This section of the toolkit introduces Crime Reduction
Toolkits and the issues covered in the Safer Schools and Hospitals
Toolkit. It includes:
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about this toolkit
The aims of this toolkit
This document is a practical guide to
help you understand the reasons that crimes and incidents
occur in your site or building. It will also provide information
on how to tackle these problems through design or management
of your premises.
The guide provides a step-by-step approach
on how to:
- Gather crime data
- Identify vulnerabilities by walking the site
- Model surveillance: identify areas that are overseen
or well-used and areas that are hidden from view
- Assess which risks are most immediate
- Develop long and short term strategies to address the
- Implement the strategies
The diagram above, other similar diagrams on the site, can be
used to navigate through each step. You can also access all the
pages in this toolkit by looking at the Related Links column
on the right.
See a more detailed version
of this diagram:
diagram (PDF 122kb)
There is also a detailed series of check lists and reference
materials to support your evaluation.
This guidance is aimed at primary and secondary schools and hospitals,
although many of the techniques and principles will be appropriate
readers, especially those working in other educational, healthcare
facilities or public buildings.
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The way in which the environment can influence the likelihood
of crimes and incidents occurring is principally through the design
of buildings and spaces. This is the principle at the heart of
'crime prevention through environmental design' (CPTED). Crime
prevention measures can either be physical measures to strengthen
or measures that improve the design of the facility itself to discourage
For the public buildings discussed in this report, there are a
series of typical issues that need consideration when looking at
factors that influence crime and antisocial behaviour. These are:
way in which movement is controlled in a public building can
have important consequences on the vulnerability of the site
crime. Public buildings must allow access in order to perform their
purpose, however there are spaces that should not be accessible
to intruders. Controlling where people can and cannot go is a
key issue for crime prevention.
It is easier for offenders to commit crime if they cannot be
seen at any stage of the criminal act, or if they believe that
they may not be interrupted. Developments where the design limits the
ability to see what is taking place will be more likely to suffer
from crime and anti-social behaviour. Surveillance analysis is
used in crime prevention to quantify the protection of 'eyes on
the street' from both users of the building and passers-by from
the local community (natural surveillance). CCTV (artificial
surveillance) can also be beneficial in providing surveillance
but the level of protection it provides is dependent upon monitoring
and the response protocol adopted.
This document provides a method by which
you can identify the level by which your building and surroundings support or hinder these
three issues and methods by which you can improve safety and security
in your building and site.
The way in which a site
is managed can have important consequences not just on the level
of protection against crime but also on the
perceived vulnerability of the site for both potential offenders
and users. Evidence of poor maintenance and bad management can
itself send strong signals to a potential offender that little
care is being taken of a building. In this way, places with minor
problems (such as an act of vandalism left unrepaired for a long
contribute towards creating an environment where crimes of greater
frequency and severity occur. It is essential that a programmed
management and maintenance system is in place. This system must
be seen to maintain
quality of the environment and actively respond to problems or
needs expressed by the users.
There are certain types of land uses and public spaces that tend
to be associated with particular challenges to crime prevention.
Often the combination of two different land uses or sites can also
lead to potential problems for crime prevention, simply because
of the prevailing social problems that are associated with them.
For example, concentrations of bars and pubs selling alcohol may
be associated with certain kinds of antisocial behaviour. Consequently,
managers of public buildings need to be aware of their surrounding
environment and the particular problems that may arise from it.
For further information on CPTED see the the DOCA
website or the CPTED website
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Crimes and Incidents
For more information on crimes that occur on educational and
health sector premises, please visit the following websites:
Bullying, truancy, violence and aggression in schools: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/behaviourandattendance/
Safety and security in hospitals: