard one of the soldiers coming through the north-east entrance calling over his shoulder and looking in the direction of Rossville Street, Here the bastards are, Sarge!1This call might well have been to Sergeant INQ 1694 as he was the Anti-Tank Platoon sergeant, but does no more than indicate that this sergeant was behind soldiers coming into Glenfada Park North.

1 AM332.3

113.56 In his interview with Paul Mahon, Barry Liddy said that the first soldier to come round the gable end was a sergeant. He said he knew this because another soldier addressed him as sergeant.1However, we have found this part of the account of Barry Liddy very confusing. He may have mistaken a baton gun for a Sterling sub-machine gun, but his account of the soldier he said was a sergeant knocking out six of his teeth is not borne out by his dental records;2while his claim that this same soldier pointed out to him a car containing paramilitary weapons seems to us simply incredible.3We take the view that what Barry Liddy told Paul Mahon about this is not a reliable basis for concluding that Sergeant INQ 1694 was or even might have been one of the soldiers who got to the southern end of Glenfada Park North.

1 X4.49.156

2 AL13.11-13

3 X4.49.70

113.57 In these circumstances, though it is possible that Sergeant INQ 1694 took part in escorting the arrestees, there is nothing to suggest that he got as far as the gable end.

113.58 Lieutenant 119, the Commander of Anti-Tank Platoon, made no reference to the arrests at the gable end in his two RMP statements.1In his written statement for the Widgery Inquiry,2however, he said that having come into Glenfada Park North and having seen Lance Corporal F fire two shots in Glenfada Park North, he set off towards the three bodies at the far corner:

“with the intention of seeing what could be done, but just at that moment … we had orders to withdraw. I saw Knights of Malta first aid staff approaching the bodies and therefore left them to take care of them. At that moment about 30 people emerged from the gable end of the east building. They were clearly in a hazardous position. I therefore picked them up, and did so as a routine arrest operation because I thought the gunmen who had fired at us might still be among them.”

1 B1752.041; B1752.040

2 B1752.044

113.59 Lieutenant 119 gave a similar account in his oral evidence to the Widgery Inquiry.1As observed earlier in this report, Lieutenant 119 told us he now had no recollection of these events, though it is noteworthy that he nevertheless felt able to tell us that there had not been a lot of aggression and rough handling of prisoners.2

1 WT14.15

2 B1752.017; Day 363/168

113.60 We do not accept the reason Lieutenant 119 gave for the arrest of the people at the gable end. On his own account he did not see them until they emerged from the gable end, by which time we are satisfied that they had been arrested by one or more of the soldiers who had gone there. Furthermore, his explanation for the arrests is hardly consistent with the fact that nearly all these people were taken to Fort George and there treated as suspected rioters. However, there is nothing to indicate that Lieutenant 119 ever got as far south himself as the gable end, though he may well have joined soldiers escorting arrestees from there.

113.61 We have examined the evidence given by Lance Corporal 018 and Private INQ 1940.1From their accounts it appears that they did assist in escorting arrestees, though there is nothing to suggest that either of them got as far as the south side of Glenfada Park North.2

1 Private INQ 1940 told us that he was a lance corporal at the time of Bloody Sunday (C1940.1). However, the Support Company nominal roll (GEN8.2) lists him as a private in Anti-Tank Platoon (B1486; B1491.003; C1940.2; Day 315/105-107).

2 B1486; B1491.003; C1940.2; Day 315/105-107

113.62 There is nothing to indicate that Private 027 either got as far south as the gable end or assisted with the escorting of arrestees.

113.63 From our review of this material we are of the view that Lance Corporal F undoubtedly got to the gable end, that Corporal E and Private G are also likely to have done so, that Private Longstaff probably got to or very close to the gable end and that Lance Corporal J might also have got that far.

113.64 There are grounds for concluding that Private H also got to the southern end of the eastern block of Glenfada Park North when people were being arrested there. We consider these grounds in our examination of the events of Sector 5.1

1 Chapter 119

113.65 Apart from these cases, we have not seen any evidence that suggests that other soldiers got to the gable end at this time. We have examined the civilian evidence to see if there is any description of soldiers that might help to identify which of them got to the gable end. George Irwin, one of those arrested at the gable end, described a soldier he witnessed firing from the south-east corner of Glenfada Park North as tall, but apart from that by George Irwin (whose evidence we discuss in Sector 51) the descriptions that were given have not assisted. For example, John Devine said in his Keville interview that a tall, stocky black man arrested him.2However, our researches have not found anyone of that description in Support Company.

