The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 11 September 2001 produced a strong international consensus. The United Nations, the G8, NATO and the European Union all condemned the terrorist attacks. In United Nations Security Council resolution 1368 (UNSCR 1368), the Security Council expressed its readiness to take all necessary steps in response to the attacks. Under considerable military pressure, the Taliban regime crumbled and collapsed in November 2001.
UNSCR 1373 imposed on all countries the obligation to target terrorist finances and ensure that no safe haven is provided to any known terrorist organisation. The international community has focused on ensuring that Afghanistan can no longer be a refuge for terrorists and helping the people of Afghanistan construct a state that can bring them stability, security and prosperity.
Following the collapse of the Taliban, the UN brought together leaders of various Afghan ethnic groups in Germany. The Bonn Agreement, signed on 5 December 2001, established an Interim Authority to bring an end to the conflict in Afghanistan and to promote national reconciliation, lasting peace, stability and respect for human rights. The Authority was charged with convening an Emergency Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly), which took place in Kabul in June 2002. Within its existing UN authority, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) assisted with the provision of security during the Loya Jirga process.
The Transitional Authority represents Afghanistan in its external relations and occupies the seat of Afghanistan at the United Nations and in its specialised agencies, as well as in other international institutions and conferences. A Constitutional Loya Jirga will be convened within eighteen months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority, to adopt a new constitution for Afghanistan. Until that time the country will be broadly governed by the Constitution of 1964.