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The exclusion process

9. Under the Direction, a NHS body cannot require the exclusion of a practitioner for more than four weeks at a time. The justification for continued exclusion must be reviewed on a regular basis and before any further four-week period of exclusion is imposed. Under the framework key officers and the Board have responsibilities for ensuring that the process is carried out quickly and fairly, kept under review and that the total period of exclusion is not prolonged.

Key features of Exclusion from Work
  • An initial "immediate" exclusion of no more than two weeks if warranted;
  • Notification of the NCAA before formal exclusion;
  • Formal exclusion (if necessary) for periods up to four weeks;
  • Advice on the case management plan from the NCAA;
  • Appointment of a Board member to monitor the exclusion and subsequent action;
  • Referral to NCAA for formal assessment, if part of case management plan;
  • Active review to decide renewal or cessation of exclusion;
  • A right to return to work if review not carried out;
  • Performance reporting on the management of the case;
  • Programme for return to work if not referred to disciplinary procedures or performance assessment

Roles of officers

10. The Chief Executive of the employing organisation has overall responsibility for managing exclusion procedures and for ensuring that cases are properly managed. The decision to exclude a practitioner must be taken only by persons nominated under paragraph 12. The case should be discussed fully with the Chief Executive, the Medical Director, the Director/Head of Human Resources, the NCAA and other interested parties (such as the police where there are serious criminal allegations or the Counter Fraud & Security Management Service) prior to the decision to exclude a practitioner. In the rare cases where immediate exclusion is required, the above parties must discuss the case at the earliest opportunity following exclusion, preferably at a case conference.

11. The authority to exclude a member of staff must be vested in a nominated manager or managers of the NHS body. These managers should be at an appropriately senior level in the organisation and should be the minimum number of people consistent with the size of the organisation and the need to ensure 24 hour availability of a nominated manager in the event of a critical incident. It should include the Chief Executive, Medical Director and the Clinical Directors for staff below the grade of consultant.

12. The Medical Director will act as the case manager or delegate this role to a senior manager to oversee the case and appoint a case investigator to explore and report on the circumstances that have led to the need to exclude the staff member. The investigating officer will provide factual information to assist the case manager in reviewing the need for exclusion and making reports on progress to the Chief Executive or designated Board member.

Role of designated Board member

13. Representations may be made to the designated Board member in regard to exclusion, or investigation of a case if these are not provided for by the NHS body's grievance procedures. The designated Board member must also ensure, among other matters, that time frames for investigation or exclusion are consistent with the principles of Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (which, broadly speaking, sets out the framework of the rights to a fair trial).

Immediate exclusion

14. An immediate time limited exclusion may be necessary for the purposes identified in paragraph 6 above following:

  • a critical incident when serious allegations have been made; or
  • there has been a break down in relationships between a colleague and the rest of the team; or
  • the presence of the practitioner is likely to hinder the investigation.

Such an exclusion will allow a more measured consideration to be undertaken. This period should be used to carry out a preliminary situation analysis, to contact the NCAA for advice and to convene a case conference. The manager making the exclusion must explain why the exclusion is being made in broad terms (there may be no formal allegation at this stage) and agree a date up to a maximum of two weeks away at which the practitioner should return to the workplace for a further meeting. The case manager must advise the practitioner of their rights, including rights of representation.

Formal exclusion

15. A formal exclusion may only take place after the case manager has first considered whether there is a case to answer and then considered, at a case conference, whether there is reasonable and proper cause to exclude. The NCAA must be consulted where formal exclusion is being considered. If a case investigator has been appointed he or she must produce a preliminary report as soon as is possible to be available for the case conference. This preliminary report is advisory to enable the case manager to decide on the next steps as appropriate.

16. The report should provide sufficient information for a decision to be made as to whether:

  • the allegation appears unfounded; or
  • there is a misconduct issue; or
  • there is a concern about the practitioner's capability; or
  • the complexity of the case warrants further detailed investigation before advice can be given on the way forward and what needs to be inquired into.

17. Formal exclusion of one or more clinicians must only be used where

a. there is a need to protect the interests of patients or other staff pending the outcome of a full investigation of:
- allegations of misconduct,
- concerns about serious dysfunctions in the operation of a clinical service,
- concerns about lack of capability or poor performance of sufficient,
- seriousness that it is warranted to protect patients;


b. the presence of the practitioner in the workplace is likely to hinder the investigation.

18. Full consideration should be given to whether the practitioner could continue in or (in cases of an immediate exclusion) return to work in a limited capacity or in an alternative, possibly non-clinical role, pending the resolution of the case.