1 Paragraphs 119.36–37 2AD41.17

Allegations of abuse and assault

113.66 Many of those arrested have said that soldiers verbally abused them. We have no doubt that such abuse occurred but in the context of the day this was to our minds neither of great significance nor surprising. However, expressions such as Fenian bastards” and IRA scum”, which were among the expressions used, do perhaps indicate the attitude of at least some of the soldiers towards the people who had been arrested.1We are equally sure that Winifred O’Brien in turn roundly abused the soldiers, but in the circumstances we consider that this was not only unsurprising but also understandable.2

1 AM241.5

2 AM241.5; AM241.18-19; H21.48; H21.104; AO4.3

113.67 Of greater importance are the allegations of physical abuse.

Allegations of physical assault after arrest

113.68 We deal in the next chapter with Patrick O’Donnell, who, as described earlier,1sustained a bullet wound in his right shoulder when sheltering behind a fence on the eastern side of Glenfada Park North, was then taken from the gable end with the other arrestees and was later hit on the head by a soldier.

1 Paragraphs 104.494–520

113.69 There is evidence of other incidents of physical assault, in the form of soldiers hitting or kicking civilians while they were being escorted away from the gable end, as they were being held against a wall in Columbcille Court and against the fence of the GPO building.

113.70 In a letter dated 20th February 1972, Fr O’Keeffe, one of those arrested at the gable end, wrote to General Tuzo (then General Officer Commanding Northern Ireland). Part of this letter concerned allegations of abuse and assault by soldiers while people were being taken in a lorry to Fort George and while they were there. We consider these matters elsewhere in this report.1In relation to the initial arrests at the gable end and what happened as the arrestees were being taken up to the wall in Columbcille Court and then to the fence of the GPO building, Fr O’Keeffe wrote:2


Some time ago, I had occasion to write to you concerning a statement on violence which was being prepared by the Association of Irish Priests. You were good enough on that occasion to reply to me, saying among other things that violence had to be condemned. I wish now to make a formal complaint about violence, inflicted by members of your forces, on myself and other civilians while in military custody. The incidents happened on Sunday, 30th January, 1972, after the ill-fated march in Derry. I realise that anything to do with the deaths which took place on that day is sub judice and a matter for Lord Widgery’s Tribunal. I do not propose, therefore, to comment on these deaths at this stage.

May I stress that the account which follows is that of an eye-witness and a sufferer: nothing in this letter is either hearsay or deduction. I intend to confine myself to those incidents in which I was a participant, or which I personally witnessed. I may also add that any injuries I received have been medically attested by the University doctor.

Let me begin with the circumstances of my arrest. Soldiers, presumably of the 1st Parachute Regiment, had moved into Rossville Street in a pincer movement. I found myself trapped, along with Father Bradley from Derry and about twenty other people; at the gable-end of a maisonette, opposite the high flats. Both Father Bradley and myself were refused permission, on at least three occasions, with a good deal of verbal abuse, foul language and some physical assault, to go to the assistance of the wounded and dying. While I was not dressed clerically (a factor which no doubt accounted for my arrest), Father Bradley was so dressed and was acting as spokesman for us both. Your soldiers seemed unconcerned at the fact that spiritual aid was denied these people and used entirely unnecessary abuse and violence towards us to make that point.

I was then placed against the wall of a maisonette, being struck several times in the process. I saw many people being savagely beaten by your troops for no apparent reason. I was then taken in a line of civilians to the foot of Rossville Street. We were forced to run with hands on head, while soldiers ran beside us, striking us with rifles and screaming the most foul abuse. (At this stage let me say that your soldiers seemed quite beside themselves and in a highly elated mood). After being placed in line against a wire fence – again with threats, beatings and abuse – I was batoned into an Army lorry in William Street.”

1 Chapter 160 2H21.27

113.71 General Tuzo replied by letter dated 28th February 1972,1in which he gave an assurance that the allegations will be very fully investigated ”. He expressed his hope that he could rely on Fr O’Keeffe and others to assist in the investigation:

“since my experience in connection with other accusations of this kind has been that the complainants refuse to cooperate. By this I mean that they refuse even to make a statement. This leads inevitably to the belief that they are more interested in propaganda than the redress of grievance.”

1 H21.77

113.72 In his oral evidence to this Inquiry,1Fr O’Keeffe told us that some time after receiving this letter (but it seems while the Widgery Inquiry was still in progress) he was visited by two Army investigators who had a copy of his letter to General Tuzo and who took a statement from him. He stated, They gave me the impression at that time that this was a serious business which they were taking seriously. During 1972 the decision was taken not to take proceedings against soldiers (or alleged rioters). Fr O’Keeffe said he thought he remembered this and that in consequence someone telephoned to tell him that no further action would be taken against any soldiers.

1 Day 127/148-9

113.73 There is no doubt that, as Fr O’Keeffe stated in this letter to General Tuzo, he and Fr Bradley were refused permission from soldiers to go to those who were lying shot in Glenfada Park North and that that refusal was given in unnecessarily abusive terms.1Leaving aside the way it was given, it is perhaps understandable that Fr O’Keeffe should not have been allowed to go to the bodies, as he was in plain clothes, but in our view the refusal to allow Fr Bradley (in clerical clothes) to do so cannot be defended. There were a number of soldiers around, so if it was thought, for example, that he might be intent on escaping (or even removing weapons from the bodies), it would have been easy to guard against such possibilities.

1 H1.33; H1.14; Day 140/144; H21.23; H21.48; H21.138

113.74 As to instances of assault, the accounts of those arrested at or near the gable end varied from those who reported extremely serious assaults to those who said that they neither suffered nor witnessed any form of physical abuse.

113.75 Fr Bradley told the Widgery Inquiry:1

I ... was grabbed by a soldier and pushed in the direction of William Street. Another soldier hit me on the arm with a rifle and kicked me. I remonstrated again with the soldier, but was again pushed in the direction of William Street.”

1 H1.42

113.76 He told the Sunday Times1that one, well-dressed man was more badly treated than the others and that this man was kicked as he lay on the ground. In his written statement to this Inquiry,2Fr Bradley confirmed that he had been hit with a rifle and kicked but added, “It was nothing terribly serious”. In his oral evidence he said that, with the exception of the man who was kicked while on the ground, most of those arrested were simply marched up to the wire fence north of William Street.3He told Jimmy McGovern that he recalled seeing people being pushed and shoved but did not remember seeing anyone being hit.4

1 H1.34

2 H1.14

3 Day 140/234

4 H1.87-88

113.77 A further 11 of those arrested in the area of the gable end reported being struck with batons or rifles, or being pushed or kicked, but they did not complain of being seriously hurt, nor did they report witnessing the infliction of serious injury on anyone else.1

1 These witnesses were: Anthony Coll (AC84.1; AC84.19; AC84.7), John Devine (AD41.6; AD41.17; AD41.3),
James Kelly (AK12.6), Eamon McAteer (AM41.33; AM41.5-6), Fergus McAteer (AM42.2; AM42.4),
Patrick McGinley (AM241.18-19; AM241.5), Patrick Joseph Norris (AN24.21), Hugh O’Boyle (AO1.16; AO1.24; AO1.7), Winifred O’Brien (AO4.5; AO4.3), George Roberts (AR13.10; AR13.2), Robert Wallace (AW3.15; AW3.03;
Day 154/160-164).

113.78 By way of example, in his Keville interview, John Devine said:1

“[The soldiers] kicked us and they batoned us and stuck their guns into our ribs for about a hundred and fifty yards and they put us against wire which was surrounding … the … Post Office in Sackville Street facing there somewhere and they started to baton us against – again there against the wire and search our pockets.”

1 AD41.17

113.79 In his written statement to this Inquiry, Eamon McAteer told us,The paras were rifle butting us in our backs and telling us to stand still and not to move”.1 In a statement made in 1972 Eamon McAteer’s brother, Fergus McAteer, recorded:2

“[The soldiers] rushed us to Kells Walk next to Glenfada Park. There we were made to put our hands on a wall. They started to hit some people in the group.

Then they took us quickly to William Street and then to Little James Street. On my way there one of the soldiers struck me in the back with his rifle.”

1 AM41.5 2AM42.2

113.80 Patrick McGinley told this Inquiry that “All the time the soldiers were bullying, kicking and slapping us, and punching us as we went .1

1 AM241.5

113.81 Four of those arrested did not allege that there had been any physical abuse by the soldiers between the time of arrest and the time at which those arrested were placed on lorries to be taken to Fort George.1

1 These witnesses were: Eugene Bradley (AB113.1), George Irwin (AI4.1), PIRA 1 (AM508.1), Myles O’Hagan (AO43.1). Myles O’Hagan said simply that the soldiers “manhandled” those arrested (AO43.4).

113.82 Two of those arrested, Barry Liddy and Denis Patrick McLaughlin, did complain that they were the victims of very serious assaults.

113.83 In his Keville interview,1 Barry Liddy said:

“… the British Army come round the corner, they were no more like human beings than the animals that come from the jungle. And trying to protect Father Bradley we were struck across the chest with a riot gun. Father Bradley was also struck. When we appealed to the Lieutenant in the Paratroop Regiment, we were again beaten and told to speak only when spoken to. We were put against the wall with our hands on the wall and we were severely kicked about the legs and in the private parts of our body; when anyone fell, they were kicked again. We were then ordered into single file and we run down towards the wire netting that surrounds the GPO in Little James Street [the GPO perimeter fence]. Whilst on my way down, a British Soldier again swung his – the butt of his rifle and hit me in the mid section. When I fell, they hit me with rubber hoses on the back and dragged me by the head of my hair [sic] to my feet again. Again we were put up facing the wire netting fencing surrounding the GPO in Little James Street. Again we were physically abused.”

1 AL13.15

113.84 In another statement made in 1972, Barry Liddy recorded:1

“We were then made to run, hands on heads, towards Little James St and it was during this period that I was beaten to the ground and kicked to my feet again.”

1 AL13.9

113.85 Barry Liddy’s medical records1 show that on admission to hospital on 31st January 1972 at 3.00am he said that he had been beaten up and had been knocked out. The manuscript notes are difficult to read but he was complaining, among other things, of chest pain, pain in the lumbar region and of some injury or pain in his leg. At a later stage, the notes record that he was still complaining of chest pain, pain in his right knee and occasional double vision.2

1 AL13.11

2 AL13.12

113.86 In his interview with Paul Mahon on 7th April 1998, Barry Liddy said that a sergeant came around the corner to the gable end. He continued:1

“The sergeant. Right. He said, ‘Now, move it out’ and he started … and he went over to Father Bradley, and I said, ‘Hold on a minute, that’s a Priest of God.’ And he turned the gun around and knocked my teeth out … he turned it around, just lifted it, and said, ‘There’s no fucking priests here.’ … With the butt of the gun … Knocked my front bottom teeth out … Knocked six of them out.”

1 X4.49.55

113.87 There is nothing in Barry Liddy’s 1972 medical records to indicate that any dental injuries were noted following his admission to hospital on 31st January 1972. In our view there was no such incident.

113.88 Barry Liddy died in 1998 and did not give evidence to this Inquiry.

113.89 His other accounts of being assaulted are supported to some extent by his brother, Seamus Liddy, who, in a Keville interview, said:1

“We were then thrown up against some wires [at the GPO perimeter fence] and it was then I observed my brother; two paratroopers were savagely beating him and he protested most strongly and they used most obscene and vulgar language at him … We were assaulted – we thought we were going to be searched and questioned but that was not the case. Each one of us was then seized singly by a Paratrooper and run from the Post Office to a waiting van where we were – as we were being put in we were bludgeoned and beaten with rifle butts.”

1 AL12.2

113.90 Seamus Liddy is also dead, and did not give evidence to this Inquiry.

113.91 However, in his own accounts Barry Liddy did not allege that it was at the wire fence that he was severely beaten. In his Keville interview, he summarised his treatment at the fence with the words “Again we were physically abused ”.1His accounts indicate that he was saying that he was subjected to brutal treatment before he reached the GPO perimeter fence.

1 AL13.15

113.92 We have listened to the recording of Barry Liddy’s interview with Kathleen Keville.1It is clear from that recording that he was deeply distressed at the time that he gave the interview. We accept that he was assaulted by soldiers between the time of his arrest and the time at which he was taken to Fort George but take the view that, in his distress, he exaggerated the extent of the abuse that he had received during this period. We further find that his recollection over the years became increasingly unreliable on the question of his treatment at the hands of the soldiers. We cannot accept that his teeth were knocked out (either while he was at the gable end or at any time during 30th January 1972), as he later alleged to Paul Mahon. We have no doubt that such injuries would have been recorded on his admission to Altnagelvin Hospital on 31st January 1972, had they been present.

