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The five-case model

  • Last modified date:
    8 February 2007
The five-case model is used for IM&T business cases in the NHS and Department of Health. It is also widely used for non-health-related business cases across central civil government departments.

The strategic case: strategic fit

Users seeking assistance in developing their business strategies and objectives for strategic, outline and full business cases should reference guidance included in this section, where direct links to relevant websites are provided.

The economic case: options appraisal

The purpose of this stage of the business case is to identify as wide a range of options as possible that meet the objectives set out the Strategic Case and to evaluate them.  This section includes guidance on option appraisal, including cost/benefit analysis, optimism bias, sensitivity to risk testing and value for money assessment.

The financial case: affordability

The aim of this stage of the business case is to identify the total whole life, and net costs of the investment, and the sources of funding in order to demonstrate affordability to the procuring organisation and associated health economy.  Guidance in this section includes capital costing (not yet included) accounting treatments and PFI specific issues.

The commercial case: commercial aspects

The purpose of this stage of the business case is to consider the implications of the potential procurement options and to set out the rationale and commercial arrangements associated with the chosen procurement route.  Guidance in this section includes procurement, bidder selection, contractual items and design quality.

The management case: achievability

The purpose of this stage of the business case is to demonstrate the achievability of the project by setting out how it will be managed over the lifetime.  This section includes guidance on project documentation, approvals, contract and risk management, audit and lessons learned.

The five-case template for IM&T schemes

OGC guidance

The business case is an essential document for project success. It provides justification for the procurement in terms of its alignment with the objectives of the organisation; it also provides the basis for managing the delivery of the project on time, within budget and to agreed quality standards.

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