Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary
Among the industrial buildings seriously hit were the Weser aircraft works and the Atlas shipyard. 4 dockside warehouses were destroyed and 3 oil-storage tanks were burnt out. Various public buildings together with 7 schools and 3 hospitals were hit. 124 people were killed and 470 injured.
3 Wellingtons laid mines in the Frisian Islands without loss.
12 Bostons bombed ships in Boulogne harbour but scored no hits, 5 Mosquitos flew to Germany but only Bremerhaven was bombed. 1 Mosquito lost.
207 aircraft of 6 types. 8 aircraft - 5 Wellingtons, 2 Halifaxes, 1 Stirling - lost, 3.9 per cent of the force.
Cloud and haze were present and the bombing was not concentrated. But Duisburg reports its heaviest raid to date, with 114 buildings destroyed and 316 seriously damaged; 86 people were killed.
Minor Operations: 9 aircraft minelaying off Heligoland and in the Frisians, 5 aircraft on leaflet flights. No losses.
5 Mosquitos bombed Bremerhaven, Cologne, Emden, Essen and Wilhelmshaven. The Cologne and Wilhelmshaven diaries have no records of bombs falling. No aircraft lost.
Minor operations: 16 aircraft dispatched to bomb the Heinkel works at Warnemünde were recalled, 43 aircraft minelaying off Biscay ports and in the Frisians. 1 Wellington minelayer lost.
12 Bostons bombed Cherbourg and Le Havre docks without loss.
249 aircraft of 5 types. 5 Wellingtons and 2 Halifaxes lost, 2.8 per cent of the force.
The Pathfinders were unable to locate Frankfurt accurately and most of the bombing fell south-west of the city and in the town of Rüsselsheim, 15 miles away. Frankfurt reports only a few bombs - approximately 6 aircraft loads - with minor damage, 1 person dead and 30 injured. Bomber Command documents state that the Opel tank factory and the Michelin tyre factory were damaged.
6 Mosquitos attacked Münster, Osnabrück and Bie1efeld without loss.
Minelaying: 34 aircraft to many places from Denmark to Biscay. 1 Lancaster lost.
479 aircraft - 242 Wellingtons, 89 Lancasters, 59 Halifaxes, 47 Stirlings, 28 Hampdens, 14 Whitleys. Training aircraft of 91, 92 and 93 Groups took part in this raid. 33 aircraft - 20 Wellingtons, 5 Lancasters, 4 Stirlings, 3 Halifaxes, 1 Hampden - lost, 7.1 per cent of the force. 16 OTU, from Upper Heyford, lost 5 of its 13 Wellingtons on the raid.
The Pathfinders successfully marked the target, using 'Pink Pansies' in converted 4,00Olb bomb casings for the first time. All parts of Düsseldorf except the north of the city were hit as well as the neighbouring town of Neuss. 39 industrial firms in Düsseldorf and 13 in Neuss were damaged so much that all production ceased for various periods. 8 public buildings were destroyed and 67 damaged. 911 houses were destroyed and 1,506 seriously and 8,340 lightly damaged. 132 people were killed, 120 in Düsseldorf and 12 in Neuss. 116 further people were still classed as missing 2 days later and 19,427 people were bombed out.
Training aircraft from 0.T.U.s were again included in the 446 aircraft dispatched. 21 aircraft - 15 Wellingtons, 2 Lancasters, 1 Halifax, 1 Hampden, 1 Stirling, 1 Whitley - were lost, 41 per cent of the force.
The Lloyd dynamo works was put out of action for 2 weeks and various parts of the Focke-Wulf factory for from 2 to 8 days. 5 nearly completed aircraft were destroyed and 3 more damaged. The report also lists 7 cultural and historical buildings hit in the centre of the town as well as 6 schools and 2 hospitals. 70 people were killed and 371 injured.
5 Mosquitos bombed ports in Northern Germany without loss. Wilhelmshaven reports 4 bombs falling in the town centre, with an old folks' home and several houses hit and 10 people injured. Kiel reports 4 bombs on a nearby village with no particular damage and no casualties.
22 aircraft of 5 types. 2 Wellingtons were the only aircraft lost. The 4 aircraft of 408 (Canadian) Squadron on this raid represent the last operational effort by Hampden raft with front-line squadrons.
The Pathfinder marking was accurate and Wilhelmshaven reports its worst raid to date. Housing and city-centre type buildings are listed as being hit hardest. 77 people were killed and more than 50 injured.
12 Bostons of 107 Squadron bombed the whaling factory ship Solglint in Cherbourg harbour; the ship was set on fire and gutted. No Bostons lost.
|Attack on the factory ship 'Solglint', Cherbourg 15 September|
Minelaying: 27 Wellingtons and 13 Stirlings of 1 and 3 Groups were minelaying in the Frisian Islands and off Verdon without loss.