1 Aud 32 45.34

113.93 In his NICRA statement,1 Denis Patrick McLaughlin recorded that:

“The soldiers were hitting a few of my companions as they stood against the wall. They were using butts of rifles, their fists and a few were using batons. They were saying things like, ‘You boys are [for] the rope. You boys will never learn, but we’ll teach you’.”

1 AM326.22

113.94 He alleged in this statement that, while he was standing against the wall at Columbcille Court, a soldier placed a baton gun between his (Denis Patrick McLaughlin’s) legs, seeking to shoot him in the testicles. Denis Patrick McLaughlin moved slightly, the soldier fired and the rubber bullet grazed the inside of Denis Patrick McLaughlin’s thigh. He gave a similar account in his written statement to this Inquiry1 but, in his oral evidence, said that the incident in which a rubber bullet was fired between his legs might have occurred somewhere other than Columbcille Court.2

1 AM326.7-8

2 Day 159/91-92

113.95 Two other witnesses give some support to this allegation. In his NICRA statement, James McNulty recorded:1

“They marched us single file with our hands on our heads through an opening. As we reached the opening they shot a fellow with a rubber bullet in the leg from about 2 yards. They put us up against a coal house and hit us with batons.”

1 AM377.8

113.96 When he was interviewed by Paul Mahon on 22nd July 1998, James McNulty said that he could no longer recall a man being shot in the leg with a rubber bullet.1 In his oral evidence to this Inquiry, he appeared to remember the incident and said that he thought that the man shot with a rubber bullet might have been putting up a struggle.2

1 X4.27.42-43

2 Day 152/25-26

113.97 In his 1972 accounts,1Christopher James Doherty made no allegations of abuse on the part of the soldiers that occurred at any time before those arrested reached Fort George. However, in his written statement to this Inquiry,2 he told us that a soldier fired a rubber bullet towards an arrested person as the group of those arrested made their way from Glenfada Park North towards Little James Street. He stated that he did not know whether the bullet had hit its target. In his oral evidence to this Inquiry,3 he said that there was no violence on the part of the soldiers at the wall at which those under arrest “were first stopped ” and no violence at the GPO perimeter fence. However, he said that he had a fairly clear recollection of a rubber bullet having being fired at one of those who had been arrested.

1 AD58.1; AD58.8

2 AD58.13

3 Day 182/150

113.98 The representatives of Lance Corporal 229 (who is recorded as the soldier who arrested Denis Patrick McLaughlin) submitted to us that Denis Patrick McLaughlin had grossly exaggerated his account of a rubber bullet having been fired between his legs. The representatives alleged, in support of their submission, that no other arrested person lined up in Columbcille Court described having seen or heard such a shot being fired. They also submitted that Denis Patrick McLaughlin’s willingness, in his oral evidence to this Inquiry, to resile from his 1972 account about the location of the incident must cast doubt upon its credibility.1

1 FS8.1509-1512

113.99 It is true that no other witness speaks of a rubber bullet having been fired while those arrested were against the wall in Columbcille Court. However, the evidence of James McNulty and Christopher James Doherty does indicate that a rubber bullet was fired at an arrested person at some time before the group of those arrested reached the GPO perimeter fence. We take the view that it is not surprising for a witness, being asked to recall events so long ago, to become mistaken or confused about the precise location at which an incident such as the firing of a rubber bullet occurred. We are of the view that a rubber bullet probably was fired somewhere near Denis Patrick McLaughlin and may well have grazed him. However, we do not consider it likely that the bullet was aimed at his testicles, or fired at the close range that he recalls. We believe that, during the frightening time of his arrest, he may well have thought that he was being more closely targeted than he was.

113.100 The representatives of Lance Corporal 229 further submitted that there was in any event no evidence to suggest that it was this soldier who was responsible for firing a rubber bullet gun in this way.1 We accept this submission. We have no evidence available to us from which we could identify the soldier who fired this rubber bullet.

1 FS8.1512

113.101 We have concluded that the soldiers who carried out the arrests in the area of the gable end, and the soldiers who accompanied those arrested up to the GPO perimeter fence, did push and kick some of those arrested. We have no doubt that certain soldiers struck individuals with batons and rifle butts, in order to intimidate those arrested and to ensure compliance with the soldiers’ orders. However, we find that these assaults, while they cannot be condoned, were not generally of a serious nature. None caused severe or lasting injury. The most serious incident that seems to have occurred was the firing of the rubber bullet that may have struck Denis Patrick McLaughlin, though this firing did not result in significant harm.