The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 11 September 2001 produced a strong international consensus. The United Nations, the G8, NATO and the European Union all condemned the terrorist attacks. In United Nations Security Council resolution 1368 (UNSCR 1368), the Security Council expressed its readiness to take all necessary steps in response to the attacks. Under considerable military pressure, the Taliban regime crumbled and collapsed in November 2001.
See United Nations Security Council Resolutions website for details of UNSCR 1368 (2001).
UNSCR 1373 imposed on all countries the obligation to target terrorist finances and ensure that no safe haven is provided to any known terrorist organisation. The international community has focused on ensuring that Afghanistan can no longer be a refuge for terrorists and helping the people of Afghanistan construct a state that can bring them stability, security and prosperity.
Following the collapse of the Taliban, the UN brought together leaders of various Afghan ethnic groups in Germany. The Bonn Agreement, signed on 5 December 2001, established an Interim Authority to bring an end to the conflict in Afghanistan and to promote national reconciliation, lasting peace, stability and respect for human rights. The Authority was charged with convening an Emergency Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly), which took place in Kabul in June 2002. Within its existing UN authority, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) assisted with the provision of security during the Loya Jirga process.
The Loya Jirga arrangements were designed to enable as many people as possible to be represented. Seats were reserved for women (11 per cent of the total), refugees and displaced persons, nomads, businessmen, intellectuals and religious scholars. In addition to the reserved seats, 40 women were elected in regional contests. The Loya Jirga was monitored by the UN and concluded on 19 June 2002 with the inauguration of Hamid Karzai as President of Afghanistan. The Loya Jirga established a broad-based Transitional Administration, to govern until elections could be held in 2004. The Loya Jirga was the first opportunity in decades for all Afghan people to play a decisive role in choosing their government and marked an important first step towards fully democratic elections. Presidential elections were successfully held on 9 October, and on Wednesday 3 November, Hamid Karzai was officially announced as the winner with 55.4% of the vote. The inauguration ceremony was held on 7 December 2004.
The Afghan Constitution
Afghan Government Website