9 Bostons to Den Helder turned back, 4 of 6 Mosquitos to Wiesbaden bombed a chemical factory without loss.
369 aircraft, including aircraft from the training groups. 39 aircraft - 21 Wellingtons, 9 Lancasters, 5 Stirlings, 3 Halifaxes, 1 Whitley - lost, 10.6 per cent of the force.
Although much of the bombing was scattered, this was probably the most successful attack on this difficult target. There were 33 large and 80 'medium' fires. 8 industrial and 6 transport premises were hit. The Krupps works were hit by 15 high-explosive bombs and by a crashing bomber loaded with incendiaries. There was much housing damage. In Essen and its immediate surroundings, 47 people were killed and 92 injured.
Many other towns were hit, in particular Bochum with 50 fires and 4 people dead, Wuppertal with 13 dead, Heme with a large fire in a lorry garage and Cochem, a small town on the Moselle 90 miles south of Essen, which received 1 bomb load destroying 4 houses and killing 15 people.
3 Halifaxes on leaflet flights to France without loss.
3 Mosquitos were dispatched to German ports but only 1 bombed the approximate position of Borkum, No aircraft lost.
Minelaying: 115 aircraft to many locations between Lorient and Danzig. 5 aircraft - 2 Lancasters, 2 Stirlings, 1 Wellington - lost.
1 Halifax on leaflet flight to France returned safely.
6 Mosquitos of 105 Squadron attempted the first daylight bombing raid on Berlin. 2 aircraft had to turn back with mechanical trouble, 2 aircraft bombed Hamburg and 1 aircraft bombed the Berlin area through thick cloud. The remaining Mosquito was lost, believed shot down by a German fighter.
118 aircraft - 72 Wellingtons, 41 Halifaxes, 5 Stirlings. 3 Wellingtons and 2 Halifaxes lost, 4'2 per cent of the force.
The Pathfinders had to mark 2 targets on this night and the Pathfinder crews allocated to this raid experienced difficulties with ground haze. Bombing was scattered to the west of the target. Saarbrücken reports on 13 houses destroyed, 27 seriously damaged and 1 man killed.
68 Lancasters and 21 Stirlings, 3 Lancasters and 3 Stirlings lost, 6.7 per cent of the force.
Approximately 40 per cent of the crews dropped bombs within 3 miles of the centre of Munich but most of the bombs fell in the western, southern and eastern suburbs of the city. It has not been possible to obtain a report from Munich.
Total effort for the night: 207 sorties, 11 aircraft (5.3 per cent) lost.
17 aircraft minelaying in Kiel Bay and off Denmark. 3 Wellingtons lost.
18 Bostons in low-level pairs attacked power-stations in France. 6 Mosquitos were sent to Ijmuiden steelworks; 4 aircraft bombed there. 2 Bostons lost.
During this prolonged period of bad weather, Bomber Command sent out 3 small raids without Pathfinders.
83 Lancasters of 5 Group; 4 lost.
This was judged to be a successful attack on the Baltic coastal town and the nearby Dornier aircraft factory. Many crews came down to less than 2,000ft. Numerous fires were seen including a large one in what was believed to be the aircraft factory. Wismar reports 32 houses and 8 industrial buildings seriously damaged, 67 people killed and 109 injured.
28 Halifaxes of 4 Group; 5 lost. Only 16 aircraft claimed to have bombed Flensburg.
24 Stirlings of 3 Group; 1 lost.
25 Wellingtons and 8 Stirlings of 1 and 3 Groups minelaying at many places between Biscay and Denmark. 2 Wellingtons lost.
Total effort for the night: 168 sorties, 12 aircraft (7.1 per cent) lost.
Minelaying: 51 aircraft to Texel, the Frisian Islands, Heligoland and the Baltic. 1 Lancaster lost.
Oslo Gestapo Headquarters
This raid was intended to be a morale raiser for the Norwegian people and was timed to coincide with a rally of Norwegians who supported the Germans.
4 Mosquitos of 105 Squadron set off from Leuchars in Scotland but were intercepted by FW 190s on their low-level bombing run and 1 Mosquito was shot down. 4 bombs hit the Gestapo headquarters but 3 passed right through the building without exploding and the fourth, which remained inside the building, also failed to explode.
10 Wellingtons minelaying in the Frisian Islands without loss.
28 Halifaxes of 4 Group were recalled. 1 aircraft went on to bomb the target area and 1 aircraft was lost.
52 Wellingtons and 19 Stirlings minelaying in the Frisians and off Denmark. 1 Wellington lost.
6 Wellingtons to Lingen, on the Dortmund-Ems Canal. Only 1 aircraft bombed ships, but missed. 1 Wellington lost.
14 Lancasters minelaying in the Baltic off Bornholm, Sassnitz and Swinemünde. 1 aircraft was lost.
20 Wellingtons and 5 Stirlings minelaying off Texel and in the Frisians. 1 Stirling and 1 Wellington lost.
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