19. When the practitioner is informed of the exclusion, there should, where practical, be a witness present and the nature of the allegations or areas of concern should be conveyed to the practitioner. The practitioner should be told of the reason(s) why formal exclusion is regarded as the only way to deal with the case. At this stage the practitioner should be given the opportunity to state their case and propose alternatives to exclusion (e.g. further training, referral to occupational health, referral to the NCAA with voluntary restriction).

20. The formal exclusion must be confirmed in writing as soon as is reasonably practicable. The letter should state the effective date and time, duration (up to 4 weeks), the content of the allegations, the terms of the exclusion (e.g. exclusion from the premises, see paragraph 23, and the need to remain available for work paragraph 24) and that a full investigation or what other action will follow. The practitioner and their companion should be advised that they may make representations about the exclusion to the designated board member at any time after receipt of the letter confirming the exclusion.

21. In cases when disciplinary procedures are being followed, exclusion may be extended for four-week renewable periods until the completion of disciplinary procedures if a return to work is considered inappropriate. The exclusion should still only last for four weeks at a time and be subject to review. The exclusion should usually be lifted and the practitioner allowed back to work, with or without conditions placed upon the employment, as soon as the original reasons for exclusion no longer apply.

22. If the case manager considers that the exclusion will need to be extended over a prolonged period outside of his or her control (for example because of a police investigation), the case must be referred to the NCAA for advice as to whether the case is being handled in the most effective way and suggestions as to possible ways forward. However, even during this prolonged period the principle of four-week "renewability" must be adhered to.

23. If at any time after the practitioner has been excluded from work, investigation reveals that either the allegations are without foundation or that further investigation can continue with the practitioner working normally or with restrictions, the case manager must lift the exclusion, inform the SHA and make arrangements for the practitioner to return to work with any appropriate support as soon as practicable.

Exclusion from premises

24. Practitioners should not be automatically barred from the premises upon exclusion from work. Case managers must always consider whether a bar from the premises is absolutely necessary. There are certain circumstances, however, where the practitioner should be excluded from the premises. This could be, for example, where there may be a danger of tampering with evidence, or where the practitioner may be a serious potential danger to patients or other staff. In other circumstances, however, there may be no reason to exclude the practitioner from the premises. The practitioner may want to retain contact with colleagues, take part in clinical audit and to remain up to date with developments in their field of practice or to undertake research or training.

Keeping in contact and availability for work

25. As exclusion under this framework should usually be on full pay, the practitioner must remain available for work with their employer during their normal contracted hours. The practitioner must inform the case manager of any other organisation(s) with whom they undertake either voluntary or paid work and seek their case manager's consent to continuing to undertake such work or to take annual leave or study leave. The practitioner should be reminded of these contractual obligations but would be given 24 hours notice to return to work. In exceptional circumstances the case manager may decide that payment is not justified because the practitioner is no longer available for work (e.g. abroad without agreement).

26. The case manager should make arrangements to ensure that the practitioner can keep in contact with colleagues on professional developments, and take part in Continuing Professional development (CPD) and clinical audit activities with the same level of support as other doctors or dentists in their employment. A mentor could be appointed for this purpose if a colleague is willing to undertake this role.

Informing other organisations

27. In cases where there is concern that the practitioner may be a danger to patients, the employer has an obligation to inform such other organisations including the private sector, of any restriction on practice or exclusion and provide a summary of the reasons for it. Details of other employers (NHS and non-NHS) may be readily available from job plans, but where it is not the practitioner should supply them. Failure to do so may result in further disciplinary action or referral to the relevant regulatory body, as the paramount interest is the safety of patients. Where a NHS employer has placed restrictions on practice, the practitioner should agree not to undertake any work in that area of practice with any other employer*.
*NHS bodies must develop strong co-partnership relations with universities and ensure that jointly agreed procedures are in place for dealing with any concerns about practitioners with honorary contracts. A draft model protocol is available from the Department of Health.

 28. Where the case manager believes that the practitioner is practising in other parts of the NHS or in the private sector in breach or defiance of an undertaking not to do so, he or she should contact the professional regulatory body and the Director of Public Health or Medical Director of the Strategic Health Authority to consider the issue of an alert letter.

Informal exclusion

29. No practitioner should be excluded from work other than through this new procedure. Informal exclusions, so called 'gardening leave' have been commonly used in the recent past. No NHS body may use "gardening leave" as a means of resolving a problem covered by this framework.

Existing suspensions & transitional arrangements

30. At the time of implementation of this framework, all informal exclusions (e.g. 'gardening leave') must be transferred to the new system of exclusion and dealt with under the arrangements set out in this framework.

31. A case manager should be appointed for each existing case and a review conducted of the need for the suspension as in paragraph 33 below. In cases where exclusion is considered to be necessary, the new system will apply and the exclusion will be covered by the four-week review rule set out below. The new exclusion will run for four weeks in the first instance.

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